ORF Standard name Aliases Description
YBL071W-A KTI11 DPH3 Zn-ribbon protein that co-purifies with Dph1 and Dph2; in a complex required for synthesis of diphthamide on translation factor eEF2 and with Elongator subunits Iki3p, Elp2p, and Elp3p; involved in modification of wobble nucleosides in tRNAs; forms a stable heterodimer with Ats1p
YGL162W SUT1 Zn(II)2Cys6 family transcription factor; positively regulates sterol uptake genes under anaerobic conditions; involved in hypoxic gene expression; represses filamentation-inducing genes during vegetative growth; positively regulates mating with SUT2 by repressing expression of genes that act as mating inhibitors; repressed by STE12; relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; SUT1 has a paralog, SUT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL217W PPN2 putative serine/threonine-protein phosphatase Zn2+-dependent endopolyphosphatase; required with PPN1 to mobilize polyphosphate stores in response to phosphate starvation; member of the PPP-superfamily of metalloproteases; localizes to the vacuolar lumen via the MVB pathway; null mutant is highly sensitive to azaserine and resistant to sodium-O-vandate
YOR162C YRR1 PDR2 Zn2-Cys6 zinc-finger transcription factor; activates genes involved in multidrug resistance; paralog of Yrm1p, acting on an overlapping set of target genes; YRR1 has a paralog, PDR8, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL056C ZAP1 ZRG10 Zinc-regulated transcription factor; binds to zinc-responsive promoters to induce transcription of certain genes in presence of zinc, represses other genes in low zinc; regulates its own transcription; contains seven zinc-finger domains
YCL057W PRD1 metalloendopeptidase Zinc metalloendopeptidase; found in the cytoplasm and intermembrane space of mitochondria; with Cym1p, involved in degradation of mitochondrial proteins and of presequence peptides cleaved from imported proteins; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR451W LEU3 leucine-responsive transcriptional regulator LEU3 Zinc-knuckle transcription factor, repressor and activator; regulates genes involved in branched chain amino acid biosynthesis and ammonia assimilation; acts as a repressor in leucine-replete conditions and as an activator in the presence of alpha-isopropylmalate, an intermediate in leucine biosynthesis that accumulates during leucine starvation
YIL079C AIR1 TRAMP complex RNA-binding subunit Zinc knuckle protein; involved in nuclear RNA processing and degradation as a component of the TRAMP complex; stimulates the poly(A) polymerase activity of Pap2p in vitro; AIR1 has a paralog, AIR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; although Air1p and Air2p are homologous TRAMP subunits, they have nonredundant roles in regulation of substrate specificity of the exosome
YOR172W YRM1 Zinc finger transcription factor involved in multidrug resistance; Zn(2)-Cys(6) zinc finger transcription factor; activates genes involved in multidrug resistance; paralog of Yrr1p, acting on an overlapping set of target genes
YOR113W AZF1 Zinc-finger transcription factor; involved in diauxic shift; in the presence of glucose, activates transcription of genes involved in growth and carbon metabolism; in nonfermentable carbon sources, activates transcription of genes involved in maintenance of cell wall integrity; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YML099C ARG81 ARGR2 | ARGRII Zinc finger transcription factor involved in arginine-responsive genes; Zn(2)-Cys(6) binuclear cluster domain type; involved in the regulation of arginine-responsive genes; acts with Arg80p and Arg82p
YGL209W MIG2 MLZ1 Zinc finger transcriptional repressor; cooperates with Mig1p in glucose-induced gene repression; under low glucose conditions relocalizes to mitochondrion, where it interacts with Ups1p, antagonizes mitochondrial fission factor Dnm1p, indicative of a role in mitochondrial fusion or regulating morphology; regulates filamentous growth in response to glucose depletion; activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization in response to low glucose
YDR421W ARO80 Zinc finger transcriptional activator of the Zn2Cys6 family; activates transcription of aromatic amino acid catabolic genes in the presence of aromatic amino acids
YLR375W STP3 Zinc-finger protein of unknown function; possibly involved in pre-tRNA splicing and in uptake of branched-chain amino acids; STP3 has a paralog, STP4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR127C RSF2 ZMS1 Zinc-finger protein; involved in transcriptional control of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, many of which specify products required for glycerol-based growth, respiration, and other functions; RSF2 has a paralog, TDA9, that arose from the whole genome duplication; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YGR044C RME1 CSP1 Zinc finger protein involved in control of meiosis; prevents meiosis by repressing IME1 expression and promotes mitosis by activating CLN2 expression; directly repressed by a1-alpha2 regulator; mediates cell type control of sporulation; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YPL038W MET31 Zinc-finger DNA-binding transcription factor; targets strong transcriptional activator Met4p to promoters of sulfur metabolic genes; involved in transcriptional regulation of the methionine biosynthetic genes; feedforward loop controlling expression of MET32 and the lack of such a loop for MET31 may account for the differential actions of Met31p and Met32p; MET31 has a paralog, MET32, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR253C MET32 Zinc-finger DNA-binding transcription factor; involved in transcriptional regulation of the methionine biosynthetic genes; targets strong transcriptional activator Met4p to promoters of sulfur metabolic genes; feedforward loop exists in the regulation of genes controlled by Met4p and Met32p; lack of such a loop for MET31 may account for the differential actions of Met32p and Met31p; MET32 has a paralog, MET31, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR280C CAT8 DIL1 | DNA-binding transcription factor CAT8 | MSP8 Zinc cluster transcriptional activator; necessary for derepression of a variety of genes under non-fermentative growth conditions, active after diauxic shift, binds carbon source responsive elements; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YIL130W ASG1 Zinc cluster protein proposed to be a transcriptional regulator; regulator involved in the stress response; null mutants have a respiratory deficiency, calcofluor white sensitivity and slightly increased cycloheximide resistance
YGL226C-A OST5 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycotransferase subunit Zeta subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex of the ER lumen; complex catalyzes asparagine-linked glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins
YPL010W RET3 coatomer subunit zeta Zeta subunit of the coatomer complex (COPI); COPI coats Golgi-derived transport vesicles; involved in retrograde transport between Golgi and ER
YGR194C XKS1 xylulokinase Xylulokinase; converts D-xylulose and ATP to xylulose 5-phosphate and ADP; rate limiting step in fermentation of xylulose; required for xylose fermentation by recombinant S. cerevisiae strains
YJR096W aldo-keto reductase superfamily protein Xylose and arabinose reductase; member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) family; GFP-fusion protein is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YJR133W XPT1 xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase Xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase; required for xanthine utilization and for optimal utilization of guanine
YFL010C WWM1 WW domain containing protein of unknown function; binds to Mca1p, a caspase-related protease that regulates H2O2-induced apoptosis; overexpression causes G1 phase growth arrest and clonal death that is suppressed by overexpression of MCA1
YKL151C NNR2 NADHX dehydratase Widely-conserved NADHX dehydratase; converts (S)-NADHX to NADH in ATP-dependent manner; YKL151C promoter contains STREs (stress response elements) and expression is induced by heat shock or methyl methanesulfonate; downstream intergenic region drives antisense expression and mediates coordinated regulation of YKL151C and GPM1 phosphoglycerate mutase; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; homolog of Carkd in mammals and C-terminus of YjeF in E.coli
YKL213C DOA1 UFD3 | ZZZ4 WD-repeat protein involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation; Ub-binding protein with a role in Ub homeostasis; substrate-recruiting adaptor for Cdc48p in mitochondria-associated degradation; inhibits degradation of Ufd2p-dependent substrates; facilitates proteolysis of Cse4p, a centromeric H3-like protein; required for ribophagy; promotes NHEJ in postdiauxic/stationary phase; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from nucleus to nuclear periphery upon DNA replication stress
YBR103W SIF2 EMB1 WD40 repeat-containing subunit of Set3C histone deacetylase complex; complex represses early/middle sporulation genes; antagonizes telomeric silencing; binds specifically to the Sir4p N-terminus
YKR036C CAF4 WD40 repeat-containing protein associated with the CCR4-NOT complex; interacts in a Ccr4p-dependent manner with Ssn2p; also interacts with Fis1p, Mdv1p and Dnm1p and plays a role in mitochondrial fission; CAF4 has a paralog, MDV1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL183C RTT10 ERE2 | TRM734 WD40 domain-containing protein involved in endosomal recycling; forms a complex with Rrt2p that functions in the retromer-mediated pathway for recycling internalized cell-surface proteins; interacts with Trm7p for 2'-O-methylation of N34 of substrate tRNAs; has a role in regulation of Ty1 transposition; human ortholog is WDR6
YLL052C AQY2 Water channel that mediates water transport across cell membranes; only expressed in proliferating cells; controlled by osmotic signals; may be involved in freeze tolerance; disrupted by a stop codon in many S. cerevisiae strains
YLR093C NYV1 MAM2 v-SNARE component of the vacuolar SNARE complex; involved in vesicle fusion; inhibits ATP-dependent Ca(2+) transport activity of Pmc1p in the vacuolar membrane
YGR142W BTN2 v-SNARE binding protein; facilitates specific protein retrieval from a late endosome to the Golgi; modulates arginine uptake, possible role in mediating pH homeostasis between the vacuole and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase; contributes to prion curing; preferentially expressed after severe ethanol stress
YGR217W CCH1 Voltage-gated high-affinity calcium channel; involved in calcium influx in response to some environmental stresses as well as exposure to mating pheromones; interacts and partially co-localizes with Mid1p; however, evidence suggests CCH1 is not required for Mid1p function
YBR041W FAT1 long-chain fatty acid transporter FAT1 Very long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase and fatty acid transporter; activates imported fatty acids with a preference for very long lengths (C20-C26); has a separate function in the transport of long chain fatty acids
YLR337C VRP1 END5 | MDP2 | YLR337W Verprolin, proline-rich actin-associated protein; involved in cytoskeletal organization and cytokinesis; promotes actin nucleation and endocytosis; related to mammalian Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-interacting protein (WIP)
YMR123W PKR1 V-ATPase assembly factor; functions with other V-ATPase assembly factors in the ER to efficiently assemble the V-ATPase membrane sector (V0); protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR316C COT1 metal cation transporter COT1 Vacuolar transporter that mediates zinc transport into the vacuole; overexpression confers resistance to cobalt and rhodium; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; COT1 has a paralog, ZRC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL146W AVT3 Vacuolar transporter; exports large neutral amino acids from the vacuole; member of a family of seven S. cerevisiae genes (AVT1-7) related to vesicular GABA-glycine transporters
YGL212W VAM7 VPL24 | VPS43 Vacuolar SNARE protein; functions with Vam3p in vacuolar protein trafficking; has an N-terminal PX domain (phosphoinositide-binding module) that binds PtdIns-3-P and mediates membrane binding; SNAP-25 homolog; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR139W ATG42 carboxypeptidase C Vacuolar serine-type carboxypeptidase; involved, along with functional homolog Prc1p, in vacuolar zymogen activation, breakdown of the autophagic body, and autophagosome-dependent protein synthesis; role in phytochelatin synthesis; localizes to the vacuole lumen; expression induced by nitrogen limitation in a GLN3, GAT1-independent manner; N-glycosylated
YOR291W YPK9 putative acid anhydride hydrolase Vacuolar protein with a possible role in sequestering heavy metals; has similarity to the type V P-type ATPase Spf1p; homolog of human ATP13A2 (PARK9), mutations in which are associated with Parkinson disease and Kufor-Rakeb syndrome
YDR003W RCR2 SSH5 Vacuolar protein; presumably functions within the endosomal-vacuolar trafficking pathway, affecting events that determine whether plasma membrane proteins are degraded or routed to the plasma membrane; RCR2 has a paralog, RCR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL053W PEP8 GRD6 | retromer subunit PEP8 | VPS26 | VPT4 Vacuolar protein component of the retromer; forms part of the multimeric membrane-associated retromer complex involved in vacuolar protein sorting along with Vps35p, Vps29p, Vps17p, and Vps5p; essential for endosome-to-Golgi retrograde protein transport; interacts with Ypt7p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YEL060C PRB1 CVT1 | proteinase B Vacuolar proteinase B (yscB) with H3 N-terminal endopeptidase activity; serine protease of the subtilisin family; involved in protein degradation in the vacuole and required for full protein degradation during sporulation; activity inhibited by Pbi2p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; PRB1 has a paralog, YSP3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL175W ZRT3 Zn(2+) transporter ZRT3 Vacuolar membrane zinc transporter; transports zinc from storage in the vacuole to the cytoplasm when needed; transcription is induced under conditions of zinc deficiency
YMR243C ZRC1 OSR1 | Zn(2+) transporter ZRC1 Vacuolar membrane zinc transporter; transports zinc from cytosol to vacuole for storage; also has role in resistance to zinc shock resulting from sudden influx of zinc into cytoplasm; human ortholog SLC30A10 functions as a Mn transporter and mutations in SLC30A10 cause neurotoxic accumulation of Mn in liver and brain; ZRC1 has a paralog, COT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL013W VAC8 protein anchor VAC8 | YEB3 Vacuolar membrane protein; vacuole-specific Myo2p receptor and Myo2p-Vac17p-Vac8p transport complex subunit required for vacuolar inheritance; required with Atg13p for the vesicle closure step of the cytoplasm-to-vacuole (CVT) pathway, for homotypic vacuole-vacuole fusion and for nucleus-vacuole junction formation with Nvy1p; contains 11 armadillo (ARM) repeats; myristoylated, palmitoylated, and phosphorylated
YPL006W NCR1 sphingolipid transporter Vacuolar membrane protein; transits through the biosynthetic vacuolar protein sorting pathway, involved in sphingolipid metabolism; cells lacking Ncr1p exhibit high levels of long chain bases (LCB), similar to the accumulation of high amounts of lipids observed in patients with Neimann-Pick C, a disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in NPC1, the functional ortholog of Ncr1p
YKL064W MNR2 putative Mg(2+) transporter MNR2 Vacuolar membrane protein required for magnesium homeostasis; putative magnesium transporter; has similarity to Alr1p and Alr2p, which mediate influx of Mg2+ and other divalent cations; localizes to sites of contact between the vacuole and mitochondria (vCLAMPs)
YCR023C Vacuolar membrane protein of unknown function; member of the multidrug resistance family; YCR023C is not an essential gene
YDR105C TMS1 Vacuolar membrane protein of unknown function; is conserved in mammals; predicted to contain eleven transmembrane helices; interacts with Pdr5p, a protein involved in multidrug resistance
YOL129W VPS68 Vacuolar membrane protein of unknown function; involved in vacuolar protein sorting; also detected in the mitochondria
YPL236C ENV7 putative serine/threonine protein kinase ENV7 Vacuolar membrane protein kinase; negatively regulates membrane fusion; associates with vacuolar membrane through palmitoylation of one or more cysteines in consensus sequence; vacuolar membrane association is essential to its kinase activity; mutant shows defect in CPY processing; ortholog of human serine/threonine kinase 16 (STK16)
YJL012C VTC4 PHM3 | YJL012C-A Vacuolar membrane polyphosphate polymerase; subunit of the vacuolar transporter chaperone (VTC) complex involved in synthesis and transfer of polyP to the vacuole; regulates membrane trafficking; role in non-autophagic vacuolar fusion; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR235W VHC1 Vacuolar membrane cation-chloride cotransporter (CCC); likely mediates K+ and Cl- cotransport into the vacuole; has a role in potassium homeostasis and salt tolerance; localizes to sites of contact between the vacuole and mitochondria (vCLAMPs); similar to mammalian electroneutral Na(+)-(K+)-C1- cotransporter family
YDL128W VCX1 HUM1 | MNR1 Vacuolar membrane antiporter with Ca2+/H+ and K+/H+ exchange activity; involved in control of cytosolic Ca2+ and K+ concentrations; has similarity to sodium/calcium exchangers, including the bovine Na+/Ca2+,K+ antiporter
YDR135C YCF1 ATP-binding cassette glutathione S-conjugate transporter YCF1 Vacuolar glutathione S-conjugate transporter; ABC-C transporter of the ATP-binding cassette family; required for vacuole fusion; forms stable complexes with vacuole fusion machinery; regulates Vam7p recruitment to vacuoles; role in detoxifying metals (Cd, Hg, As); transports GSSG that is not immediately reduced in cytosol to vacuole; transports unconjugated bilirubin, selenodigluthatione, oxidized glutathione; similar to human cystic fibrosis protein CFTR
YLR220W CCC1 Vacuolar Fe2+/Mn2+ transporter; suppresses respiratory deficit of yfh1 mutants, which lack the ortholog of mammalian frataxin, by preventing mitochondrial iron accumulation; relative distribution to the vacuole decreases upon DNA replication stress
YOR087W YVC1 TRPY1 | YOR088W Vacuolar cation channel; mediates release of Ca(2+) from the vacuole in response to hyperosmotic shock
YMR297W PRC1 carboxypeptidase C PRC1 | CPY | CPY1 | LBC1 Vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y (proteinase C, CPY); broad-specificity C-terminal exopeptidase involved in non-specific protein degradation in the vacuole; involved, along with functional homolog Prc1p, in vacuolar zymogen activation, breakdown of the autophagic body, and autophagosome-dependent protein synthesis; role in phytochelatin synthesis; localizes to the vacuole lumen; member of the serine carboxypeptidase family; N-glycosylated
YGL006W PMC1 calcium-transporting ATPase PMC1 Vacuolar Ca2+ ATPase involved in depleting cytosol of Ca2+ ions; prevents growth inhibition by activation of calcineurin in the presence of elevated concentrations of calcium; similar to mammalian PMCA1a
YPL234C VMA11 CLS9 | H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit c' | TFP3 Vacuolar ATPase V0 domain subunit c'; involved in proton transport activity; hydrophobic integral membrane protein (proteolipid) containing four transmembrane segments; N and C termini are in the vacuolar lumen
YPL154C PEP4 PHO9 | PRA1 | proteinase A | yscA Vacuolar aspartyl protease (proteinase A); required for posttranslational precursor maturation of vacuolar proteinases; important for protein turnover after oxidative damage; plays a protective role in acetic acid induced apoptosis; synthesized as a zymogen, self-activates
YKL103C APE1 API | LAP4 | metalloaminopeptidase APE1 | YSC1 Vacuolar aminopeptidase yscI; zinc metalloproteinase that belongs to the peptidase family M18; often used as a marker protein in studies of autophagy and cytosol to vacuole targeting (CVT) pathway; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to cytoplasmic foci increases upon DNA replication stress
YBR286W APE3 APY1 Vacuolar aminopeptidase Y; processed to mature form by Prb1p
YGL156W AMS1 alpha-mannosidase Vacuolar alpha mannosidase; involved in free oligosaccharide (fOS) degradation; delivered to the vacuole in a novel pathway separate from the secretory pathway
YDR047W HEM12 HEM6 | uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase HEM12 Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase; catalyzes the fifth step in the heme biosynthetic pathway; localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus; a hem12 mutant has phenotypes similar to patients with porphyria cutanea tarda
YKL024C URA6 bifunctional uridylate/adenylate kinase | SOC8 Uridylate kinase; catalyzes the seventh enzymatic step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines, converting uridine monophosphate (UMP) into uridine-5'-diphosphate (UDP)
YDR400W URH1 trifunctional uridine nucleosidase/nicotinamide riboside hydrolase/nicotinic acid riboside hydrolase Uridine nucleosidase (uridine-cytidine N-ribohydrolase); cleaves N-glycosidic bonds in nucleosides; involved in the pyrimidine salvage and nicotinamide riboside salvage pathways
YNR012W URK1 uridine kinase URK1 Uridine/cytidine kinase; component of the pyrimidine ribonucleotide salvage pathway that converts uridine into UMP and cytidine into CMP; involved in the pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotide salvage pathway, converting deoxycytidine into dCMP
YBR208C DUR1,2 bifunctional urea carboxylase/allophanate hydrolase | DUR80 Urea amidolyase; contains both urea carboxylase and allophanate hydrolase activities, degrades urea to CO2 and NH3; expression sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression and induced by allophanate, an intermediate in allantoin degradation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YML021C UNG1 uracil-DNA glycosylase Uracil-DNA glycosylase; required for repair of uracil in DNA formed by spontaneous cytosine deamination; efficiently excises uracil from single-stranded DNA in vivo; not required for strand-specific mismatch repair; cell-cycle regulated, expressed in late G1; localizes to mitochondria and nucleus
YER129W SAK1 PAK1 | serine/threonine protein kinase SAK1 Upstream serine/threonine kinase for the SNF1 complex; plays a role in pseudohyphal groth; partially redundant with Elm1p and Tos3p; members of this family have functional orthology with LKB1, a mammalian kinase associated with Peutz-Jeghers cancer-susceptibility syndrome; SAK1 has a paralog, TOS3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR075C PRP38 U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex subunit PRP38 Unique component of the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP particle; tri-snRNP is required for conformational changes which result in the catalytic activation of the spliceosome; dispensable for spliceosome assembly
YFL023W BUD27 URI1 Unconventional prefoldin protein involved in translation initiation; required for correct assembly of RNAP I, II, and III in an Rpb5p-dependent manner; shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm; mutants have inappropriate expression of nutrient sensitive genes due to translational derepression of Gcn4p transcription factor; diploid mutants show random budding; ortholog of human URI/RMP
YIL067C Uncharacterized protein of unknown function
YDL103C QRI1 UAP1 | UDP-N-acetylglucosamine diphosphorylase UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase; catalyzes the formation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), which is important in cell wall biosynthesis, protein N-glycosylation, and GPI anchor biosynthesis; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL175W SPT14 CWH6 | GPI3 | phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase SPT14 UDP-glycosyltransferase subunit of the GPI-GnT complex; UDP-GlcNAc-binding and catalytic subunit of the enzyme that mediates the first step in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis, mutations cause defects in transcription and in biogenesis of cell wall proteins
YLR189C ATG26 UGT51 UDP-glucose:sterol glucosyltransferase; conserved enzyme involved in synthesis of sterol glucoside membrane lipids; in contrast to ATG26 from P. pastoris, S. cerevisiae ATG26 is not involved in autophagy
YKL035W UGP1 UTP glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase); catalyses the reversible formation of UDP-Glc from glucose 1-phosphate and UTP, involved in a wide variety of metabolic pathways, expression modulated by Pho85p through Pho4p; involved in PKA-mediated oxidative stress resistance and long-term survival in stationary phase; UGP1 has a paralog, YHL012W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL227C ALG5 dolichyl-phosphate beta-glucosyltransferase UDP-glucose:dolichyl-phosphate glucosyltransferase; involved in asparagine-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum; human ortholog ALG5 can partially complement yeast alg5 mutant
YBR273C UBX7 CUI3 UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X) domain-containing protein; interacts with Cdc48p; UBX7 has a paralog, UBX6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL048C UBX6 CUI2 UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X) domain-containing protein; interacts with Cdc48p, transcription is repressed when cells are grown in media containing inositol and choline; UBX6 has a paralog, UBX7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL058W SHP1 protein phosphatase regulator SHP1 | UBX1 UBX domain-containing substrate adaptor for Cdc48p; ubiquitin regulatory X domain-containing protein that acts as a substrate recruiting cofactor for Cdc48p; positively regulates Glc7p PPase activity to promote growth and mitotic progression in complex with Cdc48p; ubiquitinated protein interactor involved in ER-associated degradation (ERAD); regulated by nuclear Ub-dependent degradation (INMAD pathway) independent of the Asi and Doa10 complexes; homolog of human p47 (NSFL1C)
YDR330W UBX5 UBX domain-containing protein that interacts with Cdc48p; ubiquitin regulatory X is also known as UBX
YMR067C UBX4 CUI1 UBX domain-containing protein that interacts with Cdc48p; involved in degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins via the ERAD (ER-associated degradation) pathway; modulates the Cdc48p-Nplp-Ufd1p AAA ATPase complex during its role in delivery of misfolded proteins to the proteasome; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YJL144W ROQ1 Ub-ligase substrate-specificity factor; proteolytically-cleaved form acts as a pseudosubstrate, binding and altering the substrate specificity of Ubr1p towards misfolded and native ER membrane and cytosolic proteins, as part of the stress-induced homeostatically regulated protein degradation (SHRED) pathway; hydrophilin essential during desiccation-rehydration; induced by osmotic stress, starvation and during stationary phase; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBL067C UBP13 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP13 Ubiquitin-specific protease that cleaves Ub-protein fusions; UBP13 has a paralog, UBP9, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER098W UBP9 putative ubiquitin-specific protease UBP9 Ubiquitin-specific protease that cleaves ubiquitin-protein fusions; UBP9 has a paralog, UBP13, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL156W UBP7 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP7 Ubiquitin-specific protease that cleaves ubiquitin-protein fusions; UBP7 has a paralog, UBP11, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR058C UBP14 GID6 | ubiquitin-specific protease UBP14 Ubiquitin-specific protease; specifically disassembles unanchored ubiquitin chains; involved in fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fbp1p) degradation; similar to human isopeptidase T
YFR010W UBP6 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP6 Ubiquitin-specific protease; situated in the base subcomplex of the 26S proteasome, releases free ubiquitin from branched polyubiquitin chains en bloc, rather than from the distal tip of the chain; negatively regulates degradation of ubiquitinated proteins by the proteasome; works in opposition to Hul5p polyubiquitin elongation activity; mutant has aneuploidy tolerance; human homolog UBP14 complements yeast null mutant
YOR124C UBP2 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP2 Ubiquitin-specific protease; removes ubiquitin from ubiquitinated proteins; controls K63 homeostasis during oxidative stress; deubiquitinates Rsp5p and is required for MVB sorting of membrane proteins; can cleave polyubiquitin and has isopeptidase activity
YDL122W UBP1 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP1 Ubiquitin-specific protease; removes ubiquitin from ubiquitinated proteins; cleaves at the C terminus of ubiquitin fusions irrespective of their size; capable of cleaving polyubiquitin chains
YER151C UBP3 BLM3 | mRNA-binding ubiquitin-specific protease UBP3 Ubiquitin-specific protease involved in transport and osmotic response; negatively regulates Ras/PKA signaling; interacts with Bre5p to coregulate anterograde, retrograde transport between ER and Golgi; involved in transcription elongation in response to osmostress through phosphorylation at Ser695 by Hog1p; inhibitor of gene silencing; role in ribophagy; cleaves ubiquitin fusions but not polyubiquitin; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR304W UBP15 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP15 Ubiquitin-specific protease involved in protein deubiquitination; forms a complex with AAA peroxins Pex1p and Pex6p; deubiquitinates mono- and polyubiquitinated forms of Pex5p; deubiquitinates Clb5p, counteracting APC activity, and facilitating both Clb5p accumulation and S phase entry; physically interacts with anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) activator, Cdh1p; catalytic activity regulated by an N-terminal TRAF-like domain and and C-terminal sequences
YNL186W UBP10 DOT4 | ubiquitin-specific protease UBP10 Ubiquitin-specific protease, deubiquitinates Ub-protein moieties; interacts with proteins that function in rRNA production and ribosome biogenesis via its intrinsically disordered regions; stabilizes Rpa190p by deubiquitination; controls PCNA deubiquitylation; may regulate silencing by acting on Sir4p; involved in posttranscriptionally regulating Gap1p, possibly other transporters; localized to the nucleolus; null mutant phenotypes are functionally complemented by human USP36
YMR223W UBP8 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP8 Ubiquitin-specific protease component of the SAGA acetylation complex; required for SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase)-mediated deubiquitination of histone H2B
YJL197W UBP12 putative ubiquitin-specific protease UBP12 Ubiquitin-specific protease; cleaves ubiquitin from ubiquitinated proteins; present in the nucleus and cytoplasm
YKR094C RPL40B CEP52B | eL40 | L40B | L40e | UB12 | UBI2 | ubiquitin-ribosomal 60S subunit protein L40B fusion protein Ubiquitin-ribosomal 60S subunit protein L40B fusion protein; cleaved to yield ubiquitin and ribosomal protein L40B; ubiquitin may facilitate assembly of the ribosomal protein into ribosomes; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L40, no bacterial homolog; RPL40B has a paralog, RPL40A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL148W RPL40A CEP52A | eL40 | L40A | L40e | UB11 | UBI1 | ubiquitin-ribosomal 60S subunit protein L40A fusion protein Ubiquitin-ribosomal 60S subunit protein L40A fusion protein; cleaved to yield ubiquitin and ribosomal protein L40A; ubiquitin may facilitate assembly of the ribosomal protein into ribosomes; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L40, no bacterial homolog; RPL40A has a paralog, RPL40B, that arose from the whole genome duplication; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YER068W MOT2 CCR4-NOT core ubiquitin-protein ligase subunit MOT2 | NOT4 | SIG1 Ubiquitin-protein ligase subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex; with Ubc4p, ubiquitinates nascent polypeptide-associated complex subunits and histone demethyase Jhd2p; CCR4-NOT has roles in transcription regulation, mRNA degradation, and post-transcriptional modifications; regulates levels of DNA Polymerase-{alpha} to promote efficient and accurate DNA replication
YOL013C HRD1 DER3 | E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HRD1 Ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins; upon autoubiquitination triggers retrotranslocation of misfolded proteins to cytosol for degradation; genetically linked to the unfolded protein response (UPR); regulated through association with Hrd3p; contains an H2 ring finger; likely plays a general role in targeting proteins that persistently associate with and potentially obstruct the ER-localized translocon
YGR003W CUL3 CULB | CULLIN B | cullin CUL3 Ubiquitin-protein ligase; forms a complex with Elc1p that polyubiquitylates monoubiquitylated RNA polymerase II to trigger its proteolysis; cullin family member with similarity to Cdc53p and human CUL3
YKL010C UFD4 putative ubiquitin-protein ligase UFD4 Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3); interacts with Rpt4p and Rpt6p, two subunits of the 19S particle of the 26S proteasome; cytoplasmic E3 involved in the degradation of ubiquitin fusion proteins; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YHR115C DMA1 CHF1 | ubiquitin-conjugating protein DMA1 Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3); controls septin dynamics, spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) with ligase Dma2p by regulating recruitment of Elm1p to bud neck; regulates levels of eIF2 subunit Gcd11p, as well as abundance, localization, and ubiquitination of Cdk inhibitory kinase Swe1p; ubiquitinates cyclin Pcl1p; ortholog of human RNF8, similar to human Chfr; contains FHA, RING fingers; DMA1 has a paralog, DMA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL116W DMA2 CHF2 | ubiquitin-conjugating protein DMA2 Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3); controls septin dynamics and spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) with ligase Dma1p by regulating recruitment of Elm1p to bud neck; regulates levels of eIF2 subunit Gcd11p, as well as abundance, localization, and ubiquitination of Cdk inhibitory kinase Swe1p; ortholog of human RNF8, similar to human Chfr; contains FHA and RING finger domains; DMA2 has a paralog, DMA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNR051C BRE5 Ubiquitin protease cofactor; forms deubiquitination complex with Ubp3p that coregulates anterograde and retrograde transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments; null is sensitive to brefeldin A
YDR139C RUB1 NEDD8 family protein RUB1 Ubiquitin-like protein with similarity to mammalian NEDD8; conjugation (neddylation) substrates include the cullins Cdc53p, Rtt101p, and Cul3p; activated by Ula1p and Uba3p (E1 enzyme pair); conjugation mediated by Ubc12p (E2 enzyme)
YDR510W SMT3 SUMO family protein SMT3 Ubiquitin-like protein of the SUMO family; conjugated to lysine residues of target proteins; associates with transcriptionally active genes; regulates chromatid cohesion, chromosome segregation, APC-mediated proteolysis, DNA replication and septin ring dynamics; human homolog SUMO1 can complement yeast null mutant
YIL008W URM1 ubiquitin-related modifier URM1 Ubiquitin-like protein involved in thiolation of cytoplasmic tRNAs; receives sulfur from the E1-like enzyme Uba4p and transfers it to tRNA; also functions as a protein tag with roles in nutrient sensing and oxidative stress response
YDR069C DOA4 DOS1 | MUT4 | NPI2 | SSV7 | ubiquitin-specific protease DOA4 | UBP4 Ubiquitin hydrolase; deubiquitinates intralumenal vesicle (ILVs) cargo proteins; required for recycling ubiquitin from proteasome-bound ubiquitinated intermediates, acts at the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment to recover ubiquitin from ubiquitinated membrane proteins destined for the vacuole; DOA4 has a paralog, UBP5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL087C MMS2 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein MMS2 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant; involved in error-free postreplication repair; forms a heteromeric complex with Ubc13p, an active ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme; cooperates with chromatin-associated RING finger proteins, Rad18p and Rad5p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YEL012W UBC8 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC8 | GID3 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that regulates gluconeogenesis; negatively regulates gluconeogenesis by mediating the glucose-induced ubiquitination of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase); cytoplasmic enzyme that catalyzes the ubiquitination of histones in vitro
YDR059C UBC5 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC5 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme; mediates selective degradation of short-lived, abnormal, or excess proteins, including histone H3; central component of the cellular stress response; expression is heat inducible; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; UBC5 has a paralog, UBC4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR177W UBC1 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC1 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme; key E2 partner with Ubc4p for the anaphase-promoting complex (APC); mediates selective degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins; plays a role in vesicle biogenesis and ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD); component of the cellular stress response; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress key E2 partner with Ubc4p for the anaphase-promoting complex (APC)
YMR022W UBC7 DER2 | E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC7 | QRI8 Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme; involved in the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway and in the inner nuclear membrane-associated degradation (INMAD) pathway; requires Cue1p for recruitment to the ER membrane; proposed to be involved in chromatin assembly
YER100W UBC6 DOA2 | E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC6 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme involved in ERAD; located at the cytosolic side of the ER membrane; tail region contains a transmembrane segment at the C-terminus; substrate of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway; ER-associated protein degradation is also known as ERAD
YBR082C UBC4 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC4 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2); key E2 partner with Ubc1p for the anaphase-promoting complex (APC); mediates degradation of abnormal or excess proteins, including calmodulin and histone H3; regulates levels of DNA Polymerase-{alpha} to promote efficient and accurate DNA replication; interacts with many SCF ubiquitin protein ligases; component of the cellular stress response; UBC4 has a paralog, UBC5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL058W RAD6 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein RAD6 | PSO8 | UBC2 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2); involved in postreplication repair as a heterodimer with Rad18p, regulation of K63 polyubiquitination in response to oxidative stress, DSBR and checkpoint control as a heterodimer with Bre1p, ubiquitin-mediated N-end rule protein degradation as a heterodimer with Ubr1p, ERAD with Ubr1p in the absence of canonical ER membrane ligases, and Rpn4p turnover as part of proteasome homeostasis, in complex with Ubr2p and Mub1p
YDR054C CDC34 DNA6 | SCF E2 ubiquitin-protein ligase catalytic subunit CDC34 | UBC3 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2); catalytic subunit of SCF ubiquitin-protein ligase complex (together with Skp1p, Rbx1p, Cdc53p, and an F-box protein) that regulates cell cycle progression by targeting key substrates for degradation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human CDC34 functionally complements the thermosensitivity of the cdc34-2 mutant
YDL190C UFD2 ubiquitin-ubiquitin ligase UFD2 Ubiquitin chain assembly factor (E4); cooperates with a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), and a ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) to conjugate ubiquitin to substrates; also functions as an E3
YOL087C DUF1 Ubiquitin-binding protein of unknown function; contains one WD40 repeat in a beta-propeller fold; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; homolog of human WDR48/UAF1, which is involved in regulating the Fanconi anemia pathway; deletion mutant is sensitive to various chemicals including phenanthroline, sanguinarine, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid
YOR042W CUE5 ubiquitin-binding protein CUE5 Ubiquitin-binding protein; functions as ubiquitin-Atg8p adaptor in ubiquitin-dependent autophagy; serves as proteaphagy receptor for inactivated 26S proteasomes; contains CUE domain that binds ubiquitin, which may facilitate intramolecular monoubiquitination; CUE5 has a paralog, DON1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human TOLLIP is a functional CUE-domain homolog, can complement yeast null mutant, rescuing hypersensitivity of cue5 null mutant cells to Htt-96Q
YMR264W CUE1 KIS4 Ubiquitin-binding protein; ER membrane protein that recruits and integrates the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc7p into ER membrane-bound ubiquitin ligase complexes that function in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway for misfolded proteins; contains a CUE domain that binds ubiquitin to facilitate intramolecular monoubiquitination and to promote diubiquitin elongation, facilitating polyubiquitin chain formation
YMR275C BUL1 DAG1 | RDS1 | SMM2 | ubiquitin-ubiquitin ligase BUL1 Ubiquitin-binding component of the Rsp5p E3-ubiquitin ligase complex; disruption causes temperature-sensitive growth, overexpression causes missorting of amino acid permeases; BUL1 has a paralog, BUL2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLL039C UBI4 SCD2 | UB14 | ubiquitin Ubiquitin; becomes conjugated to proteins, marking them for selective degradation via the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system; essential for the cellular stress response; encoded as a polyubiquitin precursor comprised of 5 head-to-tail repeats; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL210W UBA1 E1 ubiquitin-activating protein UBA1 Ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1); involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation and essential for viability; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YEL024W RIP1 ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase catalytic subunit RIP1 Ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase; a Rieske iron-sulfur protein of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex; transfers electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c1 during respiration; during import, Rip1p is first imported into the mitochondrial matrix where it is processed, acquires its Fe-S cluster, and is folded, then is translocated into the inner membrane by the action of a homo-oligomer of Bcs1p, and finally is delivered by Bcs1p to Complex III for assembly
YPL109C MCO76 UbiB family protein; contains transmembrane domain and mitochondrial targeting sequence; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YPL126W NAN1 UTP17 U3 snoRNP protein; component of the small (ribosomal) subunit (SSU) processosome containing U3 snoRNA; required for the biogenesis of18S rRNA
YOR319W HSH49 U2 snRNP complex subunit HSH49 U2-snRNP associated splicing factor; similar to the mammalian splicing factor SAP49; proposed to function as a U2-snRNP assembly factor along with Hsh155p and binding partner Cus1p; contains two RNA recognition motifs (RRM)
YMR288W HSH155 U2 snRNP complex subunit HSH155 U2-snRNP associated splicing factor; forms extensive associations with the branch site-3' splice site-3' exon region upon prespliceosome formation; similarity to the mammalian U2 snRNP-associated splicing factor SAP155
YIR009W MSL1 U2 snRNP complex subunit MSL1 | YIB9 | YIB9w U2B component of U2 snRNP; involved in splicing, binds the U2 snRNA stem-loop IV in vitro but requires association of Lea1p for in vivo binding; does not contain the conserved C-terminal RNA binding domain found in other family members
YDR235W PRP42 mRNA splicing protein PRP42 | MUD16 | SNU65 U1 snRNP protein involved in splicing; required for U1 snRNP biogenesis; contains multiple tetriatricopeptide repeats
YKL012W PRP40 U1 snRNP protein involved in splicing; interacts with the branchpoint-binding protein during the formation of the second commitment complex
YML046W PRP39 U1 snRNP protein involved in splicing; contains multiple tetriatricopeptide repeats
YBR119W MUD1 U1A | U1-A U1 snRNP A protein; homolog of human U1-A; involved in nuclear mRNA splicing
YBR223C TDP1 tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I; hydrolyzes 3' and 5'-phosphotyrosyl bonds; involved in the repair of DNA lesions created by topo I and topo II; mutations in the human homolog, TDP1, result in the a neurodegenerative disease, spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy (SCAN1); yeast cells and human rhabdomyosarcoma lines that overexpress TDP1 both exhibit elevated dosage chromosomal instability (dCIN)
YNL032W SIW14 OCA3 | putative tyrosine protein phosphatase SIW14 Tyrosine phosphatase involved in actin organization and endocytosis; localized to the cytoplasm
YOR326W MYO2 CDC66 | myosin 2 Type V myosin motor involved in actin-based transport of cargos; required for the polarized delivery of secretory vesicles, the vacuole, late Golgi elements, peroxisomes, and the mitotic spindle; MYO2 has a paralog, MYO4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YAL029C MYO4 FUN22 | myosin 4 | SHE1 Type V myosin motor involved in actin-based transport of cargos; required for mRNA transport, including ASH1 mRNA, and facilitating the growth and movement of ER tubules into the growing bud along with She3p; MYO4 has a paralog, MYO2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL017C PEP1 type I sorting receptor | VPS10 | VPT1 Type I transmembrane sorting receptor for multiple vacuolar hydrolases; cycles between the late-Golgi and prevacuolar endosome-like compartments
YFR041C ERJ5 Type I membrane protein with a J domain; required to preserve the folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum; loss of the non-essential ERJ5 gene leads to a constitutively induced unfolded protein response
YJL178C ATG27 ETF1 Type I membrane protein involved in autophagy and the Cvt pathway; may be involved in membrane delivery to the phagophore assembly site
YCL026C-A FRM2 type II nitroreductase | YCLX08C Type II nitroreductase, using NADH as reductant; mutants are defective in fatty acid mediated repression of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis indicative of a role in lipid signaling; involved in the oxidative stress response; transcription induction by cadmium and selenite indicates a possible role in the metal stress response; expression induced in cells treated with the mycotoxin patulin
YHR023W MYO1 myosin 1 Type II myosin heavy chain; required for wild-type cytokinesis and cell separation; localizes to the actomyosin ring; binds to myosin light chains Mlc1p and Mlc2p through its IQ1 and IQ2 motifs respectively
YIL004C BET1 SLY12 Type II membrane protein required for vesicular transport; required for vesicular transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex; v-SNARE with similarity to synaptobrevins
YPR159W KRE6 beta-glucan synthesis-associated protein KRE6 | CWH48 Type II integral membrane protein; required for beta-1,6 glucan biosynthesis; putative beta-glucan synthase; localizes to ER, plasma membrane, sites of polarized growth and secretory vesicles; functionally redundant with Skn1p; KRE6 has a paralog, SKN1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL007C SIS1 type II HSP40 co-chaperone SIS1 Type II HSP40 co-chaperone that interacts with the HSP70 protein Ssa1p; shuttles between cytosol and nucleus; mediates delivery of misfolded proteins into the nucleus for degradation; involved in proteasomal degradation of misfolded cytosolic proteins; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; polyQ aggregates sequester Sis1p and interfere with clearance of misfolded proteins; similar to bacterial DnaJ proteins and mammalian DnaJB1
YNL064C YDJ1 HSP40 | MAB3 | MAS5 | type I HSP40 co-chaperone YDJ1 Type I HSP40 co-chaperone; involved in regulation of HSP90 and HSP70 functions; acts as an adaptor that helps Rsp5p recognize cytosolic misfolded proteins for ubiquitination after heat shock; critical for determining cell size at Start as a function of growth rate; involved in protein translocation across membranes; member of the DnaJ family; chimeric protein in which human p58IPK J domain replaces yeast Ydj1p J domain can complement yeast ydj1 mutant
YER089C PTC2 type 2C protein phosphatase PTC2 Type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C); dephosphorylates Hog1p to limit maximal osmostress induced kinase activity; dephosphorylates Ire1p to downregulate the unfolded protein response; dephosphorylates Cdc28p; inactivates the DNA damage checkpoint; PTC2 has a paralog, PTC3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL056W PTC3 type 2C protein phosphatase PTC3 Type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C); dephosphorylates Hog1p (see also Ptc2p) to limit maximal kinase activity induced by osmotic stress; dephosphorylates T169 phosphorylated Cdc28p (see also Ptc2p); role in DNA damage checkpoint inactivation; PTC3 has a paralog, PTC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER133W GLC7 CID1 | DIS2 | DIS2S1 | PP1 | type 1 serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit GLC7 Type 1 S/T protein phosphatase (PP1) catalytic subunit; involved in glycogen metabolism, sporulation and mitotic progression; interacts with multiple regulatory subunits; regulates actomyosin ring formation; subunit of CPF; recruited to mating projections by Afr1p interaction; regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Hxk2p; import into the nucleus is inhibited during spindle assembly checkpoint arrest; involved in dephosphorylating Rps6a/b and Bnr1p
YOR337W TEA1 Ty1 enhancer activator involved in Ty enhancer-mediated transcription; required for full levels of Ty enhancer-mediated transcription; C6 zinc cluster DNA-binding protein
YGR080W TWF1 Twinfilin; highly conserved actin monomer-sequestering protein involved in regulation of the cortical actin cytoskeleton; coordinates actin filament severing and monomer sequestering at sites of rapid actin turnover; composed of two cofilin-like regions, stimulates actin depolymerization as does the mouse homolog, mTwf1
YLR218C COA4 CMC3 Twin Cx(9)C protein involved in cytochrome c oxidase organization; organization includes assembly or stability; localizes to the mitochondrial intermembrane space via the Mia40p-Erv1p system; interacts genetically with CYC1 and with cytochrome c oxidase assembly factors
YOR349W CIN1 Tubulin folding factor D involved in beta-tubulin (Tub2p) folding; isolated as mutant with increased chromosome loss and sensitivity to benomyl
YDR019C GCV1 glycine decarboxylase subunit T | GSD1 T subunit of the mitochondrial glycine decarboxylase complex; glycine decarboxylase is required for the catabolism of glycine to 5,10-methylene-THF; expression is regulated by levels of levels of 5,10-methylene-THF in the cytoplasm
YOR075W UFE1 YOR29-26 t-SNARE protein required for retrograde vesicular traffic; involved in Sey1p-independent homotypic ER fusion; required for efficient nuclear fusion during mating; forms a complex with the SNAREs Sec22p, Sec20p and Use1p to mediate fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles at the ER
YGL026C TRP5 tryptophan synthase TRP5 Tryptophan synthase; catalyzes the last step of tryptophan biosynthesis; regulated by the general control system of amino acid biosynthesis
YKL027W TCD2 tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine dehydratase tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine dehydratase; required for the ct6A tRNA base modification, where an adenosine at position 37 is modified to form a cyclized active ester with an oxazolone ring; localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane; TCD2 has a paralog, TCD1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR003C TCD1 tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine dehydratase tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine dehydratase; required for the ct6A tRNA base modification, where an adenosine at position 37 is modified to form a cyclized active ester with an oxazolone ring; localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane; TCD1 has a paralog, TCD2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL033C SLM3 MTO2 | MTU1 | tRNA-5-taurinomethyluridine 2-sulfurtransferase tRNA-specific 2-thiouridylase; responsible for 2-thiolation of the wobble base of mitochondrial tRNAs; human homolog TRMU is implicated in myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged red fibers (MERRF), and can complement yeast null mutant
YPL030W TRM44 tRNA (uracil) methyltransferase tRNA(Ser) Um(44) 2'-O-methyltransferase; involved in maintaining levels of the tRNA-Ser species tS(CGA) and tS(UGA); conserved among metazoans and fungi but there does not appear to be a homolog in plants; TRM44 is a non-essential gene
YPL212C PUS1 pseudouridine synthase PUS1 tRNA:pseudouridine synthase; introduces pseudouridines at positions 26-28, 34-36, 65, and 67 of tRNA; also acts on U2 snRNA; also pseudouridylates some mRNAs, and pseudouridylation level varies with growth phase; nuclear protein that appears to be involved in tRNA export; PUS1 has a paralog, PUS2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFL001W DEG1 HRM3 | pseudouridine synthase DEG1 | PUS3 tRNA:pseudouridine synthase; introduces pseudouridines at position 38 or 39 in tRNA; also responsible for pseudouracil modification of some mRNAs; important for maintenance of translation efficiency and normal cell growth, localizes to both the nucleus and cytoplasm; non-essential for viability
YDR120C TRM1 tRNA (guanine26-N2)-dimethyltransferase tRNA methyltransferase; two forms of protein are made by alternative translation starts; localizes to both nucleus and mitochondrion to produce modified base N2,N2-dimethylguanosine in tRNAs in both compartments; nuclear Trm1p is evenly distributed around inner nuclear membrane in WT, but mislocalizes as puncta near ER-nucleus junctions in spindle pole body (SPB) mutants; both Trm1p inner nuclear membrane targeting and maintenance depend upon SPB
YOL093W TRM10 tRNA (guanine(9)-N(1))-methyltransferase tRNA methyltransferase; methylates the N-1 position of guanine at position 9 in tRNAs; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; member of the SPOUT (SpoU-TrmD) methyltransferase family; human ortholog TRMT10A plays a role in the pathogenesis of microcephaly and early onset diabetes; an 18-mer originates from the TRM10 locus; genetic analysis shows the 18-mer is the translation regulator
YML014W TRM9 KTI1 | tRNA (carboxymethyluridine(34)-5-O)-methyltransferase tRNA methyltransferase; catalyzes modification of wobble bases in tRNA anticodons to 2, 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine and 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine; may act as part of a complex with Trm112p; deletion mutation increases translational infidelity, including amino acid misincorporation and -1 frameshifting, and also confers resistance to zymocin; null mutant displays activation of stress responses
YHR070W TRM5 tRNA (guanine) methyltransferase tRNA(m(1)G37)methyltransferase; methylates a tRNA base adjacent to the anticodon that has a role in prevention of frameshifting; localized to both cytoplasm and mitochondria, and modifies both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs; mutations in human ortholog TRMT5 are associated with skeletal muscle respiratory chain deficiencies, and trm5 mutations analogous to disease mutations decrease respiration
YJL087C TRL1 LIG1 | RLG1 | tRNA ligase tRNA ligase; required for tRNA splicing and for both splicing and translation of HAC1 mRNA in the UPR; has phosphodiesterase, polynucleotide kinase, and ligase activities; localized at the inner nuclear envelope and cytoplasm
YGR024C THG1 tRNA guanylyltransferase tRNAHis guanylyltransferase; adds a guanosine residue to the 5' end of tRNAH is after transcription and RNase P cleavage; can also catalyze reverse (3'-5') polymerization with certain substrates in a template-dependent reaction; couples nuclear division and migration to cell budding and cytokinesis; essential enzyme conserved among eukaryotes
YKR079C TRZ1 tRNase Z tRNA 3'-end processing endonuclease tRNase Z; also localized to mitochondria and interacts genetically with Rex2 exonuclease; homolog of the human candidate prostate cancer susceptibility gene ELAC2
YOL102C TPT1 tRNA 2'-phosphotransferase tRNA 2'-phosphotransferase that catalyzes final step in tRNA splicing: the transfer of the 2'-PO(4) from the splice junction to NAD(+) to form ADP-ribose 1''-2''cyclic phosphate and nicotinamide
YHR164C DNA2 bifunctional ATP-dependent DNA helicase/ssDNA endodeoxyribonuclease DNA2 | WEB2 Tripartite DNA replication factor; single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase, ATP-dependent nuclease, helicase; tracking protein for flap cleavage during Okazaki fragment maturation; involved in DNA repair/processing of meiotic DNA double strand breaks; component of telomeric chromatin with cell-cycle dependent localization; required for telomerase-dependent telomere synthesis; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress; human homolog DNA2 complements yeast dna2 mutant
YDR050C TPI1 triose-phosphate isomerase TPI1 Triose phosphate isomerase, abundant glycolytic enzyme; mRNA half-life is regulated by iron availability; transcription is controlled by activators Reb1p, Gcr1p, and Rap1p through binding sites in the 5' non-coding region; inhibition of Tpi1p activity by PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) stimulates redox metabolism in respiring cells; E104D mutation in human homolog TPI1 causes a rare autosomal disease; human TPI1 can complement yeast null mutant
YGL073W HSF1 EXA3 | MAS3 | stress-responsive transcription factor HSF1 Trimeric heat shock transcription factor; activates multiple genes in response to highly diverse stresses; recognizes variable heat shock elements (HSEs) consisting of inverted NGAAN repeats; monitors translational status of cell through an RQC (Ribosomal Quality Control)-mediated translation-stress signal; involved in diauxic shift; posttranslationally regulated; human homolog HSF1 with linker region mutations can complement yeast hsf1 mutant
YOL055C THI20 trifunctional hydroxymethylpyrimidine kinase/phosphomethylpyrimidine kinase/thiaminase Trifunctional enzyme of thiamine biosynthesis, degradation and salvage; has hydroxymethylpyrimidine (HMP) kinase, HMP-phosphate (HMP-P) kinase and thiaminase activities; member of a gene family with THI21 and THI22; HMP and HMP-P kinase activity redundant with Thi21p
YPL116W HOS3 histone deacetylase Trichostatin A-insensitive homodimeric histone deacetylase (HDAC); specificity in vitro for histones H3, H4, H2A, and H2B; similar to Hda1p, Rpd3p, Hos1p, and Hos2p; deletion results in increased histone acetylation at rDNA repeats
YBR017C KAP104 Transportin or cytosolic karyopherin beta 2; functions in the rg-nuclear localization signal-mediated nuclear import/reimport of mRNA-binding proteins Nab2p and Hrp1p; regulates asymmetric protein synthesis in daughter cells during mitosis
YMR166C MME1 Transporter of the mitochondrial inner membrane that exports magnesium; involved in mitochondrial Mg2+ homeostasis; has similarity to human mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi carriers
YLL048C YBT1 BAT1 | bile acid-transporting ATPase YBT1 Transporter of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family; involved in bile acid transport; negative regulator of vacuole fusion; regulates release of lumenal Ca2+ stores; similar to mammalian bile transporters; YBT1 has a paralog, VMR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL063C SYO1 Transport adaptor or symportin; facilitates synchronized nuclear coimport of the two 5S-rRNA binding proteins Rpl5p and Rpl11p; binds to nascent Rpl5p during translation; required for biogenesis of the large ribosomal subunit; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus
YKR100C SKG1 YKR099C-A Transmembrane protein with a role in cell wall polymer composition; localizes on inner surface of plasma membrane at bud and in daughter cell; SKG1 has a paralog, AIM20, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR434W GPI17 GPI-anchor transamidase GPI17 Transmembrane protein; subunit of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase complex that adds GPIs to newly synthesized proteins; human PIG-S homolog
YER118C SHO1 osmosensor SHO1 | SSU81 Transmembrane osmosensor for filamentous growth and HOG pathways; involved in activation of the Cdc42p- and MAP kinase-dependent filamentous growth pathway and the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response pathway; phosphorylated by Hog1p; interacts with Pbs2p, Msb2p, Hkr1p, and Ste11p
YLL023C POM33 nucleoporin POM33 Transmembrane nucleoporin; involved in nuclear pore complex (NPC) distribution, assembly or stabilization; highly conserved across species, orthologous to human TMEM33 and paralogous to Per33p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YIL147C SLN1 YPD2 Transmembrane histidine phosphotransfer kinase and osmosensor; regulates MAP kinase cascade; transmembrane protein with an intracellular kinase domain that signals to Ypd1p and Ssk1p, thereby forming a phosphorelay system similar to bacterial two-component regulators
YDR172W SUP35 eRF3 | GST1 | PNM2 | [PSI(+)] | [PSI] | SAL3 | SUF12 | SUP2 | SUP36 | translation termination factor GTPase eRF3 Translation termination factor eRF3; has a role in mRNA deadenylation and decay; altered protein conformation creates the [PSI(+)] prion that modifies cellular fitness, alters translational fidelity by affecting reading frame selection, and results in a nonsense suppressor phenotype; many stress-response genes are repressed in the presence of [PSI(+)]
YPR041W TIF5 SUI5 | translation initiation factor eIF5 Translation initiation factor eIF5; functions both as a GTPase-activating protein to mediate hydrolysis of ribosome-bound GTP and as a GDP dissociation inhibitor to prevent recycling of eIF2
YAL035W FUN12 eIF5B | translation initiation factor eIF5B | yIF2 Translation initiation factor eIF5B; GTPase that promotes Met-tRNAiMet binding to ribosomes and ribosomal subunit joining; promotes GTP-dependent maturation of 18S rRNA by Nob1p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; homolog of bacterial IF2
YGR162W TIF4631 eiF4G1 | translation initiation factor eIF4G Translation initiation factor eIF4G; subunit of the mRNA cap-binding protein complex (eIF4F) that also contains eIF4E (Cdc33p); interacts with Pab1p and with eIF4A (Tif1p); also has a role in biogenesis of the large ribosomal subunit; TIF4631 has a paralog, TIF4632, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL049C TIF4632 eIF4G2 | translation initiation factor eIF4G Translation initiation factor eIF4G; subunit of the mRNA cap-binding protein complex (eIF4F) that also contains eIF4E (Cdc33p); associates with the poly(A)-binding protein Pab1p, also interacts with eIF4A (Tif1p); TIF4632 has a paralog, TIF4631, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR163C TIF3 eIF4B | RBL3 | STM1 Translation initiation factor eIF-4B; contains an RNA recognition motif and binds to single-stranded RNA; has RNA annealing activity; interacts with Rps20p at the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit and alters the structure of the mRNA entry channel
YJL138C TIF2 eIF4A | translation initiation factor eIF4A Translation initiation factor eIF4A; DEA(D/H)-box RNA helicase that couples ATPase activity to RNA binding and unwinding; forms a dumbbell structure of two compact domains connected by a linker; interacts with eIF4G; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TIF2 has a paralog, TIF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR059W TIF1 eIF4A | translation initiation factor eIF4A Translation initiation factor eIF4A; DEA(D/H)-box RNA helicase that couples ATPase activity to RNA binding and unwinding; forms a dumbbell structure of two compact domains connected by a linker; interacts with eIF4G; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TIF1 has a paralog, TIF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR260C TIF11 Translation initiation factor eIF1A; essential protein that forms a complex with Sui1p (eIF1) and the 40S ribosomal subunit and scans for the start codon; C-terminus associates with Fun12p (eIF5B); N terminus interacts with eIF2 and eIF3
YJR047C ANB1 eIF5A | eIF-5A | HYP1 | TIF51B | translation elongation factor eIF-5A Translation elongation factor eIF-5A; previously thought to function in translation initiation; undergoes an essential hypusination modification; expressed under anaerobic conditions; ANB1 has a paralog, HYP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human EIF5A complements the inviability of the yeast hyp2 anb1 double null mutant
YLR249W YEF3 eEF3 | EF-3 | TEF3 | translation elongation factor EF-3 Translation elongation factor 3; contains two ABC cassettes; binds and hydrolyzes ATP; YEF3 has a paralog, HEF3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR293C SSD1 CLA1 | MCS1 | mRNA-binding translational repressor SSD1 | RLT1 | SRK1 Translational repressor with a role in polar growth and wall integrity; regulated by Cbk1p phosphorylation to effect bud-specific translational control and localization of specific mRNAs; interacts with TOR pathway components; contains a functional N-terminal nuclear localization sequence and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling appears to be critical to Ssd1p function
YBR118W TEF2 eEF1A | EF-1 alpha | translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha Translational elongation factor EF-1 alpha; GTP-bound active form, binds to and delivers aminoacylated tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes for elongation of nascent polypeptides; moonlighting function as an actin binding and bundling protein; association with GTPase Rho1p on the vacuolar membrane may facilitate F-actin remodeling; involved in tRNA re-export from the nucleus; Tef2p-RFP levels increase during replicative aging
YPR080W TEF1 eEF1A | EF-1 alpha | translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha Translational elongation factor EF-1 alpha; GTP-bound active form, binds to and delivers aminoacylated tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes for elongation of nascent polypeptides; moonlighting function as an actin binding and bundling protein; association with GTPase Rho1p on the vacuolar membrane may facilitate F-actin remodeling; involved in tRNA re-export from the nucleus
YNL255C GIS2 mRNA-binding translational activator GIS2 Translational activator for mRNAs with internal ribosome entry sites; associates with polysomes and binds to a specific subset of mRNAs; localizes to RNA processing bodies (P bodies) and to stress granules; may have a role in translation regulation under stress conditions; ortholog of human ZNF9/CNBP, a gene involved in myotonic dystrophy type 2
YBR117C TKL2 transketolase TKL2 Transketolase; catalyzes conversion of xylulose-5-phosphate and ribose-5-phosphate to sedoheptulose-7-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway; needed for synthesis of aromatic amino acids; TKL2 has a paralog, TKL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR074C TKL1 transketolase TKL1 Transketolase; catalyzes conversion of xylulose-5-phosphate and ribose-5-phosphate to sedoheptulose-7-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway; needed for synthesis of aromatic amino acids; TKL1 has a paralog, TKL2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR162C DNF3 aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type ATPase DNF3 Trans-golgi network aminophospholipid translocase (flippase); type 4 P-type ATPase; involved in phospholipid translocation, contributing to the maintenance of membrane lipid asymmetry in post-Golgi secretory vesicles; role in protein trafficking between the Golgi and endosomal system; localizes to the trans-Golgi network; localizes to the shmoo tip where it has a redundant role in the cellular response to mating pheromone
YAL026C DRS2 aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type ATPase DRS2 | FUN38 | SWA3 Trans-golgi network aminophospholipid translocase (flippase); maintains membrane lipid asymmetry in post-Golgi secretory vesicles; contributes to clathrin-coated vesicle formation, endocytosis, protein trafficking between the Golgi and endosomal system and the cellular response to mating pheromone; autoinhibited by its C-terminal tail; localizes to the trans-Golgi network; mutations in human homolog ATP8B1 result in liver disease
YDL020C RPN4 SON1 | stress-regulated transcription factor RPN4 | UFD5 Transcription factor that stimulates expression of proteasome genes; Rpn4p levels are in turn regulated by the 26S proteasome in a negative feedback control mechanism; RPN4 is transcriptionally regulated by various stress responses; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YGL013C PDR1 AMY1 | ANT1 | BOR2 | CYH3 | drug-responsive transcription factor PDR1 | NRA2 | SMR2 | TIL1 | TPE1 | TPE3 Transcription factor that regulates the pleiotropic drug response; zinc cluster protein that is a master regulator involved in recruiting other zinc cluster proteins to pleiotropic drug response elements (PDREs) to fine tune the regulation of multidrug resistance genes; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; PDR1 has a paralog, PDR3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML081W TDA9 AAF1 Transcription factor that regulates acetate production; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus; null mutant is sensitive to expression of the top1-T722A allele; not an essential gene; TDA9 has a paralog, RSF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR146C SWI5 DNA-binding transcription factor SWI5 Transcription factor that recruits Mediator and Swi/Snf complexes; activates transcription of genes expressed at the M/G1 phase boundary and in G1 phase; required for expression of the HO gene controlling mating type switching; localization to nucleus occurs during G1 and appears to be regulated by phosphorylation by Cdc28p kinase; SWI5 has a paralog, ACE2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR084W STE12 homeodomain family transcription factor STE12 Transcription factor that is activated by a MAPK signaling cascade; activates genes involved in mating or pseudohyphal/invasive growth pathways; cooperates with Tec1p transcription factor to regulate genes specific for invasive growth
YPR086W SUA7 SOH4 | TFIIB | transcription factor TFIIB Transcription factor TFIIB; a general transcription factor required for transcription initiation and start site selection by RNA polymerase II
YLR266C PDR8 Transcription factor; targets include ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, major facilitator superfamily transporters, and other genes involved in the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) phenomenon; PDR8 has a paralog, YRR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR083W TEC1 ROC1 Transcription factor targeting filamentation genes and Ty1 expression; Ste12p activation of most filamentation gene promoters depends on Tec1p and Tec1p transcriptional activity is dependent on its association with Ste12p; binds to TCS elements upstream of filamentation genes, which are regulated by Tec1p/Ste12p/Dig1p complex; competes with Dig2p for binding to Ste12p/Dig1p; positive regulator of chronological life span; TEA/ATTS DNA-binding domain family member
YLR131C ACE2 DNA-binding transcription factor ACE2 Transcription factor required for septum destruction after cytokinesis; phosphorylation by Cbk1p blocks nuclear exit during M/G1 transition, causing localization to daughter cell nuclei, and also increases Ace2p activity; phosphorylation by Cdc28p and Pho85p prevents nuclear import during cell cycle phases other than cytokinesis; part of RAM network that regulates cellular polarity and morphogenesis; ACE2 has a paralog, SWI5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCL055W KAR4 Transcription factor required for response to pheromones; also required during meiosis; exists in two forms, a slower-migrating form more abundant during vegetative growth and a faster-migrating form induced by pheromone
YGL254W FZF1 NRC299 | RSU1 | SUL1 Transcription factor involved in sulfite metabolism; sole identified regulatory target is SSU1; overexpression suppresses sulfite-sensitivity of many unrelated mutants due to hyperactivation of SSU1, contains five zinc fingers; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR164C MSS11 Transcription factor; involved in regulation of invasive growth and starch degradation; controls the activation of FLO11 and STA2 in response to nutritional signals; forms a heterodimer with Flo8p that interacts with the Swi/Snf complex during transcriptional activation of FLO1, FLO11, and STA1
YDL056W MBP1 transcription factor MBP1 Transcription factor; involved in regulation of cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase, forms a complex with Swi6p that binds to MluI cell cycle box regulatory element in promoters of DNA synthesis genes
YHR178W STB5 Transcription factor; involved in regulating multidrug resistance and oxidative stress response; forms a heterodimer with Pdr1p; contains a Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc finger domain that interacts with a pleiotropic drug resistance element in vitro
YPL133C RDS2 Transcription factor involved in regulating gluconeogenesis; also involved in the regulation of glyoxylate cycle genes; member of the zinc cluster family of proteins; confers resistance to ketoconazole
YMR042W ARG80 ARGR1 | ARGRI Transcription factor involved in regulating arginine-responsive genes; acts with Arg81p and Arg82p
YOL108C INO4 Transcription factor involved in phospholipid synthesis; required for derepression of inositol-choline-regulated genes involved in phospholipid synthesis; forms a complex, with Ino2p, that binds the inositol-choline-responsive element through a basic helix-loop-helix domain
YGL071W AFT1 DNA-binding transcription factor AFT1 | RCS1 Transcription factor involved in iron utilization and homeostasis; binds consensus site PyPuCACCCPu and activates transcription in response to changes in iron availability; in iron-replete conditions localization is regulated by Grx3p, Grx4p, and Fra2p, and promoter binding is negatively regulated via Grx3p-Grx4p binding; AFT1 has a paralog, AFT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YGL035C MIG1 CAT4 | SSN1 | TDS22 | transcription factor MIG1 Transcription factor involved in glucose repression; sequence specific DNA binding protein containing two Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs; regulated by the SNF1 kinase and the GLC7 phosphatase; regulates filamentous growth along with Mig2p in response to glucose depletion; activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization, shuttling between cytosol and nucleus depending on external glucose levels and its phosphorylation state
YMR043W MCM1 FUN80 | transcription factor MCM1 Transcription factor; involved in cell-type-specific transcription and pheromone response; plays a central role in the formation of both repressor and activator complexes; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YPR186C PZF1 TFC2 Transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA); essential DNA binding protein required for transcription of 5S rRNA by RNA polymerase III; not involved in transcription of other RNAP III genes; nine conserved zinc fingers; may also bind 5S rRNA
YDR081C PDC2 Transcription factor for thiamine-regulated genes; required for expression of the two isoforms of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC1 and PDC5) along with thiamine biosynthetic genes; binds a DNA sequence in the PDC5 promoter; mutant fails to grow on 2% glucose and thus is scored as inviable under standard conditions
YMR172W HOT1 Transcription factor for glycerol biosynthetic genes; required for the transient induction of glycerol biosynthetic genes GPD1 and GPP2 in response to high osmolarity; targets Hog1p to osmostress responsive promoters; has similarity to Msn1p and Gcr1p
YDR463W STP1 BAP1 | SSY2 Transcription factor; contains a N-terminal regulatory motif (RI) that acts as a cytoplasmic retention determinant and as an Asi dependent degron in the nucleus; undergoes proteolytic processing by SPS (Ssy1p-Ptr3p-Ssy5p)-sensor component Ssy5p in response to extracellular amino acids; activates transcription of amino acid permease genes and may have a role in tRNA processing; STP1 has a paralog, STP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR123C INO2 DIE1 | SCS1 Transcription factor; component of the heteromeric Ino2p/Ino4p basic helix-loop-helix transcription activator that binds inositol/choline-responsive elements (ICREs), required for derepression of phospholipid biosynthetic genes in response to inositol depletion; involved in diauxic shift
YOL067C RTG1 Transcription factor (bHLH) involved in interorganelle communication; contributes to communication between mitochondria, peroxisomes, and nucleus; target of Hog1p; activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization
YIL119C RPI1 Transcription factor, allelic differences between S288C and Sigma1278b; mediates fermentation stress tolerance by modulating cell wall integrity; overexpression suppresses heat shock sensitivity of wild-type RAS2 overexpression and also suppresses cell lysis defect of mpk1 mutation; allele from S288c can confer fMAPK pathway independent transcription of FLO11; S288C and Sigma1278b alleles differ in number of tandem repeats within ORF
YNL027W CRZ1 DNA-binding transcription factor CRZ1 | HAL8 | TCN1 Transcription factor, activates transcription of stress response genes; nuclear localization is positively regulated by calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation; rapidly localizes to the nucleus under blue light stress; can be activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization in response to calcium
YHR006W STP2 Transcription factor; activated by proteolytic processing in response to signals from the SPS sensor system for external amino acids; activates transcription of amino acid permease genes; STP2 has a paralog, STP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL160W ELF1 Transcription elongation factor with a conserved zinc finger domain; implicated in the maintenance of proper chromatin structure in actively transcribed regions; deletion inhibits Brome mosaic virus (BMV) gene expression
YLR182W SWI6 PSL8 | SDS11 | transcriptional regulator SWI6 Transcription cofactor; forms complexes with Swi4p and Mbp1p to regulate transcription at the G1/S transition; involved in meiotic gene expression; also binds Stb1p to regulate transcription at START; cell wall stress induces phosphorylation by Mpk1p, which regulates Swi6p localization; required for the unfolded protein response, independently of its known transcriptional coactivators
YDR448W ADA2 chromatin-binding transcription regulator ADA2 | SWI8 Transcription coactivator; component of the ADA and SAGA transcriptional adaptor/HAT (histone acetyltransferase) complexes
YDR310C SUM1 Transcriptional repressor that regulates middle-sporulation genes; required for mitotic repression of middle sporulation-specific genes; also acts as general replication initiation factor; involved in telomere maintenance, chromatin silencing; regulated by pachytene checkpoint
YKL032C IXR1 DNA-binding transcription repressor IXR1 | ORD1 Transcriptional repressor that regulates hypoxic genes during normoxia; involved in the aerobic repression of genes such as COX5b, TIR1, and HEM13; binds DNA intrastrand cross-links formed by cisplatin; HMG (high mobility group box) domain containing protein which binds and bends cisplatin-modified DNA, blocking excision repair; IXR1 has a paralog, ABF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR043C NRG1 transcriptional regulator NRG1 Transcriptional repressor; recruits the Cyc8p-Tup1p complex to promoters; mediates glucose repression and negatively regulates a variety of processes including filamentous growth and alkaline pH response; activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization in response to low glucose
YBR066C NRG2 Transcriptional repressor; mediates glucose repression and negatively regulates filamentous growth; activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization in response to low glucose
YIL101C XBP1 Transcriptional repressor; binds promoter sequences of cyclin genes, CYS3, and SMF2; not expressed during log phase of growth, but induced by stress or starvation during mitosis, and late in meiosis; represses 15% of all yeast genes as cells transition to quiescence; important for maintaining G1 arrest and for longevity of quiescent cells; member of Swi4p/Mbp1p family; phosphorylated by Cdc28p; relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YOR140W SFL1 Transcriptional repressor and activator; involved in repression of flocculation-related genes, and activation of stress responsive genes; has direct role in INO1 transcriptional memory; negatively regulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A subunit Tpk2p; premature stop codon (C1430T, Q477-stop) in SK1 background is linked to the aggressively invasive phenotype of SK1 relative to BY4741 (S288C)
YMR070W MOT3 [MOT3] | [MOT3+] | ROX7 Transcriptional repressor, activator; role in cellular adjustment to osmotic stress including modulation of mating efficiency; involved in repression of subset of hypoxic genes by Rox1p, repression of several DAN/TIR genes during aerobic growth, ergosterol biosynthetic genes in response to hyperosmotic stress; contributes to recruitment of Tup1p-Cyc8p general repressor to promoters; relocalizes to cytosol under hypoxia; forms [MOT3+] prion under anaerobic conditions
YER028C MIG3 Transcriptional regulator; partially nonfunctional in S288C strains but has a major role in catabolite repression and ethanol response in some other strains; involved in response to toxic agents; phosphorylation by Snf1p or the Mec1p pathway inactivates Mig3p, allowing induction of damage response genes
YEL007W MIT1 TOS9 Transcriptional regulator of pseudohyphal growth; protein with sequence similarity to S. pombe gti1+ (gluconate transport inducer 1) and C. albicans Wor1
YHL020C OPI1 transcriptional regulator OPI1 Transcriptional regulator of a variety of genes; phosphorylation by protein kinase A stimulates Opi1p function in negative regulation of phospholipid biosynthetic genes; involved in telomere maintenance; null exhibits disrupted mitochondrial metabolism and low cardiolipin content, strongly correlated with overproduction of inositol; binds to phosphatidic acid
YML051W GAL80 transcription regulator GAL80 Transcriptional regulator involved in the repression of GAL genes; involved in the repression of GAL genes in the absence of galactose; inhibits transcriptional activation by Gal4p; inhibition relieved by Gal3p or Gal1p binding
YBR239C ERT1 Transcriptional regulator; involved in regulation of gluconeogenesis and fermentable carbon utilization; GFP-fusion protein localizes to cytoplasm, nucleus; null mutation affects periodicity of transcriptional and metabolic oscillation; plays role in restricting Ty1 transposition; member of the zinc cluster family of proteins, similar to Rds2p
YDR009W GAL3 transcriptional regulator GAL3 Transcriptional regulator; involved in activation of the GAL genes in response to galactose; forms a complex with Gal80p to relieve Gal80p inhibition of Gal4p; binds galactose and ATP but does not have galactokinase activity; GAL3 has a paralog, GAL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR039C SUB1 chromatin-binding transcription coactivator SUB1 | TSP1 Transcriptional regulator; facilitates elongation through factors that modify RNAP II; role in peroxide resistance involving Rad2p; role in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) of ds breaks in plasmid DNA, but not chromosomal DNA; role in the hyperosmotic stress response through polymerase recruitment at RNAP II and RNAP III genes; negatively regulates sporulation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; functionally complemented by human SUB1 (PC4)
YOR230W WTM1 transcriptional modulator Transcriptional modulator; involved in regulation of meiosis, silencing, and expression of RNR genes; required for nuclear localization of the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit Rnr2p and Rnr4p; contains WD repeats
YOR229W WTM2 transcriptional modulator Transcriptional modulator; involved in regulation of meiosis, silencing, and expression of RNR genes; involved in response to replication stress; contains WD repeats; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; WTM2 has a paralog, UME1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNR009W NRM1 Transcriptional co-repressor of MBF-regulated gene expression; Nrm1p associates stably with promoters via MCB binding factor (MBF) to repress transcription upon exit from G1 phase
YOR298C-A MBF1 SUF13 Transcriptional coactivator; bridges the DNA-binding region of Gcn4p and TATA-binding protein Spt15p; suppressor of frameshift mutations; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL043W PHD1 Transcriptional activator that enhances pseudohyphal growth; physically interacts with the Tup1-Cyc8 complex and recruits Tup1p to its targets; regulates expression of FLO11, an adhesin required for pseudohyphal filament formation; similar to StuA, an A. nidulans developmental regulator; potential Cdc28p substrate; PHD1 has a paralog, SOK2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL056W VHR1 Transcriptional activator; required for the vitamin H-responsive element (VHRE) mediated induction of VHT1 (Vitamin H transporter) and BIO5 (biotin biosynthesis intermediate transporter) in response to low biotin concentrations; VHR1 has a paralog, VHR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL005W PDR3 AMY2 | drug-responsive transcription factor PDR3 | TPE2 Transcriptional activator of the pleiotropic drug resistance network; regulates expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters through binding to cis-acting PDRE sites (PDR responsive elements); has a role in response to drugs and organic solvents; post-translationally up-regulated in cells lacking functional mitochondrial genome; involved in diauxic shift; relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; APCC(Cdh1) substrate
YFL021W GAT1 MEP80 | NIL1 Transcriptional activator of nitrogen catabolite repression genes; contains a GATA-1-type zinc finger DNA-binding motif; activity and localization regulated by nitrogen limitation and Ure2p; different translational starts produce two major and two minor isoforms that are differentially regulated and localized
YER040W GLN3 nitrogen-responsive transcriptional regulator GLN3 Transcriptional activator of genes regulated by nitrogen catabolite repression; localization and activity regulated by quality of nitrogen source and Ure2p
YPL075W GCR1 LPF10 | SIT3 | transcription regulator GCR1 Transcriptional activator of genes involved in glycolysis; DNA-binding protein that interacts and functions with the transcriptional activator Gcr2p
YOL116W MSN1 FUP1 | HRB382 | MSS10 | PHD2 Transcriptional activator; involved in regulation of invertase and glucoamylase expression, invasive growth and pseudohyphal differentiation, iron uptake, chromium accumulation, and response to osmotic stress; localizes to the nucleus; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YDR034C LYS14 Transcriptional activator involved in regulating lysine biosynthesis; involved in the regulation of genes of the lysine biosynthesis pathway; requires 2-aminoadipate semialdehyde as co-inducer
YIL154C IMP2' IMP2 Transcriptional activator involved in maintenance of ion homeostasis; also involved in protection against DNA damage caused by bleomycin and other oxidants; contains a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat
YPR008W HAA1 Transcriptional activator involved in adaptation to weak acid stress; activates transcription of TPO2, YRO2, and other genes encoding membrane stress proteins; HAA1 has a paralog, CUP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; relocalizes from cytoplasm to nucleus upon DNA replication stress
YDL170W UGA3 Transcriptional activator for GABA-dependent induction of GABA genes; binds to DNA elements found in the promoters of target genes and increases their expression in the presence of GABA (gamma-aminobutyrate); zinc finger transcription factor of the Zn(2)-Cys(6) binuclear cluster domain type; localized to the nucleus; examples of GABA genes include UGA1, UGA2, and UGA4
YOR372C NDD1 Transcriptional activator essential for nuclear division; localized to the nucleus; essential component of the mechanism that activates the expression of a set of late-S-phase-specific genes; turnover is tightly regulated during cell cycle and in response to DNA damage
YKL015W PUT3 Transcriptional activator; binds specific gene recruitment sequences and is required for DNA zip code-mediated targeting of genes to nuclear periphery; regulates proline utilization genes, constitutively binds PUT1 and PUT2 promoters as a dimer, undergoes conformational change to form active state; binds other promoters only under activating conditions; differentially phosphorylated in presence of different nitrogen sources; has a Zn(2)-Cys(6) binuclear cluster domain
YGR043C NQM1 sedoheptulose-7-phosphate:D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate transaldolase NQM1 Transaldolase of unknown function; transcription is repressed by Mot1p and induced by alpha-factor and during diauxic shift; NQM1 has a paralog, TAL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR354C TAL1 sedoheptulose-7-phosphate:D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate transaldolase TAL1 Transaldolase, enzyme in the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway; converts sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to erythrose 4-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate; TAL1 has a paralog, NQM1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER175C TMT1 TAM1 Trans-aconitate methyltransferase; cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the methyl esterification of 3-isopropylmalate, an intermediate of the leucine biosynthetic pathway, and trans-aconitate, which inhibits the citric acid cycle
YBR155W CNS1 HSP70/90 family co-chaperone CNS1 TPR-containing co-chaperone; binds both Hsp82p (Hsp90) and Ssa1p (Hsp70); stimulates ATPase activity of Ssa1p; ts mutants reduce Hsp82p function, overexpression suppresses phenotypes of HSP82 ts allele and cpr7 deletion; human homolog TTC4 complements yeast cns1 mutant
YOL006C TOP1 DNA topoisomerase 1 | MAK1 | MAK17 Topoisomerase I; nuclear enzyme that relieves torsional strain in DNA by cleaving and re-sealing the phosphodiester backbone; relaxes both positively and negatively supercoiled DNA; functions in replication, transcription, and recombination; role in processing ribonucleoside monophosphates in genomic DNA into irreversible single-strand breaks; enzymatic activity and interaction with Nsr1p are negatively regulated by polyphosphorylation
YNL088W TOP2 DNA topoisomerase 2 | TOR3 | TRF3 Topoisomerase II; relieves torsional strain in DNA by cleaving and re-sealing phosphodiester backbone of both positively and negatively supercoiled DNA; cleaves complementary strands; localizes to axial cores in meiosis; required for replication slow zone (RSZ) breakage following Mec1p inactivation; human homolog TOP2A implicated in cancers, and can complement yeast null mutant
YOR074C CDC21 CRT9 | thymidylate synthase | TMP1 | YOR29-25 Thymidylate synthase; required for de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides; expression is induced at G1/S; human homolog TYMSOS can complement yeast cdc21 temperature-sensitive mutant at restrictive temperature
YIL078W THS1 threonine--tRNA ligase THS1 Threonyl-tRNA synthetase; essential cytoplasmic protein; human homolog TARS can complement yeast null mutant
YCR053W THR4 threonine synthase THR4 Threonine synthase; conserved protein that catalyzes formation of threonine from O-phosphohomoserine; expression is regulated by the GCN4-mediated general amino acid control pathway
YER086W ILV1 ISO1 | threonine ammonia-lyase ILV1 Threonine deaminase, catalyzes first step in isoleucine biosynthesis; expression is under general amino acid control; ILV1 locus exhibits highly positioned nucleosomes whose organization is independent of known ILV1 regulation
YEL046C GLY1 threonine aldolase GLY1 Threonine aldolase; catalyzes the cleavage of L-allo-threonine and L-threonine to glycine; involved in glycine biosynthesis
YJR043C POL32 DNA polymerase delta subunit POL32 | REV5 Third subunit of DNA polymerase delta; involved in chromosomal DNA replication; required for error-prone DNA synthesis in the presence of DNA damage and processivity; forms a complex with Rev3p, Rev7p and Pol31p; interacts with Hys2p, PCNA (Pol30p), and Pol1p
YBR278W DPB3 DNA polymerase epsilon noncatalytic subunit Third-largest subunit of DNA polymerase II (DNA polymerase epsilon); required to maintain fidelity of chromosomal replication and also for inheritance of telomeric silencing; stabilizes the interaction of Pol epsilon with primer-template DNA, positively affecting the processivity of the polymerase and exonuclease activities of Pol epsilon; mRNA abundance peaks at the G1/S boundary of the cell cycle; DPB3 has a paralog, DLS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR285W RDL1 thiosulfate sulfurtransferase RDL1 Thiosulfate sulfurtransferase; contains a rhodanese-like domain; localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; similar to the human TSTD gene
YML028W TSA1 cTPxI | thioredoxin peroxidase TSA1 | TPX1 | ZRG14 Thioredoxin peroxidase; acts as both ribosome-associated and free cytoplasmic antioxidant; self-associates to form high-molecular weight chaperone complex under oxidative stress; chaperone activity essential for growth in zinc deficiency; required for telomere length maintenance; binds and modulates Cdc19p activity; protein abundance increases, forms cytoplasmic foci during DNA replication stress; TSA1 has a paralog, TSA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR109W AHP1 cTPxIII | thioredoxin peroxidase AHP1 Thiol-specific peroxiredoxin; reduces hydroperoxides to protect against oxidative damage; function in vivo requires covalent conjugation to Urm1p
YIR037W HYR1 GPX3 | ORP1 | peroxiredoxin HYR1 Thiol peroxidase; functions as a hydroperoxide receptor to sense intracellular hydroperoxide levels and transduce a redox signal to the Yap1p transcription factor; HYR1 has a paralog, GPX1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR143C THI80 thiamine diphosphokinase Thiamine pyrophosphokinase; phosphorylates thiamine to produce the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate (thiamine diphosphate)
YPL214C THI6 bifunctional hydroxyethylthiazole kinase/thiamine-phosphate diphosphorylase Thiamine-phosphate diphosphorylase and hydroxyethylthiazole kinase; required for thiamine biosynthesis; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern
YGR246C BRF1 PCF4 | TDS4 | TFIIIB70 | transcription factor TFIIIB subunit BRF1 TFIIIB B-related factor; one of three subunits of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor TFIIIB, binds TFIIIC and TBP and recruits RNA pol III to promoters, amino-terminal half is homologous to TFIIB; mutations in human homolog are associated with autosomal recessive cerebellar-facial-dental syndrome
YGR186W TFG1 RAP74 | SSU71 | transcription factor IIF subunit TFG1 TFIIF (Transcription Factor II) largest subunit; involved in both transcription initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II; homologous to human RAP74
YKR062W TFA2 transcription factor TFIIE subunit TFA2 TFIIE small subunit; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation
YKL028W TFA1 transcription factor TFIIE subunit TFA1 TFIIE large subunit; involved in recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the promoter, activation of TFIIH, and promoter opening
YGR274C TAF1 KAT4 | TAF130 | TAF145 | TafII130 | TafII145 TFIID subunit, involved in RNA pol II transcription initiation; possesses in vitro histone acetyltransferase activity but its role in vivo appears to be minor; involved in promoter binding and G1/S progression; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YMR227C TAF7 TAF67 | TafII67 TFIID subunit (67 kDa); involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation
YML114C TAF8 TAF65 | TafII65 TFIID subunit (65 kDa); involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation
YPL011C TAF3 TAF47 | TafII47 TFIID subunit (47 kDa); involved in promoter binding and RNA polymerase II transcription initiation
YML098W TAF13 FUN81 | TAF19 | TafII19 TFIID subunit (19 kDa); involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation, similar to histone H4 with atypical histone fold motif of Spt3-like transcription factors
YCR042C TAF2 TAF150 | TafII150 | TSM1 TFIID subunit (150 kDa); involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation
YKL058W TOA2 transcription initiation factor IIA subunit gamma TFIIA small subunit; involved in transcriptional activation, acts as antirepressor or as coactivator; required, along with Toa1p, for ribosomal protein gene transcription in vivo; homologous to smallest subunit of human and Drosophila TFIIA; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBL102W SFT2 Tetra-spanning membrane protein found mostly in the late Golgi; non-essential; can suppress some sed5 alleles; may be part of the transport machinery, but precise function is unknown; similar to mammalian syntaxin 5
YKL152C GPM1 phosphoglycerate mutase GPM1 Tetrameric phosphoglycerate mutase; mediates the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate during glycolysis and the reverse reaction during gluconeogenesis
YLR259C HSP60 chaperone ATPase HSP60 | CPN60 | MIF4 | MNA2 Tetradecameric mitochondrial chaperonin; required for ATP-dependent folding of precursor polypeptides and complex assembly; prevents aggregation and mediates protein refolding after heat shock; role in mtDNA transmission; phosphorylated
YPL128C TBF1 LPI16 Telobox-containing general regulatory factor; binds TTAGGG repeats within subtelomeric anti-silencing regions (STARs), blocking silent chromatin propagation; binds majority of snoRNA gene promoters, required for full snoRNA expression; caps DSB flanked by long T2AG3 repeats and blocks checkpoint activation
YER148W SPT15 BTF1 | TATA-binding protein | TBP | TBP1 TATA-binding protein (TBP); general transcription factor that interacts with other factors to form the preinitiation complex at promoters; essential for viability, highly conserved; yeast gene can complement mutations in human homolog TBP
YNL233W BNI4 Targeting subunit for Glc7p protein phosphatase; localized to the bud neck, required for localization of chitin synthase III to the bud neck via interaction with the chitin synthase III regulatory subunit Skt5p; phosphorylation by Slt2p and Kss1p involved in regulating Bni4p in septum assembly
YOL044W PEX15 PAS21 Tail-anchored type II integral peroxisomal membrane protein; required for peroxisome biogenesis; cells lacking Pex15p mislocalize peroxisomal matrix proteins to cytosol; overexpression results in impaired peroxisome assembly
YBR016W Tail-anchored plasma membrane protein with a conserved CYSTM module; predicted to be palmitoylated; has similarity to hydrophilins, which are involved in the adaptive response to hyperosmotic conditions; YBR016W has a paralog, YDL012C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL012C Tail-anchored plasma membrane protein with a conserved CYSTM module; possibly involved in response to stress; may contribute to non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) based on ydl012c htz1 double null phenotype; YDL012C has a paralog, YBR016W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR324C FRT1 HPH1 Tail-anchored ER membrane protein of unknown function; substrate of the phosphatase calcineurin; interacts with homolog Frt2p; promotes cell growth in stress conditions, possibly via a role in posttranslational translocation; FRT1 has a paralog, FRT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR126C TPS1 alpha,alpha-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming) TPS1 | BYP1 | CIF1 | FDP1 | GGS1 | GLC6 | TSS1 Synthase subunit of trehalose-6-P synthase/phosphatase complex; synthesizes the storage carbohydrate trehalose, which is critically important for survival of long-term desiccation; also found in a monomeric form; expression is induced by the stress response and repressed by the Ras-cAMP pathway; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress and in response to prolonged exposure to boric acid
YOR191W ULS1 DIS1 | RIS1 | TID4 | translocase ULS1 Swi2/Snf2-related translocase, SUMO-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL); required for maintenance of NHEJ inhibition at telomeres; functions at telomeres to translocate and ubiquitinylate poly-sumoylated Rap1p for proteosomal degradation; plays role in antagonizing silencing during mating-type switching; only known STUbL with a translocase activity; contains RING finger domain; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YDR334W SWR1 chromatin-remodeling protein SWR1 Swi2/Snf2-related ATPase; structural component of the SWR1 complex, which exchanges histone variant H2AZ (Htz1p) for chromatin-bound histone H2A; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; chronological aging factor that mediates lifespan extension by dietary restriction
YDR363W ESC2 Sumo-like domain protein; prevents accumulation of toxic intermediates during replication-associated recombinational repair; roles in silencing, lifespan, chromatid cohesion and the intra-S-phase DNA damage checkpoint; RENi family member
YDR409W SIZ1 SUMO ligase SIZ1 | ULL1 SUMO E3 ligase; promotes attachment of small ubiquitin-related modifier sumo (Smt3p) to primarily cytoplasmic proteins; regulates Rsp5p ubiquitin ligase activity and is in turn itself regulated by Rsp5p; required for sumoylation of septins and histone H3 variant Cse4p, a prerequisite for STUbL-mediated Ub-dependent degradation; localizes to the septin ring; acts as an adapter between E2, Ubc9p and substrates; tends to compensate for survival of DNA damage in absence of Nfi1p
YOR156C NFI1 SIZ2 | SUMO ligase NFI1 SUMO E3 ligase; catalyzes sumoylation of Yku70p/80p and Sir4p promoting telomere anchoring to the nuclear envelope and regulating telomerase activity; DNA-bound form catalyzes a DNA-damaged triggered sumoylation wave resulting in multisite modification of several DNA repair proteins, enhancing interactions between these proteins and accelerating repair; sumoylates Cse4p, a prerequisite for STUbL-mediated Ub-dependent degradation; role in telomere length maintenance
YDL064W UBC9 E2 SUMO-conjugating protein UBC9 SUMO-conjugating enzyme involved in the Smt3p conjugation pathway; nuclear protein required for S- and M-phase cyclin degradation and mitotic control; involved in proteolysis mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex cyclosome (APCC)
YJR137C MET5 ECM17 | sulfite reductase (NADPH) subunit beta Sulfite reductase beta subunit; involved in amino acid biosynthesis, transcription repressed by methionine
YKL086W SRX1 sulfiredoxin Sulfiredoxin; contributes to oxidative stress resistance by reducing cysteine-sulfinic acid groups in the peroxiredoxin Tsa1p, which is formed upon exposure to oxidants; conserved in higher eukaryotes; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL010W PYP1 putative phosphoric monoester hydrolase Sugar alcohol phosphatase; polyol phosphatase that hydrolyzes sorbitol-6-phosphate, ribitol-5-phosphate, and (D)-glycerol-3-phosphate, maintaining phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) activity in the presence of PGI-inhibitory sugar alcohols; expression correlated with growth rate; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; homozygous diploid mutant displays increased glycogen accumulation; member of the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily
YBR006W UGA2 succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)(+)) | UGA5 Succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase; involved in the utilization of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) as a nitrogen source; part of the 4-aminobutyrate and glutamate degradation pathways; localized to the cytoplasm
YHR051W COX6 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VI Subunit VI of cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV); Complex IV is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; expression is regulated by oxygen levels
YMR256C COX7 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VII Subunit VII of cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV); Complex IV is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain
YLR395C COX8 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIII Subunit VIII of cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV); Complex IV is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain
YDL067C COX9 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa Subunit VIIa of cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV); Complex IV is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain
YLR038C COX12 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb Subunit VIb of cytochrome c oxidase; cytochrome c oxidase is also known as respiratory Complex IV and is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; required for assembly of cytochrome c oxidase but not required for activity after assembly; phosphorylated; easily released from the intermembrane space, suggesting a loose association with Complex IV
YIL111W COX5B cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb Subunit Vb of cytochrome c oxidase; cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; Cox5Bp is predominantly expressed during anaerobic growth while its isoform Va (Cox5Ap) is expressed during aerobic growth; COX5B has a paralog, COX5A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL052W COX5A cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va Subunit Va of cytochrome c oxidase; cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; Cox5Ap is predominantly expressed during aerobic growth while its isoform Vb (Cox5Bp) is expressed during anaerobic growth; COX5A has a paralog, COX5B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR295W UAF30 Subunit of UAF (upstream activation factor) complex; UAF is an RNA polymerase I specific transcription stimulatory factor composed of Uaf30p, Rrn5p, Rrn9p, Rrn10p, histones H3 and H4; targeting factor for the UAF that facilitates activation of many rDNA genes; deletion decreases cellular growth rate; UAF30 has a paralog, TRI1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR398W UTP5 Subunit of U3-containing Small Subunit (SSU) processome complex; involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of small ribosomal subunit
YML093W UTP14 Subunit of U3-containing Small Subunit (SSU) processome complex; involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of small ribosomal subunit
YLR409C UTP21 rRNA-processing protein UTP21 Subunit of U3-containing 90S preribosome and SSU processome complexes; involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of small ribosomal subunit; synthetic defect with STI1 Hsp90 cochaperone; human homolog linked to glaucoma; Small Subunit processome is also known as SSU processome
YDR324C UTP4 Subunit of U3-containing 90S preribosome and SSU processome complexes; involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of small ribosomal subunit; member of t-Utp subcomplex involved with transcription of 35S rRNA transcript; Small Subunit processome is also known as SSU processome
YJL035C TAD2 tRNA(adenine34) deaminase Subunit of tRNA-specific adenosine-34 deaminase; forms a heterodimer with Tad3p that converts adenosine to inosine at the wobble position of several tRNAs
YLR316C TAD3 Subunit of tRNA-specific adenosine-34 deaminase; forms a heterodimer with Tad2p that converts adenosine to inosine at the wobble position of several tRNAs
YNL062C GCD10 TRM6 | tRNA 1-methyladenosine methyltransferase subunit GCD10 Subunit of tRNA (1-methyladenosine) methyltransferase with Gcd14p; required for the modification of the adenine at position 58 in tRNAs, especially tRNAi-Met; first identified as a negative regulator of GCN4 expression
YJL125C GCD14 TRM61 | tRNA 1-methyladenosine methyltransferase subunit GCD14 Subunit of tRNA (1-methyladenosine) methyltransferase; required, along with Gcd10p, for the modification of the adenine at position 58 in tRNAs, especially tRNAi-Met; first identified as a negative regulator of GCN4 expression
YJL058C BIT61 Subunit of TORC2 membrane-associated complex; involved in regulation of cell cycle-dependent actin cytoskeletal dynamics during polarized growth and cell wall integrity; BIT61 has a paralog, BIT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR186C KOG1 LAS24 | ubiquitin-binding TORC1 subunit KOG1 Subunit of TORC1; TORC1 is a rapamycin-sensitive complex involved in growth control that contains Tor1p or Tor2p, Lst8p and Tco89p; contains four HEAT repeats and seven WD-40 repeats; may act as a scaffold protein to couple TOR and its effectors
YPL180W TCO89 Subunit of TORC1 (Tor1p or Tor2p-Kog1p-Lst8p-Tco89p); regulates global H3K56ac; TORC1 complex regulates growth in response to nutrient availability; cooperates with Ssd1p in the maintenance of cellular integrity; deletion strains are hypersensitive to rapamycin
YDR138W HPR1 TRF1 Subunit of THO/TREX complexes; this complex couple transcription elongation with mitotic recombination and with mRNA metabolism and export, subunit of an RNA Pol II complex; regulates lifespan; involved in telomere maintenance; similar to Top1p
YHR001W-A QCR10 ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase subunit 10 Subunit of the ubiqunol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase complex; this complex comprises part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; members include Cobp, Rip1p, Cyt1p, Cor1p, Qcr2p, Qcr6p, Qcr7p, Qcr8p, Qcr9p, and Qcr10p and comprises part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain
YLR105C SEN2 tRNA splicing endonuclease subunit SEN2 Subunit of the tRNA splicing endonuclease; tRNA splicing endonuclease (Sen complex) is composed of Sen2p, Sen15p, Sen34p, and Sen54p; Sen complex also cleaves the CBP1 mRNA at the mitochondrial surface; Sen2p contains the active site for tRNA 5' splice site cleavage and has similarity to Sen34p and to Archaeal tRNA splicing endonuclease;
YMR059W SEN15 Subunit of the tRNA splicing endonuclease; tRNA splicing endonuclease (Sen complex) is composed of Sen2p, Sen15p, Sen34p, and Sen54p; Sen complex also cleaves the CBP1 mRNA at the mitochondrial surface
YPL083C SEN54 tRNA splicing endonuclease subunit SEN54 Subunit of the tRNA splicing endonuclease; tRNA splicing endonuclease (Sen complex) is composed of Sen2p, Sen15p, Sen34p, and Sen54p; Sen complex also cleaves the CBP1 mRNA at the mitochondrial surface
YGR102C GTF1 glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit F Subunit of the trimeric GatFAB AmidoTransferase(AdT) complex; involved in the formation of Q-tRNAQ; transposon insertion mutant is salt sensitive and null mutant has growth defects; non-tagged protein is detected in purified mitochondria
YMR293C HER2 GEP6 | glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit HER2 | LRC6 | QRS1 | RRG6 Subunit of the trimeric GatFAB AmidoTransferase(AdT) complex; involved in the formation of Q-tRNAQ; required for remodeling of ER caused by Hmg2p overexpression; similar to bacterial GatA glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferase
YBL080C PET112 glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit PET112 Subunit of the trimeric GatFAB AmidoTransferase(AdT) complex; involved in the formation of Q-tRNAQ; mutation is functionally complemented by the bacterial GatB ortholog
YML031W NDC1 Subunit of the transmembrane ring of the nuclear pore complex (NPC); contributes to nucleocytoplasmic transport, NPC biogenesis and spindle pole body duplication; homologous to human NDC1
YLR018C POM34 Subunit of the transmembrane ring of the nuclear pore complex (NPC); contributes to nucleocytoplasmic transport, NPC biogenesis and spindle pole body duplication
YNL139C THO2 LDB5 | RLR1 | ZRG13 Subunit of the THO complex; THO is required for efficient transcription elongation and involved in transcriptional elongation-associated recombination; required for LacZ RNA expression from certain plasmids
YML062C MFT1 MFT52 Subunit of the THO complex; THO is a nuclear complex comprised of Hpr1p, Mft1p, Rlr1p, and Thp2p, that is involved in transcription elongation and mitotic recombination; involved in telomere maintenance
YHR167W THP2 Subunit of the THO and TREX complexes; THO connects transcription elongation and mitotic recombination, and TREX is recruited to activated genes and couples transcription to mRNA export; involved in telomere maintenance
YMR284W YKU70 ATP-dependent DNA helicase YKU70 | HDF1 | KU70 | NES24 Subunit of the telomeric Ku complex (Yku70p-Yku80p); involved in telomere length maintenance, structure and telomere position effect; required for localization of telomerase ribonucleoprotein to nucleus via interaction with the TLC1 guide RNA; relocates to sites of double-strand cleavage to promote nonhomologous end joining during DSB repair
YJL176C SWI3 HAF2 | TYE2 Subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; SWI/SNF regulates transcription by remodeling chromosomes; contains SANT domain that is required for SWI/SNF assembly; is essential for displacement of histone H2A-H2B dimers during ATP-dependent remodeling; required for transcription of many genes, including ADH1, ADH2, GAL1, HO, INO1 and SUC2; relocates to the cytosol under hypoxic conditions
YPL016W SWI1 ADR6 | GAM3 | LPA1 | [SWI(+)] | [SWI+] Subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; regulates transcription by remodeling chromatin; required for transcription of many genes, including ADH1, ADH2, GAL1, HO, INO1 and SUC2; self-assembles to form [SWI+] prion and to alter expression pattern; human homolog ARID1A is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer
YDR073W SNF11 Subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; involved in transcriptional regulation; interacts with a highly conserved 40-residue sequence of Snf2p; relocates to the cytosol under hypoxic conditions
YBR289W SNF5 HAF4 | SWI10 | TYE4 Subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; involved in transcriptional regulation; functions interdependently in transcriptional activation with Snf2p and Snf6p; relocates to the cytosol under hypoxic conditions
YHL025W SNF6 Subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; involved in transcriptional regulation; functions interdependently in transcriptional activation with Snf2p and Snf5p; relocates to the cytosol under hypoxic conditions
YBR283C SSH1 Subunit of the Ssh1 translocon complex; Sec61p homolog involved in co-translational pathway of protein translocation; not essential
YMR176W ECM5 Subunit of the Snt2C complex; physically associates with Snt2p and Rpd3p; along with Snt2p, recruits Rpd3p to a small number of promoters; also colocalizes with Snt2p, independently of Rpd3p, to promoters of stress response genes in response to oxidative stress; contains ATP/GTP-binding site motif A; null mutant exhibits increased cellular volume, large drooping buds with elongated necks; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YER038C KRE29 NSE6 | Smc5-Smc6 complex subunit KRE29 Subunit of the SMC5-SMC6 complex; this complex is involved in removal of X-shaped DNA structures that arise between sister chromatids during DNA replication and repair; heterozygous mutant shows haploinsufficiency in K1 killer toxin resistance
YOL034W SMC5 DNA repair ATPase SMC5 Subunit of the SMC5-SMC6 complex; the SMC5-SMC6 complex plays a key role in the removal of X-shaped DNA structures that arise between sister chromatids during DNA replication and repair; binds single-stranded DNA and has ATPase activity; supports nucleolar function; S. pombe homolog forms a heterodimer with S. pombe Rad18p that is involved in DNA repair
YKL122C SRP21 signal recognition particle subunit SRP21 Subunit of the signal recognition particle (SRP); SRP functions in protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane; not found in mammalian SRP; forms a pre-SRP structure in the nucleolus that is translocated to the cytoplasm
YML105C SEC65 RNA-binding signal recognition particle subunit SEC65 Subunit of the signal recognition particle (SRP); involved in protein targeting to the ER; interacts with Srp54p; homolog of mammalian SRP19
YJR010C-A SPC1 signal peptidase complex subunit SPC1 Subunit of the signal peptidase complex (SPC); SPC cleaves the signal sequence from proteins targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); homolog of the SPC12 subunit of mammalian signal peptidase complex; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDL030W PRP9 SF3a splicing factor complex subunit PRP9 Subunit of the SF3a splicing factor complex; required for spliceosome assembly; acts after the formation of the U1 snRNP-pre-mRNA complex
YDL043C PRP11 RNA11 Subunit of the SF3a splicing factor complex; required for spliceosome assembly
YJL203W PRP21 SPP91 Subunit of the SF3a splicing factor complex; required for spliceosome assembly
YIL112W HOS4 Subunit of the Set3 complex; complex is a meiotic-specific repressor of sporulation specific genes that contains deacetylase activity; potential Cdc28p substrate
YCR033W SNT1 Subunit of the Set3C deacetylase complex; interacts directly with the Set3C subunit, Sif2p; putative DNA-binding protein; mutant has increased aneuploidy tolerance; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YDR086C SSS1 translocon subunit SSS1 Subunit of the Sec61p translocation complex (Sec61p-Sss1p-Sbh1p); this complex forms a channel for passage of secretory proteins through the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and of the Ssh1p complex (Ssh1p-Sbh2p-Sss1p); interacts with Ost4p and Wbp1p
YOR213C SAS5 Subunit of the SAS complex (Sas2p, Sas4p, Sas5p); acetylates free histones and nucleosomes and regulates transcriptional silencing; stimulates Sas2p HAT activity
YDR181C SAS4 Subunit of the SAS complex (Sas2p, Sas4p, Sas5p); acetylates free histones and nucleosomes and regulates transcriptional silencing; required for the HAT activity of Sas2p
YLR055C SPT8 SAGA complex subunit SPT8 Subunit of the SAGA transcriptional regulatory complex; not present in SAGA-like complex SLIK/SALSA; required for SAGA-mediated inhibition at some promoters
YBR081C SPT7 GIT2 | SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex subunit SPT7 Subunit of the SAGA transcriptional regulatory complex; involved in proper assembly of the complex; also present as a C-terminally truncated form in the SLIK/SALSA transcriptional regulatory complex
YOL148C SPT20 ADA5 Subunit of the SAGA transcriptional regulatory complex; involved in maintaining the integrity of the complex; mutant displays reduced transcription elongation in the G-less-based run-on (GLRO) assay
YDR392W SPT3 transcriptional regulator SPT3 Subunit of the SAGA and SAGA-like transcriptional regulatory complexes; interacts with Spt15p to activate transcription of some RNA polymerase II-dependent genes, also functions to inhibit transcription at some promoters; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YPR168W NUT2 MED10 | mediator complex subunit NUT2 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; conserved from yeast to human; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; required for transcriptional activation and has a role in basal transcription; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR443C SSN2 MED13 | NUT8 | RYE3 | SCA1 | SRB9 | SSX5 | UME2 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; required for stable association of Srb10p-Srb11p kinase; essential for transcriptional regulation
YLR071C RGR1 MED14 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; required for glucose repression, HO repression, RME1 repression and sporulation
YER022W SRB4 MED17 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; required for basal RNA polymerase II transcription; homozygosity of the human MED17 L371P mutation is associated with infantile cerebral and cerebellar atrophy with poor myelination
YGL127C SOH1 MED31 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; involved in telomere maintenance; conserved with other metazoan MED31 subunits
YHR041C SRB2 HRS2 | MED20 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; general transcription factor involved in telomere maintenance
YMR112C MED11 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential protein
YDR308C SRB7 MED21 | SSX1 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation; target of the global repressor Tup1p
YGR104C SRB5 MED18 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation; required for proper termination of transcription for some genes; involved in telomere maintenance
YDL005C MED2 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YHR058C MED6 mediator complex subunit MED6 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YCR081W SRB8 GIG1 | MED12 | NUT6 | SSN5 | YCR080W Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation; involved in glucose repression
YBR193C MED8 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation
YOL135C MED7 mediator complex subunit MED7 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation
YBR253W SRB6 MED22 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation
YOR174W MED4 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation
YPR070W MED1 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation
YGL025C PGD1 HRS1 | MED3 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for basal and activated transcription; direct target of Cyc8p-Tup1p transcriptional corepressor
YNL236W SIN4 BEL2 | GAL22 | MED16 | RYE1 | SDI3 | SSF5 | SSN4 | SSX3 | TSF3 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; contributes to both postive and negative transcriptional regulation; dispensible for basal transcription
YNR010W CSE2 MED9 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; component of the Middle domain of mediator; required for regulation of RNA polymerase II activity; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YOL051W GAL11 ABE1 | MED15 | RAR3 | SDS4 | SPT13 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; affects transcription by acting as target of activators and repressors; forms part of the tail domain of mediator
YBL093C ROX3 MED19 | NUT3 | SSN7 | SSX2 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme
YLR016C PML1 Subunit of the RES complex; RES complex is required for nuclear retention of unspliced pre-mRNAs; acts in the same pathway as Pml39p and Mlp1p
YGL174W BUD13 CWC26 Subunit of the RES complex; RES complex is required for nuclear pre-mRNA retention and splicing; involved in bud-site selection; diploid mutants display a unipolar budding pattern instead of the wild-type bipolar pattern due to a specific defect in MATa1 pre-mRNA splicing which leads to haploid gene expression in diploids
YPL024W RMI1 NCE4 Subunit of the RecQ (Sgs1p) - Topo III (Top3p) complex; stimulates superhelical relaxing, DNA catenation/decatenation and ssDNA binding activities of Top3p; involved in response to DNA damage; functions in S phase-mediated cohesion establishment via a pathway involving the Ctf18-RFC complex and Mrc1p; stimulates Top3p DNA catenation/decatenation activity; null mutants display increased rates of recombination and delayed S phase
YGR231C PHB2 prohibitin subunit PHB2 Subunit of the prohibitin complex (Phb1p-Phb2p); prohibitin is a 1.2 MDa ring-shaped inner mitochondrial membrane chaperone that stabilizes newly synthesized proteins; determinant of replicative life span; involved in mitochondrial segregation; prohibitin deficiency induces a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR)
YGR132C PHB1 prohibitin subunit PHB1 Subunit of the prohibitin complex (Phb1p-Phb2p); prohibitin is a 1.2 MDa ring-shaped inner mitochondrial membrane chaperone that stabilizes newly synthesized proteins; determinant of replicative life span; involved in mitochondrial segregation; prohibitin deficiency induces a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR)
YHR118C ORC6 origin recognition complex subunit 6 Subunit of the origin recognition complex (ORC); ORC directs DNA replication by binding to replication origins and is also involved in transcriptional silencing; phosphorylated by Cdc28p; mutation in the human Orc6p is linked to Meier-Gorlin syndrome
YBR060C ORC2 origin recognition complex subunit 2 | RRR1 | SIR5 Subunit of the origin recognition complex (ORC); ORC directs DNA replication by binding to replication origins and is also involved in transcriptional silencing; interacts with Spp1p and with trimethylated histone H3; phosphorylated by Cdc28p
YNL261W ORC5 origin recognition complex subunit 5 Subunit of the origin recognition complex (ORC); ORC directs DNA replication by binding to replication origins and is also involved in transcriptional silencing
YDL232W OST4 olichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycotransferase OST4 Subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex of the ER lumen; complex catalyzes protein asparagine-linked glycosylation; type I membrane protein required for incorporation of Ost3p or Ost6p into the OST complex
YGL022W STT3 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycosyltransferase subunit STT3 Subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex of the ER lumen; complex catalyzes asparagine-linked glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins; forms a subcomplex with Ost3p and Ost4p and is directly involved in catalysis
YJR042W NUP85 RAT9 Subunit of the Nup84p subcomplex of the nuclear pore complex (NPC); contributes to nucleocytoplasmic transport and NPC biogenesis and is involved in establishment of a normal nucleocytoplasmic concentration gradient of the GTPase Gsp1p; also plays roles in several processes that may require localization of genes or chromosomes at the nuclear periphery, including double-strand break repair, transcription and chromatin silencing; homologous to human NUP85 aka NUP75
YDL116W NUP84 Subunit of the Nup84p subcomplex of the nuclear pore complex (NPC); contributes to nucleocytoplasmic transport and NPC biogenesis; also plays roles in several processes that may require localization of genes or chromosomes at the nuclear periphery, including double-strand break repair, transcription and chromatin silencing; homologous to human NUP107
YNL136W EAF7 Subunit of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex; NuA4 acetylates the N-terminal tails of histones H4 and H2A
YJR082C EAF6 Subunit of the NuA4 acetyltransferase complex; this complex acetylates histone H4 and NuA3 acetyltransferase complex that acetylates histone H3
YOR064C YNG1 YOR29-15 Subunit of the NuA3 histone acetyltransferase complex; this complex acetylates histone H3; contains PHD finger domain that interacts with methylated histone H3; shares significant sequence identity with the human candidate tumor suppressor p33-ING1 in C-terminal region
YPR031W NTO1 Subunit of the NuA3 histone acetyltransferase complex; this complex acetylates histone H3; contains PHD finger domain that interacts with methylated histone H3
YJL074C SMC3 cohesin subunit SMC3 Subunit of the multiprotein cohesin complex; required for sister chromatid cohesion in mitotic cells; also required, with Rec8p, for cohesion and recombination during meiosis; phylogenetically conserved SMC chromosomal ATPase family member
YFL008W SMC1 CHL10 | cohesin subunit SMC1 Subunit of the multiprotein cohesin complex; essential protein involved in chromosome segregation and in double-strand DNA break repair; SMC chromosomal ATPase family member, binds DNA with a preference for DNA with secondary structure
YLR115W CFT2 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit CFT2 | YDH1 Subunit of the mRNA cleavage and polyadenlylation factor (CPF); required for pre-mRNA cleavage, polyadenylation and poly(A) site recognition, 43% similarity with the mammalian CPSF-100 protein.
YCL044C MGR1 Subunit of the mitochondrial (mt) i-AAA protease supercomplex; i-AAA degrades misfolded mitochondrial proteins; forms a subcomplex with Mgr3p that binds to substrates to facilitate proteolysis; required for growth of cells lacking mtDNA
YMR115W MGR3 FMP24 Subunit of the mitochondrial (mt) i-AAA protease supercomplex; i-AAA degrades misfolded mitochondrial proteins; forms a subcomplex with Mgr1p that binds to substrates to facilitate proteolysis; required for growth of cells lacking mtDNA
YEL059C-A SOM1 Subunit of the mitochondrial inner membrane peptidase (IMP); IMP is required for maturation of mitochondrial proteins of the intermembrane space; Som1p facilitates cleavage of a subset of substrates; contains twin cysteine-x9-cysteine motifs
YML081C-A ATP18 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit i Subunit of the mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; termed subunit I or subunit j; does not correspond to known ATP synthase subunits in other organisms
YFR049W YMR31 KGD4 | mitochondrial 37S ribosomal protein YMR31 Subunit of the mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase; recruits E3 subunit (Lpd1p) to the E1-E2 (Kgd1p, Kgd2p) core; has similarity to human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRP-S36
YIL125W KGD1 alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase KGD1 | OGD1 Subunit of the mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex; catalyzes a key step in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate to form succinyl-CoA
YOR132W VPS17 PEP21 | retromer subunit VPS17 | VPT3 Subunit of the membrane-associated retromer complex; essential for endosome-to-Golgi retrograde protein transport; peripheral membrane protein that assembles onto the membrane with Vps5p to promote vesicle formation; required for recruiting the retromer complex to the endosome membranes
YHR012W VPS29 PEP11 | retromer subunit VPS29 | VPT6 Subunit of the membrane-associated retromer complex; endosomal protein; essential for endosome-to-Golgi retrograde transport; forms a subcomplex with Vps35p and Vps26p that selects cargo proteins for endosome-to-Golgi retrieval
YKL176C LST4 Subunit of the Lst4p-Lst7p GTPase activating protein complex for Gtr2p; stimulates the GTPase activity of Rag family GTPase Gtr2p, within the context of the Gtr1p-Gtr2p heterodimer, after amino acid stimulation; required for activation of TORC1 in response to amino acid stimulation; recruited to the vacuolar membrane during amino acid starvation and released from the membrane by TORC1; required for the transport of amino acid permease Gap1p from the Golgi to the cell surface
YLR095C IOC2 Subunit of the Isw1b complex; exhibits nucleosome-stimulated ATPase activity and acts within coding regions to coordinate transcription elongation with termination and processing; contains a PHD finger motif; other complex members are Isw1p and Ioc4p
YFR013W IOC3 Subunit of the Isw1a complex; Isw1a has nucleosome-stimulated ATPase activity and represses transcription initiation by specific positioning of a promoter proximal dinucleosome; promotes nucleosome shifts in the 5 prime direction; IOC3 has a paralog, ESC8, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFL013C IES1 Subunit of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YLR052W IES3 Subunit of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex
YML103C NUP188 Subunit of the inner ring of the nuclear pore complex (NPC); contributes to NPC organization and nucleocytoplasmic transport; homologous to human NUP188
YER105C NUP157 Subunit of the inner ring of the nuclear pore complex (NPC); contributes to NPC assembly and tethering of DNA to the nuclear periphery; both Nup170p and NUP157p are similar to human Nup155p; NUP157 has a paralog, NUP170, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR119W ASI1 putative ubiquitin-protein ligase ASI1 Subunit of the inner nuclear membrane Asi ubiquitin ligase complex; the Asi complex targets both misfolded proteins of the inner nuclear membrane-associated degradation (INMAD) pathway and regulators of sterol biosynthesis for ubiquitin-mediated degradation; acts with Asi2p and Asi3p to ensure the fidelity of SPS-sensor signaling by targeting latent unprocessed forms of Stp1p and Stp2p, maintaining the repressed state of gene expression in the absence of inducing amino acids
YNL008C ASI3 putative ubiquitin-protein ligase ASI3 Subunit of the inner nuclear membrane Asi ubiquitin ligase complex; Asi complex targets both misfolded proteins of the inner nuclear membrane-associated degradation (INMAD) pathway and regulators of sterol biosynthesis for ubiquitin-mediated degradation; acts with Asi1p and Asi2p to ensure the fidelity of SPS-sensor signaling by targeting latent unprocessed forms of Stp1p and Stp2p, maintaining the repressed state of gene expression in the absence of inducing amino acids
YJL104W PAM16 import motor complex subunit PAM16 | MIA1 | TIM16 Subunit of the import motor (PAM complex); the PAM complex is a component of the Translocase of the Inner Mitochondrial membrane (TIM23 complex); forms a 1:1 subcomplex with Pam18p and inhibits its cochaperone activity; contains a J-like domain
YEL062W NPR2 nitrogen permease regulating protein NPR2 Subunit of the Iml1p/SEACIT complex; SEACIT (Iml1p-Npr2p-Npr3p) is a subcomplex of the SEA complex, a coatomer-related complex that associates dynamically with the vacuole; Npr2p may have a structural or regulatory role, supporting Iml1p function as a GAP for the Rag family GTPase Gtr1p, and resulting in inhibition of TORC1 signaling in response to amino acid deprivation; SEACIT is required for non-nitrogen-starvation-induced autophagy; homolog of human tumor suppressor NPRL2
YDR080W VPS41 CVT8 | FET2 | SVL2 | VAM2 | VPL20 Subunit of the HOPS endocytic tethering complex; vacuole membrane protein that functions as a Rab GTPase effector, interacting specifically with the GTP-bound conformation of Ypt7p, facilitating tethering, docking and promoting membrane fusion events at the late endosome and vacuole; required for both membrane and protein trafficking; Yck3p-mediated phosphorylation regulates the organization of vacuolar fusion sites
YPL045W VPS16 CVT15 | SVL6 | tethering complex subunit VPS16 | VAM9 | VPT16 Subunit of the HOPS and the CORVET complexes; part of the Class C Vps complex essential for membrane docking and fusion at Golgi-to-endosome and endosome-to-vacuole protein transport stages
YBR215W HPC2 Subunit of the HIR complex; HIR is a nucleosome assembly complex involved in regulation of histone gene transcription; mutants display synthetic defects with subunits of FACT, a complex that allows passage of RNA Pol II through nucleosomes
YBL008W HIR1 Subunit of the HIR complex; HIR is a nucleosome assembly complex involved in regulation of histone gene transcription; contributes to nucleosome formation, heterochromatic gene silencing, and formation of functional kinetochores
YJR140C HIR3 HPC1 Subunit of the HIR complex; a nucleosome assembly complex involved in regulation of histone gene transcription; involved in position-dependent gene silencing and nucleosome reassembly; ortholog of human CABIN1 protein
YLR200W YKE2 GIM1 | PFD6 | tubulin-binding prefolding complex subunit YKE2 Subunit of the heterohexameric Gim/prefoldin protein complex; involved in the folding of alpha-tubulin, beta-tubulin, and actin; prefoldin complex also localizes to chromatin of actively transcribed genes in the nucleus and facilitates transcriptional elongation
YML094W GIM5 PFD5 Subunit of the heterohexameric cochaperone prefoldin complex; prefoldin binds specifically to cytosolic chaperonin and transfers target proteins to it; prefoldin complex also localizes to chromatin of actively transcribed genes in the nucleus and facilitates transcriptional elongation
YNL153C GIM3 PFD4 | tubulin-binding prefolding complex subunit GIM3 Subunit of the heterohexameric cochaperone prefoldin complex; prefoldin binds specifically to cytosolic chaperonin and transfers target proteins to it; prefoldin complex also localizes to chromatin of actively transcribed genes in the nucleus and facilitates transcriptional elongation
YEL003W GIM4 PFD2 | tubulin-binding prefolding complex subunit GIM4 Subunit of the heterohexameric cochaperone prefoldin complex; complex binds specifically to cytosolic chaperonin and transfers target proteins to it
YGL207W SPT16 CDC68 | chromatin-remodeling protein SPT16 | SSF1 Subunit of the heterodimeric FACT complex (Spt16p-Pob3p); FACT associates with chromatin via interaction with Nhp6Ap and Nhp6Bp, and reorganizes nucleosomes to facilitate access to DNA by RNA and DNA polymerases; specifically required for diauxic shift-induced H2B deposition onto rDNA genes; mutations cause reduced nucleosome occupancy over highly transcribed regions; coregulates transcription with Mot1p through preinitiation complex assembly and nucleosome organization
YML069W POB3 FACT complex subunit POB3 Subunit of the heterodimeric FACT complex (Spt16p-Pob3p); FACT associates with chromatin via interaction with Nhp6Ap and Nhp6Bp, and reorganizes nucleosomes to facilitate access to DNA by RNA and DNA polymerases; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPR179C HDA3 PLO1 Subunit of the HDA1 histone deacetylase complex; possibly tetrameric trichostatin A-sensitive class II histone deacetylase complex contains Hda1p homodimer and an Hda2p-Hda3p heterodimer; required for the activity of the complex; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; similar to Hda2p
YDR295C HDA2 PLO2 Subunit of the HDA1 histone deacetylase complex; possibly tetrameric trichostatin A-sensitive class II histone deacetylase complex contains Hda1p homodimer and an Hda2p-Hda3p heterodimer; involved in telomere maintenance; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YOR358W HAP5 Subunit of the Hap2p/3p/4p/5p CCAAT-binding complex; complex is heme-activated and glucose repressed; complex is a transcriptional activator and global regulator of respiratory gene expression; required for assembly and DNA binding activity of the complex
YGL237C HAP2 Subunit of the Hap2p/3p/4p/5p CCAAT-binding complex; complex is heme-activated and glucose-repressed; complex is a transcriptional activator and global regulator of respiratory gene expression; contains sequences sufficient for both complex assembly and DNA binding; respiratory defect of the null mutant is functionally complemented by human NFYA
YBL021C HAP3 Subunit of the Hap2p/3p/4p/5p CCAAT-binding complex; complex is heme-activated and glucose-repressed; complex is a transcriptional activator and global regulator of respiratory gene expression; contains sequences contributing to both complex assembly and DNA binding
YHR005C GPA1 CDC70 | DAC1 | guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha | SCG1 Subunit of the G protein involved in pheromone response; GTP-binding alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein; negatively regulates the mating pathway by sequestering G(beta)gamma and by triggering an adaptive response; activates Vps34p at the endosome; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR088W GAA1 END2 | GPI-anchor transamidase subunit GAA1 Subunit of the GPI:protein transamidase complex; removes the GPI-anchoring signal and attaches GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) to proteins in the ER; human homolog GPAA1 can complement growth defects of yeast thermosensitive mutant at restrictive temperature
YGL020C GET1 GET complex subunit GET1 | MDM39 Subunit of the GET complex; involved in insertion of proteins into the ER membrane; required for the retrieval of HDEL proteins from the Golgi to the ER in an ERD2 dependent fashion and for normal mitochondrial morphology and inheritance
YER083C GET2 GET complex subunit GET2 | HUR2 | RMD7 Subunit of the GET complex; involved in insertion of proteins into the ER membrane; required for the retrieval of HDEL proteins from the Golgi to the ER in an ERD2 dependent fashion and for meiotic nuclear division
YER008C SEC3 GTP-Rho binding exocyst subunit SEC3 | PSL1 Subunit of the exocyst complex; the exocyst mediates polarized targeting and tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis prior to SNARE-mediated fusion; PtdIns[4,5]P2-binding protein that localizes to exocytic sites in a Rho1p-dependent, actin-independent manner, targeting and anchoring the exocyst to the plasma membrane with Exo70p; direct GTP Rho1p effector; required for ER inheritance; relocalizes away from bud neck upon DNA replication stress
YJL085W EXO70 GTP-Rho binding exocyst subunit EXO70 Subunit of the exocyst complex; the exocyst mediates polarized targeting and tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to active sites of exocytosis prior to SNARE-mediated fusion; PtdIns[4,5]P2-binding protein that localizes to exocytic sites in an actin-independent manner, targeting and anchoring the exocyst with Sec3p; involved in exocyst assembly; direct downstream effector of Rho3p and Cdc42p; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YMR012W CLU1 TIF31 | translation initiation factor 3 subunit CLU1 Subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3); component of unknown function; deletion causes defects in mitochondrial organization but not in growth or translation initiation; can rescue cytokinesis and mitochondrial organization defects of the Dictyostelium cluA- mutant; eIF3 is also involved in programmed stop codon readthrough
YHL002W HSE1 ESCRT-0 subunit protein HSE1 Subunit of the endosomal Vps27p-Hse1p complex; complex is required for sorting of ubiquitinated membrane proteins into intralumenal vesicles prior to vacuolar degradation, as well as for recycling of Golgi proteins and formation of lumenal membranes
YKL143W LTV1 YKL2 Subunit of the EGO/GSE complex; the vacuolar/endosomal membrane associated EGO/GSE complex regulates exit from rapamycin-induced growth arrest, stimulating microautophagy and sorting of Gap1p from the endosome to the plasma membrane; required for ribosomal small subunit export from nucleus; required for growth at low temperature
YKR007W MEH1 EGO1 | GSE2 Subunit of the EGO/GSE complex; the vacuolar/endosomal membrane associated EGO/GSE complex regulates exit from rapamycin-induced growth arrest, stimulating microautophagy and sorting of Gap1p from the endosome to the plasma membrane; loss results in a defect in vacuolar acidification
YBR077C SLM4 EGO3 | GSE1 | NIR1 Subunit of the EGO/GSE complex; the vacuolar/endosomal membrane associated EGO/GSE complex regulates exit from rapamycin-induced growth arrest, stimulating microautophagy and sorting of Gap1p from the endosome to the plasma membrane; essential for the integrity and function of EGO; gene exhibits synthetic genetic interaction with MSS4
YOL149W DCP1 MRT2 Subunit of the Dcp1p-Dcp2p decapping enzyme complex; decapping complex removes the 5' cap structure from mRNAs prior to their degradation; enhances the activity of catalytic subunit Dcp2p; regulated by DEAD box protein Dhh1p; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YDL147W RPN5 NAS5 | proteasome regulatory particle lid subunit RPN5 Subunit of the CSN and 26S proteasome lid complexes; similar to mammalian p55 subunit and to another S. cerevisiae regulatory subunit, Rpn7p; Rpn5p is an essential protein; the COP9 signalosome is also known as the CSN
YLR005W SSL1 TFIIH/NER complex subunit SSL1 Subunit of the core form of RNA polymerase transcription factor TFIIH; has both protein kinase and DNA-dependent ATPase/helicase activities; essential for transcription and nucleotide excision repair; interacts with Tfb4p
YOL117W RRI2 CSN10 Subunit of the COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex; this complex cleaves the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 from SCF ubiquitin ligases; plays a role in the mating pheromone response
YDR179C CSN9 Subunit of the Cop9 signalosome; Cop9 signalosome is required for deneddylation, or removal of the ubiquitin-like protein Rub1p from Cdc53p (cullin); involved in adaptation to pheromone signaling
YBR156C SLI15 Subunit of the conserved chromosomal passenger complex (CPC); complex regulates kinetochore-microtubule attachments, activation of the spindle tension checkpoint, and mitotic spindle disassembly; other complex members are Ipl1p, Bir1p, and Nbl1p
YLR272C YCS4 condensin subunit YCS4 | LOC7 Subunit of the condensin complex; required for establishment and maintenance of chromosome condensation, chromosome segregation, chromatin binding of condensin, tRNA gene clustering at the nucleolus, and silencing at the mating type locus; required for replication slow zone (RSZ) breakage following Mec1p inactivation
YDR325W YCG1 condensin subunit YCG1 | TIE1 | YCS5 Subunit of the condensin complex; required for establishment and maintenance of chromosome condensation, chromosome segregation and chromatin binding by the complex; required for tRNA genes clustering at the nucleolus; required for replication slow zone breakage following Mec1p inactivation; transcription is cell cycle regulated, peaking in mitosis and declining in G1; protein is constitutively degraded by the proteasome; rate limiting for condensin recruitment to chromatin
YBL097W BRN1 condensin subunit BRN1 Subunit of the condensin complex; required for chromosome condensation and for clustering of tRNA genes at the nucleolus; may influence multiple aspects of chromosome transmission
YLR086W SMC4 condensin subunit SMC4 Subunit of the condensin complex; condensin reorganizes chromosomes during both mitosis and meiosis; forms a subcomplex with Smc2p that has ATP-hydrolyzing and DNA-binding activity, but other condensin subunits are required for chromatin binding; required for tRNA gene clustering at the nucleolus; potential Cdc28p substrate
YFR031C SMC2 condensin subunit SMC2 Subunit of the condensin complex; condensin reorganizes chromosomes during both mitosis and meiosis; essential SMC chromosomal ATPase family member that forms a subcomplex with Smc2p that has ATP-hydrolyzing and DNA-binding activity, but other condensin subunits are required for chromatin binding; required for clustering of tRNA genes at the nucleolus
YDR469W SDC1 CPS25 | SAF19 Subunit of the COMPASS (Set1C) complex; COMPASS methylates lysine 4 of histone H3 and is required in chromatin silencing at telomeres; contains a Dpy-30 domain that mediates interaction with Bre2p; similar to C. elegans and human DPY-30
YAR003W SWD1 COMPASS subunit protein SWD1 | CPS50 | FUN16 | SAF49 Subunit of the COMPASS (Set1C) complex; COMPASS methylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and is required in transcriptional silencing near telomeres; WD40 beta propeller superfamily member with similarity to mammalian Rbbp7
YBR258C SHG1 CPS15 Subunit of the COMPASS (Set1C) complex; COMPASS methylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and is required in transcriptional silencing near telomeres
YIL026C IRR1 SCC3 Subunit of the cohesin complex; which is required for sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis and meiosis and interacts with centromeres and chromosome arms; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; essential for viability
YGR277C CAB4 putative pantetheine-phosphate adenylyltransferase Subunit of the CoA-Synthesizing Protein Complex (CoA-SPC); subunits of this complex are: Cab2p, Cab3p, Cab4p, Cab5p, Sis2p and Vhs3p; probable pantetheine-phosphate adenylyltransferase (PPAT); PPAT catalyzes the fourth step in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A from pantothenate; null mutant lethality is complemented by E. coli coaD (encoding PPAT) and by human COASY
YDR196C CAB5 putative dephospho-CoA kinase Subunit of the CoA-Synthesizing Protein Complex (CoA-SPC); subunits of this complex are: Cab2p, Cab3p, Cab4p, Cab5p, Sis2p and Vhs3p; probable dephospho-CoA kinase (DPCK) that catalyzes the last step in coenzyme A biosynthesis; null mutant lethality is complemented by human homolog DCAKD and by E. coli coaE (encoding DPCK); detected in purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; also localized to lipid droplets
YGR134W CAF130 CCR4-NOT core subunit CAF130 Subunit of the CCR4-NOT transcriptional regulatory complex; CCR4-NOT complex is evolutionarily-conserved and involved in controlling mRNA initiation, elongation, and degradation
YCR093W CDC39 CCR4-NOT core subunit CDC39 | NOT1 | ROS1 | SMD6 Subunit of the CCR4-NOT1 core complex; this complex has multiple roles in the regulation of mRNA levels including regulation of transcription and destabilization of mRNA by deadenylation; basal transcription factor that increases initiation and elongation; activates the ATPase activity of Dhh1p, resulting in processing body disassembly
YGL079W KXD1 KIB1 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; null mutant is sensitive to drug inducing secretion of vacuolar cargo; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the endosome
YEL005C VAB2 VAB31 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; interacts with Vps21p-GFP; has potential role in vacuolar function, as suggested by its ability to bind Vac8p; likely member of; Vab2p-GFP-fusion localizes to cytoplasm in punctate pattern
YDR357C CNL1 BLC1 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; interacts with Msb3p; null mutant is sensitive to drug inducing secretion of vacuolar cargo; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YKL061W BLI1 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; interacts with Msb3p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the endosome
YNL086W SNN1 BLS1 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; interacts with Msb3p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to endosomes
YLR408C BLS1 BLB1 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the endosome; YLR408C is not an essential gene
YKL033W TTI1 FMP47 Subunit of the ASTRA complex, involved in chromatin remodeling; telomere length regulator involved in the stability or biogenesis of PIKKs such as TORC1; similar to S. pombe Tti1p; detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YJR136C TTI2 Subunit of the ASTRA complex, involved in chromatin remodeling; telomere length regulator involved in the stability or biogenesis of PIKKs such as TORC1; involved in the cellular stress response; similar to S. pombe Tti2p; may interact with Rsm23p; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YNR035C ARC35 END9 Subunit of the ARP2/3 complex; ARP2/3 is required for the motility and integrity of cortical actin patches; required for cortical localization of calmodulin
YKL013C ARC19 Subunit of the ARP2/3 complex; ARP2/3 is required for the motility and integrity of cortical actin patches; mutation is functionally complemented by human ARPC4
YIL062C ARC15 Subunit of the ARP2/3 complex; ARP2/3 is required for the motility and integrity of cortical actin patches; has mRNA binding activity
YLR370C ARC18 Subunit of the ARP2/3 complex; ARP2/3 is required for the motility and integrity of cortical actin patches
YBR234C ARC40 Subunit of the ARP2/3 complex; ARP2/3 is required for the motility and integrity of cortical actin patches
YOR179C SYC1 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit SYC1 Subunit of the APT subcomplex of cleavage and polyadenylation factor; may have a role in 3' end formation of both polyadenylated and non-polyadenylated RNAs; SYC1 has a paralog, YSH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL022C CDC16 anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC16 Subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; required for sporulation; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YFR036W CDC26 anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC26 | HIT3 | SCD26 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YLR127C APC2 anaphase promoting complex subunit 2 | RSI1 | TID2 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; component of the catalytic core of the APC/C; has similarity to cullin Cdc53p
YDR118W APC4 anaphase promoting complex subunit 4 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; component of the platform domain of the APC/C, based on structural analysis; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YOR249C APC5 anaphase promoting complex subunit 5 | RMC1 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; component of the platform domain of the APC/C, based on structural analysis; relative distribution to nuclear foci decreases upon DNA replication stress
YLR102C APC9 anaphase promoting complex subunit 9 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition
YHR166C CDC23 anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC23 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition
YBL084C CDC27 anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC27 | APC3 | SNB1 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition
YEL036C ANP1 GEM3 | MNN8 Subunit of the alpha-1,6 mannosyltransferase complex; type II membrane protein; has a role in retention of glycosyltransferases in the Golgi; involved in osmotic sensitivity and resistance to aminonitrophenyl propanediol
YOR023C AHC1 Subunit of the Ada histone acetyltransferase complex; required for structural integrity of the complex; Ahc2p and Ahc1p are unique to the ADA complex and not shared with the related SAGA and SLIK complexes; Ahc2p may tether Ahc1p to the complex
YIL075C RPN2 proteasome regulatory particle base subunit RPN2 | SEN3 Subunit of the 26S proteasome; substrate of the N-acetyltransferase Nat1p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YFR052W RPN12 NIN1 | proteasome regulatory particle lid subunit RPN12 Subunit of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome lid; synthetically lethal with RPT1, which is an ATPase component of the 19S regulatory particle; physically interacts with Nob1p and Rpn3p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR421C RPN13 proteasome regulatory particle lid subunit RPN13 Subunit of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome lid; acts as a ubiquitin receptor for the proteasome; null mutants accumulate ubiquitinated Gcn4p and display decreased 26S proteasome stability; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPR056W TFB4 TFIIH/NER complex subunit TFB4 Subunit of TFIIH complex; involved in transcription initiation, similar to 34 kDa subunit of human TFIIH; interacts with Ssl1p
YOR352W TFB6 TFIIH complex subunit TFB6 Subunit of TFIIH complex; facilities dissociation of the Ssl2p helices from TFIIH; expression levels regulated by Arg5,6p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus
YDR311W TFB1 TFIIH/NER complex subunit TFB1 Subunit of TFIIH and nucleotide excision repair factor 3 complexes; required for nucleotide excision repair, target for transcriptional activators; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YPL122C TFB2 TFIIH/NER complex subunit TFB2 Subunit of TFIIH and nucleotide excision repair factor 3 complexes; involved in transcription initiation, required for nucleotide excision repair, similar to 52 kDa subunit of human TFIIH
YDR460W TFB3 RIG2 | TFIIH/NER complex subunit TFB3 Subunit of TFIIH and nucleotide excision repair factor 3 complexes; involved in transcription initiation, required for nucleotide excision repair; ring finger protein similar to mammalian CAK and TFIIH subunit
YPL129W TAF14 ANC1 | SWP29 | TAF30 | TafII30 | TATA-binding protein-associated factor TAF14 | TFG3 Subunit of TFIID, TFIIF, INO80, SWI/SNF, and NuA3 complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification; contains a YEATS domain
YMR106C YKU80 ATP-dependent DNA helicase YKU80 | HDF2 Subunit of telomeric Ku complex (Yku70p-Yku80p); involved in telomere length maintenance, structure and telomere position effect; required for localization of telomerase ribonucleoprotein via interaction with TLC1 guide RNA; relocates to sites of double-strand cleavage to promote nonhomologous end joining during DSB repair; colocalizes with quiescent cell telomere hyperclusters
YBR098W MMS4 SLX2 | YBR100W Subunit of structure-specific Mms4p-Mus81p endonuclease; cleaves branched DNA; involved in recombination, DNA repair, and joint molecule formation/resolution during meiotic recombination; phosphorylation of the non-catalytic subunit Mms4p by Cdc28p and Cdc5p during mitotic cell cycle activates the function of Mms4p-Mus81p
YJL013C MAD3 Subunit of spindle-assembly checkpoint complex; involved in delaying anaphase onset in cells with defects in mitotic spindle assembly; pseudosubstrate inhibitor of APC(Cdc20), the anaphase promoting complex involved in securin (Pds1p) turnover; MAD3 has a paralog, BUB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL131C SNT2 DNA-binding E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SNT2 Subunit of Snt2C complex, RING finger ubiquitin ligase (E3); physically associates with Ecm5p and Rpd3p; along with Ecm5p, recruits Rpd3p to small number of promoters; colocalizes with Ecm5p, independently of Rpd3p, to promoters of stress response genes upon oxidative stress; involved in ubiquitination, degradation of excess histones; interacts with Ubc4p; role in regulating genes encoding amine transporters; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YER116C SLX8 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase complex subunit SLX8 Subunit of Slx5-Slx8 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) complex; role in proteolysis of spindle positioning protein Kar9, DNA repair proteins Rad52p and Rad57p; stimulated by SUMO-modified substrates; contains a C-terminal RING domain; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress; required for maintenance of genome integrity like human ortholog RNF
YML055W SPC2 signal peptidase complex subunit SPC2 | SPY1 Subunit of signal peptidase complex; complex catalyzes cleavage of N-terminal signal sequences of proteins targeted to the secretory pathway; homologous to mammalian SPC25; other members of the complex are Spc1p, Spc1p, and Sec11p
YLR066W SPC3 signal peptidase complex subunit SPC3 Subunit of signal peptidase complex; complex catalyzes cleavage of N-terminal signal sequences of proteins targeted to the secretory pathway; homologous to mammalian SPC22/23; other members of the complex are Spc1p, Spc2p, and Sec11p
YBL104C SEA4 YBL103C-A Subunit of SEACAT, a subcomplex of the SEA complex; Sea4p, along with Rtc1p and Mtc5p, redundantly inhibit the TORC1 inhibitory role of the Iml1p/SEACIT (Iml1p-Npr2p-Npr3p) subcomplex, a GAP for GTPase Gtr1p (EGOC subunit) in response to amino acid limitation, thereby resulting in activation of TORC1 signaling; SEA is a coatomer-related complex that associates dynamically with the vacuole; contains an N-terminal beta-propeller fold and a C-terminal RING motif
YOL138C RTC1 SEA2 Subunit of SEACAT, a subcomplex of the SEA complex; Rtc1p, along with Mtc5p and Sea4p, redundantly inhibit the TORC1 inhibitory role of the Iml1p/SEACIT (Iml1p-Npr2p-Npr3p) subcomplex, a GAP for GTPase Gtr1p (EGOC subunit) in response to amino acid limitation, thereby resulting in activation of TORC1 signaling; SEA is a coatomer-related complex that associates dynamically with the vacuole; has N-terminal WD-40 repeats and a C-terminal RING motif; null suppresses cdc13-1
YDR128W MTC5 SEA3 Subunit of SEACAT, a subcomplex of the SEA complex; Mtc1p, along with Rtc1p and Sea4p, redundantly inhibit the TORC1 inhibitory role of the Iml1p/SEACIT (Iml1p-Npr2p-Npr3p) subcomplex, a GAP for GTPase Gtr1p (EGOC subunit) in response to amino acid limitation, thereby resulting in activation of TORC1 signaling; SEA is a coatomer-related complex that associates dynamically with the vacuole; relative distribution to the vacuolar membrane decreases upon DNA replication stress
YLR145W RMP1 Subunit of RNase MRP; RNase MRP processes pre-rRNA and has a role in cell cycle-regulated degradation of daughter cell-specific mRNAs; unlike most subunits, not shared between RNase MRP and nuclear RNase P
YGR030C POP6 ribonuclease P/MRP protein subunit POP6 Subunit of RNase MRP, nuclear RNase P and telomerase; forms a soluble heterodimer with Pop7p that binds P3 domain of RNase MRP and RNase P RNAs; RNase MRP cleaves pre-rRNA, nuclear RNase P cleaves tRNA precursors to generate mature 5' ends and facilitates turnover of nuclear RNAs, while telomerase replenishes telomeric DNA; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YBR167C POP7 ribonuclease P/MRP protein subunit POP7 | RPP2 Subunit of RNase MRP, nuclear RNase P and telomerase; forms a soluble heterodimer with Pop6p that binds P3 domain of RNase MRP and RNase P RNAs; RNase MRP cleaves pre-rRNA, nuclear RNase P cleaves tRNA precursors to generate mature 5' ends and facilitates turnover of nuclear RNAs, while telomerase replenishes telomeric DNA
YNL221C POP1 ribonuclease P/MRP protein subunit POP1 Subunit of RNase MRP, nuclear RNase P and telomerase complexes; RNase MRP cleaves pre-rRNA, nuclear RNase P cleaves tRNA precursors to generate mature 5' ends and facilitates turnover of nuclear RNAs, while telomerase replenishes telomeric DNA; binds to the RPR1 RNA subunit in RNase P
YAL001C TFC3 FUN24 | tau 138 | transcription factor TFIIIC subunit TFC3 | TSV115 Subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex; part of TauB domain of TFIIIC that binds DNA at BoxB promoter sites of tRNA and similar genes; cooperates with Tfc6p in DNA binding; largest of six subunits of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex (TFIIIC); colocalizes with condensin at pol III genes and several ETC (“extra TFIIIC)” sites; may have a role in recruiting or stabilizing Scc2/4 and condensin on chromosomes
YBR123C TFC1 tau 95 | transcription factor TFIIIC subunit TFC1 Subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex; one of six subunits of the RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex (TFIIIC); part of the TauA globular domain of TFIIIC that binds DNA at the BoxA promoter sites of tRNA and similar genes; human homolog is TFIIIC-63
YGR047C TFC4 PCF1 | tau 131 | transcription factor TFIIIC subunit TFC4 Subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex; one of six subunits of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex (TFIIIC); part of the TauA domain of TFIIIC that binds BoxA DNA promoter sites of tRNA and similar genes; has TPR motifs; human homolog is TFIIIC-102
YPL007C TFC8 tau 60 | transcription factor TFIIIC subunit TFC8 Subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex; one of six subunits of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex (TFIIIC); part of TFIIIC TauB domain that binds BoxB promoter sites of tRNA and other genes; linker between TauB and TauA domains; human homolog is TFIIIC-90
YDR362C TFC6 tau 91 | transcription factor TFIIIC subunit TFC6 Subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex; one of six subunits of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex (TFIIIC); part of TFIIIC TauB domain that binds BoxB promoter sites of tRNA and other genes; cooperates with Tfc3p in DNA binding; human homolog is TFIIIC-110
YGL244W RTF1 CSL3 Subunit of RNAPII-associated chromatin remodeling Paf1 complex; regulates gene expression by directing cotranscriptional histone modification, influences transcription and chromatin structure through several independent functional domains; directly or indirectly regulates DNA-binding properties of Spt15p and relative activities of different TATA elements; involved in transcription elongation as demonstrated by the G-less-based run-on (GLRO) assay
YJR033C RAV1 SOI3 Subunit of RAVE complex (Rav1p, Rav2p, Skp1p); the RAVE complex promotes assembly of the V-ATPase holoenzyme; required for transport between the early and late endosome/PVC and for localization of TGN membrane proteins; potential Cdc28p substrate
YDR202C RAV2 Subunit of RAVE complex (Rav1p, Rav2p, Skp1p); the RAVE complex associates with the V1 domain of the vacuolar membrane (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) and promotes assembly and reassembly of the holoenzyme
YNL201C PSY2 Subunit of protein phosphatase PP4 complex; Pph3p and Psy2p form the active complex, Psy4p may provide additional substrate specificity; regulates recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint, the gene conversion- and single-strand annealing-mediated pathways of meiotic double-strand break repair and efficient Non-Homologous End-Joining (NHEJ) pathway; Pph3p and Psy2p localize to foci on meiotic chromosomes; putative homolog of mammalian R3
YOR253W NAT5 ARD2 | NAA50 | peptide alpha-N-acetyltransferase subunit NAT5 | ROG2 Subunit of protein N-terminal acetyltransferase NatA; NatA is comprised of Nat1p, Ard1p, and Nat5p; N-terminally acetylates many proteins, which influences multiple processes such as the cell cycle, heat-shock resistance, mating, sporulation, and telomeric silencing
YHR013C ARD1 NAA10 | peptide alpha-N-acetyltransferase complex A subunit ARD1 Subunit of protein N-terminal acetyltransferase NatA; NatA comprises Nat1p, Ard1p, Nat5p; acetylates many proteins to influence telomeric silencing, cell cycle, heat-shock resistance, mating, sporulation, early stages of mitophagy; protein abundance increases under DNA replication stress; mutations in human homolog X-linked NAA10 lead to Ogden syndrome (S37P) and intellectual disability (R116W); expression of human NAA10 and NAA15 can complement ard1 nat1 double mutant
YDL040C NAT1 AAA1 | NAA15 | peptide alpha-N-acetyltransferase complex A subunit NAT1 Subunit of protein N-terminal acetyltransferase NatA; NatA comprised of Nat1p, Ard1p, and Nat5p; N-terminally acetylates many proteins to influence multiple processes such as cell cycle progression, heat-shock resistance, mating, sporulation, telomeric silencing and early stages of mitophagy; orthologous to human NAA15; expression of both human NAA10 and NAA15 functionally complements ard1 nat1 double mutant although single mutations are not complemented by their orthologs
YKL088W CAB3 phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase complex subunit CAB3 Subunit of PPCDC and CoA-SPC complexes involved in CoA biosynthesis; subunits of the phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC) complex are: Cab3p, Sis2p, Vhs3p, while the subunits of the CoA-synthesizing protein complex (CoA-SPC) are: Cab2p, Cab3p, Cab4p, and Cab5p as well as Sis2p and Vhs3p; null mutant lethality is complemented by E. coli coaBC
YPL120W VPS30 APG6 | ATG6 | beclin 1 | VPT30 Subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase complexes I and II; Complex I is essential in autophagy, Complex II is required for vacuolar protein sorting; required for overflow degradation of misfolded proteins when ERAD is saturated; C-terminus has novel globular fold essential for autophagy through the targeting of the PI3-kinase complex I to the pre-autophagosomal structure; ortholog of higher eukaryote gene Beclin 1; human BECN1 can complement yeast null mutant
YKR082W NUP133 RAT3 Subunit of Nup84p subcomplex of nuclear pore complex (NPC); contributes to nucleocytoplasmic transport, NPC biogenesis; is involved in establishment of a normal nucleocytoplasmic concentration gradient of GTPase Gsp1p; also plays roles in several processes that may require localization of genes or chromosomes at nuclear periphery, including double-strand break repair, transcription and chromatin silencing; relocalizes to cytosol in response to hypoxia; homolog of human NUP133
YIR015W RPR2 ribonuclease P protein subunit RPR2 Subunit of nuclear RNase P; nuclear RNase P cleaves tRNA precursors to generate mature 5' ends and facilitates turnover of nuclear RNAs; not shared between RNase MRP and RNase P, in contrast to all other RNase P protein subunits; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL107W YAF9 Subunit of NuA4 histone H4 acetyltransferase and SWR1 complexes; may function to antagonize silencing near telomeres; interacts directly with Swc4p; has homology to human leukemogenic protein AF9; contains a YEATS domain
YFL024C EPL1 Subunit of NuA4, an essential histone H4/H2A acetyltransferase complex; conserved region at N-terminus is essential for interaction with the NPC (nucleosome core particle); required for autophagy; homologous to Drosophila Enhancer of Polycomb; coding sequence contains length polymorphisms in different strains
YHR090C YNG2 EAF4 | histone acetyltransferase YNG2 | NBN1 Subunit of NuA4, an essential histone acetyltransferase complex; positions Piccolo NuA4 for efficient acetylation of histone H4 or histone H2A; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; similar to human tumor suppressor ING1 and its isoforms ING4 and ING5
YNL250W RAD50 MRX complex DNA-binding subunit Subunit of MRX complex with Mre11p and Xrs2p; complex is involved in processing double-strand DNA breaks in vegetative cells, initiation of meiotic DSBs, telomere maintenance, and nonhomologous end joining; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YOR136W IDH2 isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD(+)) IDH2 Subunit of mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase; complex catalyzes the oxidation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate in the TCA cycle; phosphorylated
YNL037C IDH1 isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD(+)) IDH1 Subunit of mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase; complex catalyzes the oxidation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate in the TCA cycle
YJL065C DLS1 Subunit of ISW2/yCHRAC chromatin accessibility complex; ISW2/yCHRAC also includes Itc1p, Isw2p, and Dpb4p; involved in inheritance of telomeric silencing; DLS1 has a paralog, DPB3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL079W NUP170 NLE3 Subunit of inner ring of nuclear pore complex (NPC); contributes to NPC assembly and nucleocytoplasmic transport; interacts with genomic regions that contain ribosomal protein and subtelomeric genes, where it functions in nucleosome positioning and as a repressor of transcription; both Nup170p and NUP157p are similar to human Nup155p; NUP170 has a paralog, NUP157, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YAL043C PTA1 FUN39 | RNA-processing protein PTA1 Subunit of holo-CPF; holo-CPF is a multiprotein complex and functional homolog of mammalian CPSF, required for the cleavage and polyadenylation of mRNA and snoRNA 3' ends; involved in pre-tRNA processing; binds to the phosphorylated CTD of RNAPII
YOR038C HIR2 SPT1 Subunit of HIR nucleosome assembly complex; involved in regulation of histone gene transcription; recruits Swi-Snf complexes to histone gene promoters; promotes heterochromatic gene silencing with Asf1p; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YHR187W IKI1 Elongator subunit IKI1 | ELP5 | HAP2 | TOT5 Subunit of hexameric RecA-like ATPase Elp456 Elongator subcomplex; which is required for modification of wobble nucleosides in tRNA; iki1 mutations confer resistance to the K. lactis toxin zymocin
YAR007C RFA1 BUF2 | FUN3 | replication factor A subunit protein RFA1 | RPA1 | RPA70 Subunit of heterotrimeric Replication Protein A (RPA); RPA is a highly conserved single-stranded DNA binding protein involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination; RPA protects against inappropriate telomere recombination, and upon telomere uncapping, prevents cell proliferation by a checkpoint-independent pathway; role in DNA catenation/decatenation pathway of chromosome disentangling; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YNL312W RFA2 BUF1 | RPA2 | RPA32 Subunit of heterotrimeric Replication Protein A (RPA); RPA is a highly conserved single-stranded DNA binding protein involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination; RPA protects against inappropriate telomere recombination, and upon telomere uncapping, prevents cell proliferation by a checkpoint-independent pathway; in concert with Sgs1p-Top2p-Rmi1p, stimulates DNA catenation/decatenation activity of Top3p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication s
YJL173C RFA3 RPA14 | RPA3 Subunit of heterotrimeric Replication Protein A (RPA); RPA is a highly conserved single-stranded DNA binding protein complex involved in DNA replication, repair, recombination; RPA protects against inappropriate telomere recombination, and upon telomere uncapping, prevents cell proliferation by a checkpoint-independent pathway; with Sgs1p-Top2p-Rmi1p, stimulates DNA catenation/decatenation activity of Top3p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL290W RFC3 replication factor C subunit 3 Subunit of heteropentameric Replication factor C (RF-C); which is a DNA binding protein and ATPase that acts as a clamp loader of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) processivity factor for DNA polymerases delta and epsilon; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YOL094C RFC4 replication factor C subunit 4 Subunit of heteropentameric Replication factor C (RF-C); which is a DNA binding protein and ATPase that acts as a clamp loader of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) processivity factor for DNA polymerases delta and epsilon; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YOR217W RFC1 CDC44 | replication factor C subunit 1 Subunit of heteropentameric Replication factor C (RF-C); RF-C is a DNA binding protein and ATPase that acts as a clamp loader of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) processivity factor for DNA polymerases delta and epsilon
YBR087W RFC5 replication factor C subunit 5 Subunit of heteropentameric Replication factor C (RF-C); RF-C is a DNA binding protein and ATPase that acts as a clamp loader of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) processivity factor for DNA polymerases delta and epsilon
YJR068W RFC2 replication factor C subunit 2 Subunit of heteropentameric Replication factor C (RF-C); RF-C is a DNA binding protein and ATPase that acts as a clamp loader of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) processivity factor for DNA polymerases delta and epsilon
YJL179W PFD1 GIM6 | prefolding complex chaperone subunit Subunit of heterohexameric prefoldin; prefoldin binds cytosolic chaperonin and transfers target proteins to it; involved in the biogenesis of actin and of alpha- and gamma-tubulin; prefoldin complex also localizes to chromatin of actively transcribed genes in the nucleus and facilitates transcriptional elongation
YPR180W AOS1 E1 ubiquitin-activating protein AOS1 | RHC31 Subunit of heterodimeric nuclear SUMO activating enzyme E1 with Uba2p; activates Smt3p (SUMO) before its conjugation to proteins (sumoylation), which may play a role in protein targeting; essential for viability; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YDR390C UBA2 E1 ubiquitin-activating protein UBA2 | UAL1 Subunit of heterodimeric nuclear SUMO activating enzyme E1 with Aos1p; activates Smt3p (SUMO) before its conjugation to proteins (sumoylation), which may play a role in protein targeting; essential for viability
YDR437W GPI19 phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase GPI19 Subunit of GPI-GlcNAc transferase involved in synthesis of GlcNAc-PI; N-acetylglucosaminyl phosphatidylinositol (GlcNAc-PI) is the first intermediate in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor synthesis; shares similarity with mammalian PIG-P
YPL050C MNN9 mannosyltransferase complex subunit MNN9 Subunit of Golgi mannosyltransferase complex; this complex mediates elongation of the polysaccharide mannan backbone; forms a separate complex with Van1p that is also involved in backbone elongation; this complex also contains Anp1p, Mnn10p, Mnn11p, and Hoc1p
YCL039W GID7 glucose-induced degradation complex subunit GID7 | MOH2 Subunit of GID Complex that binds directly to central component Vid30p; GID complex is involved in proteasome-dependent catabolite inactivation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase; Gid7p contains six WD40 repeats; computational analysis suggests that Gid7p and Moh1p have similar functions
YIL097W FYV10 GID9 | glucose-induced degradation complex subunit FYV10 Subunit of GID complex; involved in proteasome-dependent catabolite inactivation of gluconeogenic enzymes FBPase, PEPCK, and c-MDH; forms dimer with Rmd5p that is then recruited to GID Complex by Gid8p; contains a degenerate RING finger motif needed for GID complex ubiquitin ligase activity in vivo, as well as CTLH and CRA domains; plays role in anti-apoptosis; required for survival upon exposure to K1 killer toxin
YMR135C GID8 DCR1 | glucose-induced degradation complex subunit GID8 Subunit of GID Complex, binds strongly to central component Vid30p; GID Complex is involved in proteasome-dependent catabolite inactivation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase; recruits Rmd5p, Fyv10 and Vid28p to GID Complex; contains LisH, CTLH, and CRA domains that mediate binding to Vid30p (LisH) and Rmd5p and Vid28p (CTLH and CRA); dosage-dependent regulator of START
YLR384C IKI3 Elongator subunit IKI3 | ELP1 | KTI7 | TOT1 Subunit of Elongator complex; Elongator is required for modification of wobble nucleosides in tRNA; maintains structural integrity of Elongator; homolog of human IKAP, mutations in which cause familial dysautonomia (FD)
YPL086C ELP3 Elongator subunit ELP3 | HPA1 | KAT9 | KTI8 | TOT3 Subunit of Elongator complex; Elongator is required for modification of wobble nucleosides in tRNA; exhibits histone acetyltransferase activity that is directed to histones H3 and H4; disruption confers resistance to K. lactis zymotoxin; human homolog ELP3 can partially complement yeast elp3 null mutant
YGR200C ELP2 Elongator subunit ELP2 | KTI3 | TOT2 Subunit of Elongator complex; binds to microtubules via conserved alkaline residues; has two seven-bladed WD40 β propellers; Elongator complex is required for modification of wobble nucleosides in tRNA; target of Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin
YGL066W SGF73 deubiquitination module subunit SGF73 | SCA7 Subunit of DUBm module of SAGA and SLIK; has roles in anchoring deubiquitination module (DUBm) into SAGA and SLIK complexes, maintaining organization and ubiquitin-binding conformation of Ubp8p, thereby contributing to overall DUBm activity; involved in preinitiation complex assembly at promoters; relocalizes to cytosol under hypoxia; human homolog ATXN7 implicated in spinocerebellar ataxia, and can complement yeast null mutant
YJR006W POL31 DNA-directed DNA polymerase delta subunit POL31 | HUS2 | HYS2 | SDP5 Subunit of DNA polymerase delta (polymerase III); essential for cell viability; involved in DNA replication and DNA repair; forms a complex with Rev3p, Rev7p and Pol32p; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YDR121W DPB4 DNA polymerase epsilon noncatalytic subunit Subunit of DNA pol epsilon and of ISW2 chromatin accessibility complex; involved in both chromosomal DNA replication and inheritance of telomeric silencing; stabilizes the interaction of Pol epsilon with primer-template DNA, positively affecting the processivity of the polymerase and exonuclease activities of Pol epsilon; interacts with extranucleosomal DNA and acts as anchor point for ISW2 complex that retains its position on DNA during nucleosome mobilization
YLR015W BRE2 CPS60 Subunit of COMPASS (Set1C) complex; COMPASS methylates Lys4 of histone H3 and functions in silencing at telomeres; has a C-terminal Sdc1 Dpy-30 Interaction (SDI) domain that mediates binding to Sdc1p; similar to trithorax-group protein ASH2L
YPL138C SPP1 CPS40 | SAF41 Subunit of COMPASS (Set1C); a complex which methylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and is required in telomeric transcriptional silencing; promotes meiotic DSB formation by interacting with H3K4me3 and Rec107p, a protein required for Spo11p-catalyzed DSB formation located on chromosome axes; interacts with Orc2p; PHD finger domain protein similar to human CGBP, an unmethylated CpG binding protein; relocalizes to cytosol in response to hypoxia
YER147C SCC4 cohesin-loading factor complex subunit SCC4 Subunit of cohesin loading factor (Scc2p-Scc4p); complex is required for the loading of cohesin complexes onto chromosomes; involved in establishing sister chromatid cohesion during double-strand break repair via phosphorylated histone H2AX
YDR180W SCC2 cohesin-loading factor complex subunit SCC2 Subunit of cohesin loading factor (Scc2p-Scc4p); a complex required for loading of cohesin complexes onto chromosomes; involved in establishing sister chromatid cohesion during DSB repair via histone H2AX; promotes gene expression program that supports translational fidelity; evolutionarily-conserved adherin; relocalizes to cytosol in response to hypoxia; human disorder Cornelia de Lange syndrome is caused by mutations in NIPBL, the human ortholog of SCC2
YOL123W HRP1 NAB4 | NAB5 Subunit of cleavage factor I; cleavage factor I is a five-subunit complex required for the cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNA 3' ends; RRM-containing heteronuclear RNA binding protein and hnRNPA/B family member that binds to poly (A) signal sequences; required for genome stability
YJR089W BIR1 Subunit of chromosomal passenger complex (CPC); CPC is comprised of Ipl1p-Sli15p-Bir1p-Nbl1p and regulates chromosome segregation; required for chromosome bi-orientation and for spindle assembly checkpoint activation upon reduced sister kinetochore tension; relative distribution to shortened microtubules increases upon DNA replication stress; sumoylated in an Mms21p-dependent manner; human survivin homolog
YDR176W NGG1 ADA3 | histone acetyltransferase NGG1 | SWI7 Subunit of chromatin modifying histone acetyltransferase complexes; member of the ADA complex, the SAGA complex, and the SLIK complex; transcriptional regulator involved in glucose repression of Gal4p-regulated genes
YML102W CAC2 Subunit of chromatin assembly factor I (CAF-1), with Rlf2p and Msi1p; chromatin assembly by CAF-1 is important for multiple processes including silencing at telomeres, mating type loci, and rDNA; maintenance of kinetochore structure, deactivation of the DNA damage checkpoint after DNA repair, chromatin dynamics during transcription; and repression of divergent transcription; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YBR195C MSI1 CAC3 Subunit of chromatin assembly factor I (CAF-1); chromatin assembly by CAF-1 affects multiple processes including silencing at telomeres, mating type loci, and rDNA; maintenance of kinetochore structure; deactivation of DNA damage checkpoint after DNA repair; chromatin dynamics during transcription; and repression of divergent noncoding transcription; Msi1p localizes to nucleus and cytoplasm and independently regulates the RAS/cAMP pathway via sequestration of Npr1p kinase
YHR072W-A NOP10 snoRNP complex protein NOP10 Subunit of box H/ACA snoRNP complex; required for pseudouridylation and processing of pre-18S rRNA
YAL010C MDM10 FUN37 Subunit of both the ERMES and the SAM complex; component of ERMES complex which acts as a molecular tether between the mitochondria and the ER, necessary for efficient phospholipid exchange between organelles and for mitophagy; SAM/TOB complex component that functions in the assembly of outer membrane beta-barrel proteins; involved in mitochondrial inheritance and morphology; ERMES complex is often co-localized with peroxisomes and concentrated areas of pyruvate dehydrogenase
YHR062C RPP1 RNA-binding RNA processing protein RPP1 Subunit of both RNase MRP and nuclear RNase P; RNase MRP cleaves pre-rRNA, while nuclear RNase P cleaves tRNA precursors to generate mature 5' ends and facilitates turnover of nuclear RNAs; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YBL018C POP8 ribonuclease P Subunit of both RNase MRP and nuclear RNase P; RNase MRP cleaves pre-rRNA, while nuclear RNase P cleaves tRNA precursors to generate mature 5' ends and facilitates turnover of nuclear RNAs; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YNL282W POP3 Subunit of both RNase MRP and nuclear RNase P; RNase MRP cleaves pre-rRNA, while nuclear RNase P cleaves tRNA precursors to generate mature 5' ends and facilitates turnover of nuclear RNAs; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YAL033W POP5 FUN53 | RNA-binding protein POP5 Subunit of both RNase MRP and nuclear RNase P; RNase MRP cleaves pre-rRNA, while nuclear RNase P cleaves tRNA precursors to generate mature 5' ends and facilitates turnover of nuclear RNAs
YJR053W BFA1 IBD1 Subunit of a two-component GTPase-activating protein, Bfa1p-Bub2p; contributes to GAP activity, inactivating Tem1 by stimulating GTP hydrolysis following damage or misalignment of the mitotic spindle; functions as a guanine-nucleotide exchange inhibitor (GDI) for Tem1p; involved in multiple cell cycle checkpoint pathways that control mitotic exit; required when telomeres are damaged, but not for all types of chromosomal DNA damage; phosphorylated by the Polo-like kinase Cdc5p
YGL133W ITC1 Subunit of ATP-dependent Isw2p-Itc1p chromatin remodeling complex; required for repression of a-specific genes, repression of early meiotic genes during mitotic growth, and repression of INO1; similar to mammalian Acf1p, the regulatory subunit of the mammalian ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and modifying factor (ACF) complex; ITC1 has a paralog, YPL216W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML121W GTR1 Rag GTPase GTR1 Subunit of a TORC1-stimulating GTPase and the EGO/GSE complex; subunit of Gtr1-Gtr2, a GTPase that activates TORC1 in response to amino acid stimulation; subunit of EGO/GSE, a vacuolar/endosomal membrane complex that regulates exit from rapamycin-induced growth arrest and sorting of Gap1p from the endosome to the plasma membrane; involved in phosphate transport and telomeric chromatin silencing; activated by the the Iml1p (GAP) subunit of the SEACIT complex; similar to human RagA and RagB
YGR163W GTR2 Subunit of a TORC1-stimulating GTPase and the EGO/GSE complex; subunit of Gtr1-Gtr2, a GTPase that activates TORC1 in response to amino acid stimulation; negatively regulates the GTPase cycle of Gtr1p, a Ran/TC4 homolog; subunit of EGO, a vacuolar/endosomal membrane complex that regulates exit from rapamycin-induced growth arrest and endosome to plasma membrane sorting of Gap1p; activates transcription when chromatin bound; activated by the Lst4p-Lst7p GAP complex; homolog of human RagC
YNL273W TOF1 Subunit of a replication-pausing checkpoint complex; Tof1p-Mrc1p-Csm3p acts at the stalled replication fork to promote sister chromatid cohesion after DNA damage, facilitating gap repair of damaged DNA; interacts with the MCM helicase; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YLR002C NOC3 Subunit of a nuclear complex with Noc2p and pre-replicative complexes; the Noc2p-Noc3p complex binds to 66S ribosomal precursors to mediate their maturation and intranuclear transport; binds to chromatin at active replication origins, and is required for pre-RC formation and maintenance during DNA replication licensing
YOR144C ELG1 RTT110 Subunit of an alternative replication factor C complex; important for DNA replication and genome integrity; suppresses spontaneous DNA damage; involved in homologous recombination-mediated repair and telomere homeostasis; required for PCNA (Pol30p) unloading during DNA replication
YDR532C KRE28 Subunit of a kinetochore-microtubule binding complex; complex bridges centromeric heterochromatin and kinetochore MAPs and motors; required for sister chromatid bi-orientation and kinetochore binding of SAC components; complex also includes Spc105p; modified by sumoylation
YGL093W SPC105 Subunit of a kinetochore-microtubule binding complex; complex bridges centromeric heterochromatin and kinetochore MAPs and motors; required for sister chromatid bi-orientation and kinetochore binding of SAC components; complex also includes Kre28p; modified by sumoylation
YDR397C NCB2 negative cofactor 2 transcription regulator complex subunit NCB2 | YDR1 Subunit of a heterodimeric NC2 transcription regulator complex; complex binds to TBP and can repress transcription by preventing preinitiation complex assembly or stimulate activated transcription; homologous to human NC2beta; complex also includes Bur6p
YER159C BUR6 NCB1 | negative cofactor 2 transcription regulator complex subunit BUR6 Subunit of a heterodimeric NC2 transcription regulator complex; complex binds to TBP and can repress transcription by preventing preinitiation complex assembly or stimulate activated transcription; homologous to human NC2alpha; complex also includes Ncb2p; bur6 ncb2 double mutation is functionally complemented by coexpression of human DRAP1 and DR1, although the single bur6 mutation is not complemented by its ortholog DRAP1
YGL124C MON1 AUT12 Subunit of a heterodimeric guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF); subunit of the Mon1-Ccz1 GEF complex which stimulates nucleotide exchange and activation of Ypt7p, a Rab family GTPase involved in membrane tethering and fusion events at the late endosome and vacuole; GEF activity is stimulated by membrane association and anionic phospholipids; role in localizing Ypt7p to the vacuolar membrane; required for autophagy, the CVT pathway and mitophagy; potential Cdc28 substrate
YBR131W CCZ1 CVT16 Subunit of a heterodimeric guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF); subunit of the Mon1-Ccz1 GEF complex, which stimulates nucleotide exchange and activation of Ypt7p, a Rab family GTPase involved in membrane tethering and fusion events at the late endosome and vacuole; GEF activity is stimulated by membrane association and anionic phospholipids; involved in localizing Ypt7p to the vacuolar membrane; required for macroautophagy, the CVT pathway and mitophagy
YDR137W RGP1 Subunit of a Golgi membrane exchange factor (Ric1p-Rgp1p); this complex catalyzes nucleotide exchange on Ypt6p
YJL183W MNN11 alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase Subunit of a Golgi mannosyltransferase complex; this complex also contains Anp1p, Mnn9p, Mnn10p, and Hoc1p, and mediates elongation of the polysaccharide mannan backbone; has homology to Mnn10p
YDR245W MNN10 alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase | BED1 | REC41 | SLC2 Subunit of a Golgi mannosyltransferase complex; complex mediates elongation of the polysaccharide mannan backbone; membrane protein of the mannosyltransferase family; other members of the complex are Anp1p, Mnn9p, Mnn11p, and Hoc1p
YMR078C CTF18 CHL12 Subunit of a complex with Ctf8p; shares some subunits with Replication Factor C and is required for sister chromatid cohesion; may have overlapping functions with Rad24p in the DNA damage replication checkpoint
YCL016C DCC1 Subunit of a complex with Ctf8p and Ctf18p; shares some components with Replication Factor C; required for sister chromatid cohesion and telomere length maintenance
YDR014W RAD61 WPL1 Subunit of a complex that inhibits sister chromatid cohesion; also negatively regulates chromosome condensation; inhibited by Eco1p-acetylated cohesin subunits Smc3p and Mcd1p; binds Smc3p ATPase head of cohesin; related to the human Wapl protein that controls the association of cohesin with chromatin
YIR003W AIM21 Subunit of a complex that associates with actin filaments; forms a complex with Tda2p that inhibits barbed end F-actin assembly; elevates actin monomer pools to increase endocytotic efficiency and to regulate the distribution of actin between cables and patches; Aim21p/Tda2p forms a larger complex with actin capping proteins Cap1p and Cap2p; involved in mitochondrial migration along actin filaments; recruited to cortical actin patches by SH3 domain-containing proteins Bbc1p and Abp1p
YER071C TDA2 Subunit of a complex that associates with actin filaments; forms a complex with Aim21p that inhibits barbed end F-actin assembly; elevates actin monomer pools to increase endocytotic efficiency and to regulate the distribution of actin between cables and patches; Aim21p/Tda2p forms a larger complex with actin capping proteins Cap1p and Cap2p; TcTex1-type dynein light chain family member; null mutant is sensitive to expression of the top1-T722A allele
YOL077W-A ATP19 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit k Subunit k of the mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; associated only with the dimeric form of ATP synthase
YGL187C COX4 cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV Subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase; the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; precursor N-terminal 25 residues are cleaved during mitochondrial import; phosphorylated; spermidine enhances translation
YPR036W VMA13 CLS11 | H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit H Subunit H of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; serves as an activator or a structural stabilizer of the V-ATPase; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits
YLR295C ATP14 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit h Subunit h of the F0 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YHR039C-A VMA10 H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit G | YHR039BC | YHR039C-B Subunit G of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; involved in vacuolar acidification; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits
YPR020W ATP20 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit g Subunit g of the mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; reversibly phosphorylated on two residues; unphosphorylated form is required for dimerization of the ATP synthase complex, which in turn determines oligomerization of the complex and the shape of inner membrane cristae
YGR020C VMA7 H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit F Subunit F of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; required for the V1 domain to assemble onto the vacuolar membrane; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits
YDR377W ATP17 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit f Subunit f of the F0 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis
YOR332W VMA4 H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit E Subunit E of the V1 domain of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase); V-ATPase is an electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; V1 domain has eight subunits; required for the V1 domain to assemble onto the vacuolar membrane; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR322C-A TIM11 ATP21 | F1F0 ATP synthase subunit e Subunit e of mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase; ATPase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; essential for the dimeric and oligomeric state of ATP synthase, which in turn determines the shape of inner membrane cristae
YEL051W VMA8 H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit D Subunit D of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; plays a role in the coupling of proton transport and ATP hydrolysis; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits
YLR447C VMA6 H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit d Subunit d of the V0 integral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found in the endomembrane system; required for V1 domain assembly on the vacuolar membrane; the V0 integral membrane domain of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has five subunits
YKL016C ATP7 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit d Subunit d of the stator stalk of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis
YHR026W VMA16 H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit c'' | PPA1 Subunit c'' of the vacuolar ATPase; v-ATPase functions in acidification of the vacuole; one of three proteolipid subunits of the V0 domain
YKL080W VMA5 CSL5 | H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit C | VAT3 Subunit C of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; required for the V1 domain to assemble onto the vacuolar membrane; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits
YBR127C VMA2 ATPSV | H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit B | VAT2 Subunit B of V1 peripheral membrane domain of vacuolar H+-ATPase; electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; contains nucleotide binding sites; also detected in the cytoplasm; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human homolog ATP6V1B1, implicated in autosomal-recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) with sensorineural deafness, complements yeast null mutant
YPL078C ATP4 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit 4 | LPF7 Subunit b of the stator stalk of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; contributes to the oligomerization of the complex, which in turn determines the shape of inner membrane cristae; phosphorylated
YPL037C EGD1 Subunit beta1 of the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC); involved in protein targeting, associated with cytoplasmic ribosomes; enhances DNA binding of the Gal4p activator; homolog of human BTF3b; EGD1 has a paralog, BTT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR270C VPH1 H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit a Subunit a of vacuolar-ATPase V0 domain; one of two isoforms (Vph1p and Stv1p); Vph1p is located in V-ATPase complexes of the vacuole while Stv1p is located in V-ATPase complexes of the Golgi and endosomes; relative distribution to the vacuolar membrane decreases upon DNA replication stress; human homolog ATP6V0A4 implicated in renal tubular acidosis, can complement yeast null mutant
YMR054W STV1 H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit a Subunit a of the vacuolar-ATPase V0 domain; one of two isoforms (Stv1p and Vph1p); Stv1p is located in V-ATPase complexes of the Golgi and endosomes while Vph1p is located in V-ATPase complexes of the vacuole
YDL185W VMA1 CLS8 | H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit A | TFP1 Subunit A of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; protein precursor undergoes self-catalyzed splicing to yield the extein Tfp1p and the intein Vde (PI-SceI), which is a site-specific endonuclease; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits; involved in methionine restriction extension of chronological lifespan in an autophagy-dependent manner
YFR030W MET10 sulfite reductase subunit alpha Subunit alpha of assimilatory sulfite reductase; complex converts sulfite into sulfide
YBR198C TAF5 chromatin modification protein | TAF90 | TafII90 Subunit (90 kDa) of TFIID and SAGA complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification
YJL166W QCR8 COR5 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase subunit 8 Subunit 8 of ubiquinol cytochrome-c reductase (Complex III); Complex III is a component of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; oriented facing the intermembrane space; expression is regulated by Abf1p and Cpf1p
YDR529C QCR7 COR4 | CRO1 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase subunit 7 | UCR7 Subunit 7 of ubiquinol cytochrome-c reductase (Complex III); Complex III is a component of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; oriented facing the mitochondrial matrix; N-terminus appears to play a role in complex assembly
YFR033C QCR6 COR3 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase subunit 6 | UCR6 Subunit 6 of the ubiquinol cytochrome-c reductase complex; the complex, also known as the cytochrome bc(1) complex or Complex III, is a component of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; highly acidic protein; required for maturation of cytochrome c1; may be loosely associated with the complex since it is easily released into the intermembrane space
YDR145W TAF12 TAF61 | TAF68 | TafII61 | TafII68 Subunit (61/68 kDa) of TFIID and SAGA complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification, similar to histone H2A; overexpression of the human ortholog, TAF12, an oncogene involved in the formation of choroid plexus carcinomas, results in dosage chromosomal instability (dCIN) in a human cell line similar to the dCIN observed in yeast overexpressors
YGL112C TAF6 TAF60 | TafII60 Subunit (60 kDa) of TFIID and SAGA complexes; involved in transcription initiation of RNA polymerase II and in chromatin modification, similar to histone H4; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YDR298C ATP5 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit 5 | OSC1 Subunit 5 of the stator stalk of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; homologous to bovine subunit OSCP (oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein); phosphorylated
YPR191W QCR2 COR2 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase subunit 2 | UCR2 Subunit 2 of ubiquinol cytochrome-c reductase (Complex III); Complex III is a component of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; phosphorylated; transcription is regulated by Hap1p, Hap2p/Hap3p, and heme
YMR236W TAF9 chromatin modification protein | TAF17 | TafII17 Subunit (17 kDa) of TFIID and SAGA complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification, similar to histone H3
YDR167W TAF10 TAF23 | TAF25 | TafII25 Subunit (145 kDa) of TFIID and SAGA complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification
YJR067C YAE1 Substrate-specific adaptor protein involved in apo-Rli1p maturation; subunit of the Yae1-Lto1 complex, recruiting apo-Rli1p to the CIA targeting complex, facilitating the insertion of an Fe/S cluster by the Fe-S biosynthetic machinery; deca-GX3 motif crucial for complex formation; essential for aerobic but not anaerobic growth; homolog of human YAE1D1, which is overexpressed in oral cancers; co-expression of YAE1D1 and LTO1 homolog ORAOV1 restores growth and Rli1p maturation after YAE1 depletion
YGR048W UFD1 polyubiquitin-binding protein UFD1 Substrate-recruiting cofactor of the Cdc48p-Npl4p-Ufd1p segregase; polyubiquitin binding protein that assists in the dislocation of misfolded, ERAD substrates that are subsequently delivered to the proteasome for degradation; involved in regulated destruction of ER membrane proteins such as HMG-CoA reductase (Hmg1/2p) and cytoplasmic proteins (Fbp1p); involved in mobilizing membrane bound transcription factors by regulated Ub/proteasome-dependent processing (RUP)
YBR170C NPL4 HRD4 Substrate-recruiting cofactor of the Cdc48p-Npl4p-Ufd1p segregase; assists Cdc48p in the dislocation of misfolded, polyubiquitinated ERAD substrates that are subsequently delivered to the proteasome for degradation; also involved in the regulated destruction of resident ER membrane proteins, such as HMG-CoA reductase (Hmg1/2p) and cytoplasmic proteins (Fbp1p); role in mobilizing membrane bound transcription factors by regulated ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent processing (RUP)
YLR194C NCW2 Structural constituent of the cell wall; attached to the plasma membrane by a GPI-anchor; expression is upregulated in response to cell wall stress; null mutant is sensitive to the antifungal agent polyhexamethylene biguanide, resistant to zymolyase treatment and has increased chitin deposition
YLR208W SEC13 ANU3 | GTPase-activating protein SEC13 Structural component of 3 complexes; subunit of the Nup84p nuclear pore subcomplex that contributes to nucleocytoplasmic transport and NPC biogenesis; subunit of the COPII vesicle coat required for ER-to-Golgi transport; subunit of SEACAT, a subcomplex of the coatomer-related, vacuolar-associated SEA complex, that inhibits the TORC1 inhibitory role of SEACIT (Iml1p-Npr2p-Npr3p), a GAP for Gtr1p, thereby resulting in activation of TORC1 signaling; human SEC13 homolog
YMR037C MSN2 stress-responsive transcriptional activator MSN2 Stress-responsive transcriptional activator; activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization in response to various stress conditions; binds DNA at stress response elements of responsive genes; relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YIL113W SDP1 mitogen-activated protein kinase tyrosine protein phosphatase SDP1 Stress-inducible dual-specificity MAP kinase phosphatase; negatively regulates Slt2p MAP kinase by direct dephosphorylation, diffuse localization under normal conditions shifts to punctate localization after heat shock; SDP1 has a paralog, MSG5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR453C TSA2 cTPxII | thioredoxin peroxidase TSA2 Stress inducible cytoplasmic thioredoxin peroxidase; cooperates with Tsa1p in the removal of reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species using thioredoxin as hydrogen donor; deletion enhances the mutator phenotype of tsa1 mutants; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TSA2 has a paralog, TSA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER095W RAD51 MUT5 | recombinase RAD51 Strand exchange protein; forms a helical filament with DNA that searches for homology; involved in the recombinational repair of double-strand breaks in DNA during vegetative growth and meiosis; homolog of Dmc1p and bacterial RecA protein
YLR096W KIN2 serine/threonine protein kinase KIN2 S/T protein kinase; regulates polarized exocytosis and the Ire1p-mediated UPR; regulates HAC1 mRNA translocation, splicing and translation with KIN1 during ER stress; direct phosphorylation of Sec9p (S190) is enhanced by prior substrate priming (S192); localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the PM and sites of polarized growth; may regulate septin and cell wall organization; activation loop phosphorylation (T281) required for full kinase activity; orthologous to MARK/PAR-1, AMPK family members
YDR122W KIN1 serine/threonine protein kinase KIN1 S/T protein kinase; regulates polarized exocytosis and the Ire1p-mediated unfolded protein response; regulates HAC1 mRNA translocation, splicing and translation with KIN2 during ER stress; direct phosphorylation of the substrate Sec9p (S190) is enhanced by prior substrate priming (S192); localizes to the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane; activation loop phosphorylation (T302) required for full kinase activity; orthologous to MARK/PAR-1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family members
YKL126W YPK1 serine/threonine protein kinase YPK1 | SLI2 S/T protein kinase; phosphorylates, downregulates flippase activator Fpk1p; inactivates Orm1p and Orm2p by phosphorylation in response to compromised sphingolipid synthesis; involved in the TORC-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins Rps6a/b (S6); mutations affect receptor-mediated endocytosis and sphingolipid-mediated and cell integrity signaling pathways; human homolog SGK1 can complement a null mutant; human homolog SGK2 can complement a ypk1 ypk2 double mutant
YLL012W YEH1 sterol esterase Steryl ester hydrolase; one of three gene products (Yeh1p, Yeh2p, Tgl1p) responsible for steryl ester hydrolase activity and involved in sterol homeostasis; localized to lipid particle membranes; YEH1 has a paralog, YEH2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL140W TGL1 YKL5 Steryl ester hydrolase; one of three gene products (Yeh1p, Yeh2p, Tgl1p) responsible for steryl ester hydrolase activity and involved in sterol homeostasis; localized to lipid particle membranes
YLR020C YEH2 sterol esterase Steryl ester hydrolase; catalyzes steryl ester hydrolysis at the plasma membrane; involved in sterol metabolism; YEH2 has a paralog, YEH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIR007W EGH1 hydrolase Steryl-beta-glucosidase with broad specificity for aglycones; has a role in ergosteryl-beta-glucoside catabolism; required for normal vacuolar morphology; has similarity to the C. neoformans ergosteryl-beta-glucosidase EGCrP2; localizes to the cytosol
YDL046W NPC2 sterol transporter Sterol transport protein and functional homolog of human NPC2/He1; human NPC2 is a cholesterol-binding protein whose deficiency causes Niemann-Pick type C2 disease involving retention of cholesterol in lysosomes; yeast NPC2 can complement mutations in human NPC2
YLR072W LAM6 LTC1 Sterol transporter that transfers sterols between membranes; may regulate and coordinate formation of contact sites between organelles; localizes to ER-mitochondrial contact sites in a Tom70p- and Tom71p-dependent manner; mitochondrial localization requires GRAM domain; also localizes to ER-vacuole contact sites, in a Vac8p-dependent manner; has GRAM and StART-like (VASt) domains; one of six StART-like domain-containing proteins in yeast; conserved across eukaryotes
YLR228C ECM22 Sterol regulatory element binding protein; regulates transcription of sterol biosynthetic genes upon sterol depletion, after relocating from intracellular membranes to perinuclear foci; redundant activator of filamentation with UPC2, up-regulating the expression of genes involved in filamentous growth; contains Zn[2]-Cys[6] binuclear cluster; ECM22 has a paralog, UPC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR213W UPC2 MOX4 Sterol regulatory element binding protein; induces sterol biosynthetic genes, upon sterol depletion; acts as a sterol sensor, binding ergosterol in sterol rich conditions; relocates from intracellular membranes to perinuclear foci upon sterol depletion; redundant activator of filamentation with ECM22, up-regulating the expression of filamentous growth genes; contains a Zn[2]-Cys[6] binuclear cluster; UPC2 has a paralog, ECM22, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR263C SAY1 steryl deacetylase Sterol deacetylase; component of the sterol acetylation/deacetylation cycle along with Atf2p; active both in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in lipid droplets; integral membrane protein with active site in the ER lumen; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the ER
YJL079C PRY1 sterol-binding protein Sterol binding protein involved in the export of acetylated sterols; secreted glycoprotein and member of the CAP protein superfamily (cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP), antigen 5, and pathogenesis related 1 proteins); sterol export function is redundant with that of PRY2; may be involved in detoxification of hydrophobic compounds; PRY1 has a paralog, PRY2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR013W PRY2 sterol-binding protein | YFW12 Sterol binding protein involved in the export of acetylated sterols; secreted glycoprotein and member of the CAP protein superfamily (cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP), antigen 5, and pathogenesis related 1 proteins); sterol export function is redundant with that of PRY1; may be involved in detoxification of hydrophobic compounds; PRY2 has a paralog, PRY1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR326C YSP2 LAM2 | LTC4 Sterol-binding protein; has a probable role in retrograde transport of sterols from the plasma membrane to the ER; contains two StART-like domains that bind sterols and a GRAM domain; co-localizes to puncta in the cortical ER with Sip3p; one of six StART-like domain-containing proteins in yeast that may be involved in sterol transfer between intracellular membranes; conserved across eukaryotes
YER019C-A SBH2 Arf family guanine nucleotide exchange factor SBH2 | SEB2 Ssh1p-Sss1p-Sbh2p complex component; involved in protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum; SBH2 has a paralog, SBH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR028C-A RIM1 ssDNA-binding protein essential for mitochondrial genome maintenance; involved in mitochondrial DNA replication; stimulates utilization by Mip1p DNA polymerase of RNA primers synthesized by Rpo41p
YMR216C SKY1 serine/threonine protein kinase SKY1 SR protein kinase (SRPK); involved in regulating proteins involved in mRNA metabolism and cation homeostasis; similar to human SRPK1
YGR175C ERG1 squalene monooxygenase Squalene epoxidase; catalyzes the epoxidation of squalene to 2,3-oxidosqualene; plays an essential role in the ergosterol-biosynthesis pathway and is the specific target of the antifungal drug terbinafine; human SQLE functionally complements the lethality of the erg1 null mutation
YML010W SPT5 transcription elongation factor SPT5 Spt4p/5p (DSIF) transcription elongation factor complex subunit; the Spt4/5 complex binds to ssRNA in a sequence-specific manner, and in concert with RNAP I and II has multiple roles regulating transcriptional elongation, RNA processing, quality control, and transcription-coupled repair; interacts with DNA upstream of RNAPII and the non-template strand of the transcription bubble; Spt5p is the only transcription elongation factor conserved in all domains of life
YGR063C SPT4 transcription elongation factor SPT4 Spt4p/5p (DSIF) transcription elongation factor complex subunit; the Spt4/5 complex binds to ssRNA in a sequence-specific manner, and along with RNAP I and II has multiple roles regulating transcriptional elongation, RNA processing, quality control, and transcription-coupled repair; localizes to kinetochores and heterochromatin, influencing chromosomal dynamics and silencing; required for transcription through long trinucleotide repeats in ORFs and non-protein coding regions
YIR021W MRS1 PET157 Splicing protein; required for splicing of two mitochondrial group I introns (BI3 in COB and AI5beta in COX1); forms a splicing complex, containing four subunits of Mrs1p and two subunits of the BI3-encoded maturase, that binds to the BI3 RNA; MRS1 has a paralog, CCE1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR268C PRP24 U6 snRNP complex subunit PRP24 Splicing factor that reanneals snRNPs during spliceosome recycling; reanneals U4 and U6 snRNPs
YGR093W DRN1 Splicing factor that modulates turnover of branched RNAs by Dbr1p; interacts with spliceosomal components and branched RNA splicing products; enhances Dbr1p debranching in vitro; conserved protein with domain organization identical from yeast to human; N-terminal homology to Dbr1p N-terminus, but Dbr1p catalytic residues not conserved; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YNL245C CWC25 U2-type spliceosomal complex subunit CWC25 Splicing factor required for the first step of pre-mRNA splicing; binding to the spliceosome requires Prp2p and Yju2p; heat-stable protein; has similarity to S. pombe Cwf25p
YGR091W PRP31 U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex subunit PRP31 Splicing factor; component of the U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex
YBR055C PRP6 RNA6 | TSM7269 | U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex subunit PRP6 Splicing factor; component of the U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex
YPR178W PRP4 RNA4 | U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex subunit PRP4 Splicing factor; component of the U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex
YDR473C PRP3 RNA3 | U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex subunit PRP3 Splicing factor; component of the U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex
YLL036C PRP19 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase PRP19 | PSO4 Splicing factor associated with the spliceosome; contains a U-box, a motif found in a class of ubiquitin ligases, and a WD40 domain; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YGR278W CWC22 U2-type spliceosomal complex subunit CWC22 Spliceosome-associated protein that is required for pre-mRNA splicing; necessary for Prp2p function at the first catalytic step of splicing; has similarity to S. pombe Cwf22p; CWC22 is an essential protein
YPL269W KAR9 Spindle positioning factor; orients astral microtubules, connecting them to actin cables at the cortex with Bim1p and Myo2, resulting in proper spindle positioning; targeted for StuBL-dependent degradation at kinetochores by Slx5p-Slx8p, ensuring chromosome transmission fidelity and correct spindle positioning; role in karyogamy; localizes to the shmoo tip, the growing bud-tip, the nucleus, the kinetochore, the spindle and microtubules; homolog of adenomatous polyposis coli
YLR457C NBP1 Spindle pole body (SPB) component; required for the insertion of the duplication plaque into the nuclear membrane during SPB duplication; essential for bipolar spindle formation; component of the Mps2p-Bbp1p complex; NBP1 has a paralog, YPR174C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR130C FIN1 Spindle pole body-related intermediate filament protein; forms cell cycle-specific filaments between spindle pole bodies in dividing cells; localizes to poles and microtubules of spindle during anaphase and contributes to spindle stability; involved in Glc7p localization and regulation; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YMR272C SCS7 FAH1 | fatty acid alpha-hydroxylase Sphingolipid alpha-hydroxylase; functions in the alpha-hydroxylation of sphingolipid-associated very long chain fatty acids, has both cytochrome b5-like and hydroxylase/desaturase domains, not essential for growth
YOR171C LCB4 sphinganine kinase LCB4 Sphingoid long-chain base kinase; responsible for synthesis of long-chain base phosphates, which function as signaling molecules, regulates synthesis of ceramide from exogenous long-chain bases, localizes to the Golgi and late endosomes; LCB4 has a paralog, LCB5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR297W SUR2 sphingosine hydroxylase | SYR2 Sphinganine C4-hydroxylase; catalyses the conversion of sphinganine to phytosphingosine in sphingolipid biosyntheis
YCL061C MRC1 chromatin-modulating protein MRC1 | YCL060C S-phase checkpoint protein required for DNA replication; couples DNA helicase and polymerase; interacts with and stabilizes Pol2p at stalled replication forks during stress, where it forms a pausing complex with Tof1p and is phosphorylated by Mec1p; defines a novel S-phase checkpoint with Hog1p that coordinates DNA replication and transcription upon osmostress; protects uncapped telomeres; Dia2p-dependent degradation mediates checkpoint recovery; mammalian claspin homolog
YLR146C SPE4 spermine synthase Spermine synthase; required for the biosynthesis of spermine and also involved in biosynthesis of pantothenic acid
YPR069C SPE3 spermidine synthase Spermidine synthase; involved in biosynthesis of spermidine and also in biosynthesis of pantothenic acid; spermidine is required for growth of wild-type cells
YLR203C MSS51 Specific translational activator for the mitochondrial COX1 mRNA; loosely associated with the matrix face of the mitochondrial inner membrane; localizes to vacuole membrane in response to H2O2; influences both COX1 mRNA translation and Cox1p assembly into cytochrome c oxidase; binds to heme B, which may be a mechanism for sensing oxygen levels in order to regulate cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis
YIL070C MAM33 Specific translational activator for the mitochondrial COX1 mRNA; acidic protein of the mitochondrial matrix; related to the human complement receptor gC1q-R
YDR350C ATP22 TCM10 Specific translational activator for the mitochondrial ATP6 mRNA; Atp6p encodes a subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase; localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane
YLR067C PET309 Specific translational activator for the COX1 mRNA; binds to the COX1 mRNA; also influences stability of intron-containing COX1 primary transcripts; localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane; contains 12 pentatricopeptide repeats (PPRs)
YMR171C EAR1 Specificity factor required for Rsp5p-dependent ubiquitination; also required for sorting of specific cargo proteins at the multivesicular body; mRNA is targeted to the bud via the mRNA transport system involving She2p
YMR131C RRB1 ribosome biosynthesis protein RRB1 Specific chaperone for ribosomal protein Rpl3p; binds to nascent Rpl3p during translation; essential gene
YIR012W SQT1 Specific chaperone for ribosomal protein Rpl10p; binds nascent Rpl10p during translation; contains multiple WD repeats; interacts with Qsr1p in a two-hybrid assay; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR161W ACL4 Specific assembly chaperone for ribosomal protein Rpl4p; binds to an evolutionarily conserved surface extension of nascent Rpl4p and chaperones Rpl4p until its assembly into the pre-ribosome; transcriptionally co-regulated with rRNA and ribosome biosynthesis genes
YGL018C JAC1 J-type chaperone JAC1 Specialized J-protein that functions in Fe-S cluster biogenesis; functions with Hsp70 in Fe-S cluster biogenesis in mitochondria; involved in iron metabolism; contains a J domain typical to J-type chaperones; localizes to the mitochondrial matrix
YDR425W SNX41 Sorting nexin; involved in the retrieval of late-Golgi SNAREs from the post-Golgi endosome to the trans-Golgi network; interacts with Snx4p
YJL036W SNX4 ATG24 | CVT13 Sorting nexin; involved in retrieval of late-Golgi SNAREs from post-Golgi endosomes to the trans-Golgi network and in cytoplasm to vacuole transport; contains a PX phosphoinositide-binding domain; forms complexes with Snx41p and with Atg20p
YOR357C SNX3 GRD19 Sorting nexin for late-Golgi enzymes; required to maintain late-Golgi resident enzymes in their proper location by recycling molecules from the prevacuolar compartment; contains a PX domain and sequence similarity to human Snx3p
YDL113C ATG20 CVT20 | SNX42 Sorting nexin family member; required for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway and for endosomal sorting; has a Phox homology domain that binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; interacts with Snx4p; potential Cdc28p substrate
YBR164C ARL1 Arf family GTPase ARL1 | DLP2 Soluble GTPase with a role in regulation of membrane traffic; regulates potassium influx; role in membrane organization at trans-Golgi network; required for delivery of Atg9p to the phagophore assembly site during autophagy under high temperature stress; required with Ypt6p for starvation-induced autophagy; required for the CVT pathway under non-starvation conditions; G protein of the Ras superfamily, similar to ADP-ribosylation factor
YEL047C FRD1 FRDS1 | fumarate reductase Soluble fumarate reductase; required with isoenzyme Osm1p for anaerobic growth; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; similar to Arxula adeninovorans fumarate reductase; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; FRD1 has a paralog, OSM1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR057W BRR1 snRNP protein component of spliceosomal snRNPs; required for pre-mRNA splicing and snRNP biogenesis; in null mutant newly-synthesized snRNAs are destabilized and 3'-end processing is slowed
YAL019W FUN30 DNA-dependent ATPase FUN30 Snf2p family member with ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity; has a role in silencing at the mating type locus, telomeres and centromeres; enriched at centromeres and is required for correct chromatin structure around centromeres, as well as at the boundary element of the silent HMR; recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) where it promotes 5' strand resection of DSBs; potential Cdc28p substrate
YHR123W EPT1 bifunctional diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase/ethanolaminephosphotransferase sn-1,2-diacylglycerol ethanolamine- and cholinephosphotranferase; not essential for viability; EPT1 has a paralog, CPT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR164C SEC1 Sm-like protein involved in docking and fusion of exocytic vesicles; binds to assembled SNARE complexes at the membrane and stimulates membrane fusion; localization to sites of secretion (bud neck and bud tip) is dependent on SNARE function; interacts directly with essential exocyst subunit Sec6p
YLL062C MHT1 S-adenosylmethionine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase MHT1 S-methylmethionine-homocysteine methyltransferase; functions along with Sam4p in the conversion of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to methionine to control the methionine/AdoMet ratio
YJL069C UTP18 Small-subunit processome protein involved in pre-18S rRNA maturation; part of a subunit of the 90S preribosomal particle capable of interacting directly with the 5' ETS of the 35S pre-rRNA; contains WD40 repeats
YPL178W CBC2 CBP20 | MUD13 | SAE1 Small subunit of the heterodimeric cap binding complex with Sto1p; interacts with Npl3p, possibly to package mRNA for export from the nucleus; may have a role in telomere maintenance; contains an RNA-binding motif
YJL024C APS3 YKS7 Small subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor complex AP-3; involved in vacuolar protein sorting; related to the sigma subunit of the mammalian clathrin AP-3 complex; suppressor of loss of casein kinase 1 function; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YJR058C APS2 YAP17 Small subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor complex AP-2; AP-2 is involved in protein sorting at the plasma membrane; related to the sigma subunit of the mammalian plasma membrane clathrin-associated protein (AP-2) complex
YOR303W CPA1 carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) CPA1 Small subunit of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase; carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes a step in the synthesis of citrulline, an arginine precursor; translationally regulated by an attenuator peptide encoded by YOR302W within the CPA1 mRNA 5'-leader
YDR276C PMP3 SNA1 Small plasma membrane protein; confers resistance to amphotericin B and is a potential target of this common antifungal drug; related to a family of plant polypeptides that are overexpressed under high salt concentration or low temperature; not essential for viability; deletion causes hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane potential
YBR072W HSP26 chaperone protein HSP26 Small heat shock protein (sHSP) with chaperone activity; forms hollow, sphere-shaped oligomers that suppress unfolded proteins aggregation; long-lived protein that is preferentially retained in mother cells and forms cytoplasmic foci; oligomer activation requires heat-induced conformational change; also has mRNA binding activity
YDR171W HSP42 heat shock protein HSP42 Small heat shock protein (sHSP) with chaperone activity; forms barrel-shaped oligomers that suppress unfolded protein aggregation; involved in cytoskeleton reorganization after heat shock; protein abundance increases and forms cytoplasmic foci in response to DNA replication stress
YGL213C SKI8 REC103 | SKI complex subunit WD repeat protein SKI8 Ski complex component and WD-repeat protein; mediates 3'-5' RNA degradation by the cytoplasmic exosome; also required for meiotic double-strand break recombination; null mutants have superkiller phenotype
YPR189W SKI3 SKI5 | SKI complex subunit tetratricopeptide repeat protein SKI3 Ski complex component and TPR protein; mediates 3'-5' RNA degradation by the cytoplasmic exosome; null mutants have superkiller phenotype of increased viral dsRNAs and are synthetic lethal with mutations in 5'-3' mRNA decay; mutations in the human ortholog, TTC37, causes Syndromic diarrhea/Trichohepatoenteric (SD/THE) syndrome
YLR398C SKI2 SKI complex RNA helicase subunit SKI2 Ski complex component and putative RNA helicase; mediates 3'-5' RNA degradation by the cytoplasmic exosome; null mutants have superkiller phenotype of increased viral dsRNAs and are synthetic lethal with mutations in 5'-3' mRNA decay; mutations in the human ortholog, SKIV2L, causes Syndromic diarrhea/Trichohepatoenteric (SD/THE) syndrome
YDL227C HO Site-specific endonuclease; required for gene conversion at the MAT locus (homothallic switching) through the generation of a ds DNA break; expression restricted to mother cells in late G1 as controlled by Swi4p-Swi6p, Swi5p, and Ash1p
YDR227W SIR4 ASD1 | chromatin-silencing protein SIR4 | STE9 | UTH2 SIR protein involved in assembly of silent chromatin domains; silent information regulator (SIR) along with SIR2 and SIR3; involved in assembly of silent chromatin domains at telomeres and the silent mating-type loci; some alleles of SIR4 prolong lifespan; required for telomere hypercluster formation in quiescent yeast cells
YKL108W SLD2 DRC1 Single-stranded DNA origin-binding and annealing protein; required for initiation of DNA replication; phosphorylated in S phase by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), promoting origin binding, DNA replication and Dpb11p complex formation; component of the preloading complex; binds the Mcm2-7p complex to prevent inappropriate Mcm2-7p interaction with the GINS complex in G1; required for S phase checkpoint; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YML095C RAD10 Single-stranded DNA endonuclease (with Rad1p); cleaves single-stranded DNA during nucleotide excision repair and double-strand break repair; subunit of Nucleotide Excision Repair Factor 1 (NEF1); homolog of human ERCC1 protein
YPL022W RAD1 LPB9 | RAD12 | ssDNA endodeoxyribonuclease RAD1 Single-stranded DNA endonuclease (with Rad10p); cleaves single-stranded DNA during nucleotide excision repair and double-strand break repair; subunit of Nucleotide Excision Repair Factor 1 (NEF1); homolog of human XPF protein
YGR258C RAD2 ssDNA endodeoxyribonuclease RAD2 Single-stranded DNA endonuclease; cleaves single-stranded DNA during nucleotide excision repair to excise damaged DNA; subunit of Nucleotide Excision Repair Factor 3 (NEF3); homolog of human XPG protein
YDL220C CDC13 EST4 | telomere-binding protein CDC13 Single stranded DNA-binding protein found at TG1-3 telomere G-tails; key roles in regulation of telomerase, telomere end protection, conventional telomere replication; regulates telomere replication through recruitment of specific sub-complexes, essential function is telomere capping; forms homodimer via N-terminus; disruption of dimerization leads to short telomeres; autophagy and proteasome are involved in Cdc13p degradation; differentially phosphorylated through cell cycle
YLR345W bifunctional fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 2-phosphatase/6-phosphofructo-2-kinase Similar to 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase enzymes; mRNA expression is repressed by the Rfx1p-Tup1p-Ssn6p repressor complex; YLR345W is not an essential gene
YLR442C SIR3 chromatin-silencing protein SIR3 | CMT1 | MAR2 | STE8 Silencing protein; interacts with Sir2p, Sir4p, and histone H3/H4 tails to establish transcriptionally silent chromatin; required for spreading of silenced chromatin; recruited to chromatin through interaction with Rap1p; C-terminus assumes variant winged helix-turn-helix (wH) fold that mediates homodimerization, which is critical for holo-SIR complex loading; required for telomere hypercluster formation in quiescent yeast cells; has paralog ORC1 from whole genome duplication
YLR362W STE11 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase STE11 Signal transducing MEK kinase; involved in pheromone response and pseudohyphal/invasive growth pathways where it phosphorylates Ste7p, and the high osmolarity response pathway, via phosphorylation of Pbs2p; regulated by Ste20p and Ste50p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDL159W STE7 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase STE7 Signal transducing MAP kinase kinase; involved in pheromone response where it phosphorylates Fus3p; involved in the pseudohyphal/invasive growth pathway where it phosphorylates of Kss1p; phosphorylated by Ste11p; degraded by ubiquitin pathway
YDL092W SRP14 RNA-binding signal recognition particle subunit SRP14 Signal recognition particle (SRP) subunit; interacts with the RNA component of SRP to form the Alu domain, which is the region of SRP responsible for arrest of nascent chain elongation during membrane targeting; homolog of mammalian SRP14
YKL154W SRP102 Signal recognition particle receptor subunit beta Signal recognition particle (SRP) receptor beta subunit; involved in SRP-dependent protein targeting; anchors the alpha subunit, Srp101p to the ER membrane
YJL122W ALB1 Shuttling pre-60S factor; involved in the biogenesis of ribosomal large subunit; interacts directly with Arx1p; responsible for Tif6p recycling defects in absence of Rei1p
YDL223C HBT1 Shmoo tip protein, substrate of Hub1p ubiquitin-like protein; mutants are defective for mating projection formation, thereby implicating Hbt1p in polarized cell morphogenesis; HBT1 has a paralog, YNL195C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL117W CYK3 SH3-domain protein located in the bud neck and cytokinetic actin ring; relocalizes from bud neck to nucleus upon DNA replication stress; activates the chitin synthase activity of Chs2p during cytokinesis; suppressor of growth and cytokinesis defects of chs2 phospho-mutants
YHR114W BZZ1 LSB7 SH3 domain protein implicated in regulating actin polymerization; able to recruit actin polymerization machinery through its SH3 domains; colocalizes with cortical actin patches and Las17p; interacts with type I myosins
YKR076W ECM4 GTO2 | S-glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductase S-glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductase (GS-HQR); glutathione transferase involved in cell-surface biosynthesis and architecture; catalyzes glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of GS-trichloro-p-hydroquinone to trichloro-p-hydroquinone; expression upregulated upon exposure to genotoxic agents, such as methyl methanesulfonate, cisplatin and bleomycin; not an essential gene; similar to YGR154C; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to cytoplasm
YPL208W RKM1 protein-lysine N-methyltransferase SET-domain lysine-N-methyltransferase; catalyzes the formation of dimethyllysine residues on the large ribosomal subunit proteins L23 (Rpl23Ap and Rpl23Bp) and monomethyllysine residues on L18 (Rps18Ap and Rps18Bp)
YIL095W PRK1 PAK1 | serine/threonine protein kinase PRK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase; regulates the organization and function of the actin cytoskeleton; inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis; phosphorylates the Pan1p and Sla1p subunits of the Pan1p-Sla1p-End3p complex, resulting in inhibition of complex formation; inhibits Scd5p through phosphorylation; phosphorylates Pan1p-interacting proteins, Ent1/2 and Yap1801/2; negatively regulated through autophosphorylation; functional overlap with ARK1
YNR047W FPK1 serine/threonine protein kinase FPK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase; phosphorylates several aminophospholipid translocase family members, regulating phospholipid translocation and membrane asymmetry; phosphorylates and inhibits the protein kinase Akl1p, stimulating endocytosis; phosphorylates and inhibits upstream inhibitory kinase, Ypk1p; localizes to the cytoplasm, early endosome/TGN, the plasma membrane and the shmoo tip; redundant role with KIN82 in the mating pheromone response; activity stimulated by MIPC, a complex sphingolipid
YNL020C ARK1 serine/threonine protein kinase ARK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase; phosphorylates Pan1p-Sla1p-End3p protein complex subunits, Pan1p and Sla1p; involved in regulation of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and endocytosis; functional overlap with PRK1
YBR059C AKL1 serine/threonine protein kinase AKL1 Ser/Thr protein kinase; phosphorylates Pan1p, Sla1p and Ent1p to negatively regulate endocytosis in response to membrane stress; regulates actin cytoskeleton organization and clathrin-dependent endocytosis; phosphorylated and inhibited by upstream kinase, Fpk1p; member, along with Ark1p and Prk1p, of the Ark kinase family
YGR092W DBF2 serine/threonine-protein kinase DBF2 Ser/Thr kinase involved in transcription and stress response; functions as part of a network of genes in exit from mitosis; localization is cell cycle regulated; activated by Cdc15p during the exit from mitosis; also plays a role in regulating the stability of SWI5 and CLB2 mRNAs; phosphorylates Chs2p to regulate primary septum formation and Hof1p to regulate cytokinesis; DBF2 has a paralog, DBF20, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR111W DBF20 serine/threonine-protein kinase DBF20 Ser/Thr kinase involved in late nuclear division; one of the mitotic exit network (MEN) proteins; necessary for the execution of cytokinesis; also plays a role in regulating the stability of SWI5 and CLB2 mRNAs; DBF20 has a paralog, DBF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL017W CDC7 LSD6 | SAS1 | serine/threonine protein kinase CDC7 Ser/Thr kinase and catalytic subunit of DDK (Dbf4-dependent kinase); required for origin firing and replication initiation; phosphorylates MCM subunits and Cdc45p to drive assembly of the pre-IC and the replicative CMG helicase (Cdc45-MCM-GINS); regulates pre-meiotic DNA replication, meiotic DSB formation, monopolar attachment of homologs during MI by recruiting monopolin to kinetochores, and regulation of middle meiotic genes including NDT80; complemented by co-expression of human CDC7 and DBF4
YER167W BCK2 CTR7 Serine/threonine-rich protein involved in PKC1 signaling pathway; protein kinase C (PKC1) signaling pathway controls cell integrity; overproduction suppresses pkc1 mutations
YML016C PPZ1 salt homeostasis regulator Serine/threonine protein phosphatase Z, isoform of Ppz2p; involved in regulation of potassium transport, which affects osmotic stability, cell cycle progression, and halotolerance
YDR436W PPZ2 salt homeostasis regulator Serine/threonine protein phosphatase Z, isoform of Ppz1p; involved in regulation of potassium transport, which affects osmotic stability, cell cycle progression, and halotolerance
YDL108W KIN28 TFIIH complex serine/threonine-protein kinase subunit KIN28 Serine/threonine protein kinase, subunit of transcription factor TFIIH; involved in transcription initiation at RNA polymerase II promoters; phosphorylates Ser5 residue of the PolII C-terminal domain (CTD) at gene promoters; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YKL048C ELM1 LDB9 | serine/threonine protein kinase ELM1 Serine/threonine protein kinase; regulates the orientation checkpoint, the morphogenesis checkpoint and the metabolic switch from fermentative to oxidative metabolism by phosphorylating the activation loop of Kin4p, Hsl1p and Snf4p respectively; cooperates with Hsl7p in recruiting Hsl1p to the septin ring, a prerequisite for subsequent recruitment, phosphorylation, and degradation of Swe1p; forms part of the bud neck ring; regulates cytokinesis
YNL161W CBK1 serine/threonine protein kinase CBK1 Serine/threonine protein kinase of the the RAM signaling network; Ndr/LATS family member; binds regulatory subunit Mob2p; involved in regulation of cellular morphogenesis, polarized growth, and septum destruction; phosphorylation by Cbk1p regulates localization and activity of Ace2p transcription factor and Ssd1p translational repressor; Cbk1p activity is regulated by both phosphorylation and specific localization; relocalizes to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YBR097W VPS15 GRD8 | ubiquitin-binding serine/threonine protein kinase VPS15 | VAC4 | VPL19 | VPS40 | VPT15 Serine/threonine protein kinase involved in vacuolar protein sorting; functions as a membrane-associated complex with Vps34p; active form recruits Vps34p to the Golgi membrane; interacts with the GDP-bound form of Gpa1p; myristoylated; a fraction is localized, with Vps34p, to nuclear pores at nucleus-vacuole junctions and may facilitate transcription elongation for genes positioned at the nuclear periphery
YOL100W PKH2 serine/threonine protein kinase PKH2 Serine/threonine protein kinase; involved in sphingolipid-mediated signaling pathway that controls endocytosis; activates Ypk1p and Ykr2p, components of signaling cascade required for maintenance of cell wall integrity; contains a PH-like domain; redundant with Pkh1p; PKH2 has a paralog, PKH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR059W PTK2 protein kinase PTK2 | STK2 Serine/threonine protein kinase; involved in regulation of ion transport across plasma membrane; carboxyl terminus is essential for glucose-dependent Pma1p activation via phosphorylation of Pma1p-Ser899; enhances spermine uptake; PTK2 has a paralog, PTK1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR233W KIN4 KIN3 | KIN31 | putative serine/threonine protein kinase KIN4 Serine/threonine protein kinase; inhibits the mitotic exit network (MEN) when the spindle position checkpoint is activated; localized asymmetrically to mother cell cortex, spindle pole body and bud neck; KIN4 has a paralog, FRK1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL116C PRR1 serine/threonine protein kinase PRR1 Serine/threonine protein kinase; inhibits pheromone induced signaling downstream of MAPK, possibly at the level of the Ste12p transcription factor
YHR082C KSP1 putative serine/threonine protein kinase KSP1 Serine/threonine protein kinase; associates with TORC1 and likely involved in TOR signaling cascades; negative regulator of autophagy; nuclear translocation required for haploid filamentous growth; regulates filamentous growth induced nuclear translocation of Bcy1p, Fus3p, and Sks1p; overproduction causes allele-specific suppression of prp20-10; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YHR030C SLT2 BYC2 | LYT2 | mitogen-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase SLT2 | MPK1 | SLK2 Serine/threonine MAP kinase; coordinates expression of all 19S regulatory particle assembly-chaperones (RACs) to control proteasome abundance; involved in regulating maintenance of cell wall integrity, cell cycle progression, nuclear mRNA retention in heat shock, septum assembly; required for mitophagy, pexophagy; affects recruitment of mitochondria to phagophore assembly site; plays role in adaptive response of cells to cold; regulated by the PKC1-mediated signaling pathway
YHR079C IRE1 bifunctional endoribonuclease/protein kinase IRE1 | ERN1 Serine-threonine kinase and endoribonuclease; transmembrane protein that mediates the unfolded protein response (UPR) by regulating Hac1p synthesis through HAC1 mRNA splicing; role in homeostatic adaptation to ER stress; Kar2p binds inactive Ire1p and releases from it upon ER stress
YBR274W CHK1 serine/threonine protein kinase CHK1 Serine/threonine kinase and DNA damage checkpoint effector; mediates cell cycle arrest via phosphorylation of Pds1p; phosphorylated by checkpoint signal transducer Mec1p; homolog of S. pombe and mammalian Chk1 checkpoint kinase
YOR344C TYE7 SGC1 Serine-rich protein that contains a bHLH DNA binding motif; binds E-boxes of glycolytic genes and contributes to their activation; may function as a transcriptional activator in Ty1-mediated gene expression; bHLH stands for basic-helix-loop-helix
YNL074C MLF3 YMK1 Serine-rich protein of unknown function; predicted to be palmitoylated; overproduction suppresses growth inhibition caused by exposure to immunosuppressant leflunomide; MLF3 has a paralog, VHS2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL123W NMA111 YNM3 Serine protease and general molecular chaperone; cleaves Roq1p, which modifies the substrate specificity of the Ubr1p Ub-ligase, promoting the stress-induced homeostatically-regulated protein degradation (SHRED) of misfolded and native ER-membrane and cytosolic proteins; chaperone activity involved in the heat stress response; promotes apoptosis through proteolysis of Bir1p; role in lipid homeostasis; mammalian Omi/HtrA2 serine protease family member
YML059C NTE1 lysophospholipase Serine esterase; homolog of human neuropathy target esterase (NTE); Nte1p-mediated phosphatidylcholine turnover influences transcription factor Opi1p localization, affecting transcriptional regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis genes
YGR098C ESP1 separase Separase/separin, a caspase-like cysteine protease; cleaves Mcd1p/Scc1p, a mitotic cohesin complex subunit, resulting in the dissociation of cohesin from chromatin and sister chromatid separation; cleaves meiotic-cohesin subunit Rec8p along chromosome arms in meiosis I and at centromeric sites during meiosis II; inhibits PP2A-Cdc55p to promote mitotic exit; inhibited by Pds1p (securin); relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YOL105C WSC3 Sensor-transducer of the stress-activated PKC1-MPK1 signaling pathway; involved in maintenance of cell wall integrity; involved in response to heat shock and other stressors; regulates 1,3-beta-glucan synthesis; WSC3 has a paralog, WSC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL283C WSC2 STA3 Sensor-transducer of the stress-activated PKC1-MPK1 signaling pathway; involved in maintenance of cell wall integrity and recovery from heat shock; required for the arrest of secretion response; WSC2 has a paralog, WSC3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR008C SLG1 HCS77 | WSC1 Sensor-transducer of the stress-activated PKC1-MPK1 kinase pathway; involved in maintenance of cell wall integrity; required for mitophagy; involved in organization of the actin cytoskeleton; secretory pathway Wsc1p is required for the arrest of secretion response
YGL252C RTG2 Sensor of mitochondrial dysfunction; regulates the subcellular location of Rtg1p and Rtg3p, transcriptional activators of the retrograde (RTG) and TOR pathways; Rtg2p is inhibited by the phosphorylated form of Mks1p
YLR404W SEI1 FLD1 | seipin Seipin involved in lipid droplet (LD) assembly; controls lipid particle morphology, number, and size; promotes initiation of LD formation on the ER; ensures that LDs bud from the ER towards the cytosolic side of the membrane; forms a complex with Ldb16p at ER-LD contact sites, stabilizing these sites; null mutants have localized accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) marker proteins; BSCL2, human homolog implicated in congenital lipodystrophy, complements yeast null mutant
YKR043C SHB17 sedoheptulose-bisphosphatase Sedoheptulose bisphosphatase involved in riboneogenesis; dephosphorylates sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate, which is converted via the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway to ribose-5-phosphate; facilitates the conversion of glycolytic intermediates to pentose phosphate units; also has fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase activity but this is probably not biologically relevant, since deletion does not affect FBP levels; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus
YOR207C RET1 C128 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III core subunit RET1 | PDS2 | RPC128 | RPC2 Second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase III; RNA polymerase III is responsible for the transcription of tRNA and 5S RNA genes, and other low molecular weight RNAs
YPR175W DPB2 DNA polymerase epsilon noncatalytic subunit Second largest subunit of DNA polymerase II (DNA polymerase epsilon); required for maintenance of fidelity of chromosomal replication; essential motif in C-terminus is required for formation of the four-subunit Pol epsilon; expression peaks at the G1/S phase boundary; Cdc28p substrate
YML029W USA1 Scaffold subunit of the Hrd1p ubiquitin ligase; also promotes ligase oligomerization; involved in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD); interacts with the U1 snRNP-specific protein, Snp1p
YLR423C ATG17 APG17 | protein kinase regulatory subunit ATG17 Scaffold protein responsible for phagophore assembly site organization; regulatory subunit of an autophagy-specific complex that includes Atg1p and Atg13p; stimulates Atg1p kinase activity; human ortholog RB1CC1/FIP200 interacts with p53, which inhibits autophagy in human cells
YBL047C EDE1 BUD15 Scaffold protein involved in the formation of early endocytic sites; putative regulator of cytokinesis; homo-oligomerization is required for localization to and organization of endocytic sites; has a network of interactions with other endocytic proteins; binds membranes in a ubiquitin-dependent manner; may also bind ubiquitinated membrane-associated proteins; interacts with Cmk2 and functions upstream of CMK2 in regulating non-apoptotic cell death; homolog of mammalian Eps15
YHL030W ECM29 Scaffold protein; assists in association of the proteasome core particle with the regulatory particle; inhibits proteasomal ATPase activity; degraded by the mature proteasome after assembly; contains HEAT-like repeats; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YNL003C PET8 SAM5 S-adenosylmethionine transporter of the mitochondrial inner membrane; member of the mitochondrial carrier family; required for biotin biosynthesis and respiratory growth
YLR180W SAM1 ETH10 | methionine adenosyltransferase SAM1 S-adenosylmethionine synthetase; catalyzes transfer of the adenosyl group of ATP to the sulfur atom of methionine; SAM1 has a paralog, SAM2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR502C SAM2 ETH2 | methionine adenosyltransferase SAM2 S-adenosylmethionine synthetase; catalyzes transfer of the adenosyl group of ATP to the sulfur atom of methionine; comparative analysis suggests that a mitochondrially targeted form may result from translation starting at a non-canonical codon upstream of the annotated start codon
YPL273W SAM4 S-adenosylmethionine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase SAM4 S-adenosylmethionine-homocysteine methyltransferase; functions along with Mht1p in the conversion of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to methionine to control the methionine/AdoMet ratio; SAM4 has a paralog, YMR321C, that arose from a single-locus duplication
YDR140W MTQ2 S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase; subunit of complex with Trm112p that methylates translation release factor Sup45p (eRF1) in the ternary complex eRF1-eRF3-GTP; similar to E.coli PrmC; member of the seven beta-strand family
YJR129C EFM3 protein-lysine N-methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase; seven-beta-strand lysine methyltransferase which trimethylates translation elongation factor EF2 (Eft1p and Eft2p) at lysine 509; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; ortholog of human gene FAM86A
YBR271W EFM2 S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase; seven-beta-strand lysine methyltransferase which dimethylates translation elongation factor EF2 (Eft1p and Eft2p) at lysine 613 and methylates EF3 (Yef3p) at lysine 187; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; involved in regulation of translational termination; predicted involvement in ribosome biogenesis
YML005W TRM12 TYW2 S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase; required for wybutosine formation in phenylalanine-accepting tRNA; member of the seven beta-strand family
YLR285W NNT1 EFM7 | S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase; novel N-terminal protein methyltransferase that trimethylates the N-terminal glycine residue (G2) and also dimethylates lysine (K3) on elongation factor eEF1A (Tef1p/Tef2p); has a role in rDNA silencing and in lifespan determination
YNL063W MTQ1 S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase; methylates translational release factor Mrf1p; similar to E.coli PrmC; is not an essential gene
YGR001C EFM5 AML1 | protein-lysine N-methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine-dependent lysine methyltransferase; involved in the trimethylation of eEF1A (Tef1p/Tef2p) at lysine 79; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; required for replication of Brome mosaic virus in budding yeast; expresses a circular RNA; originally misclassified as a N-6-adenine specific DNA methyltransferase based on sequence similarity; both Efm5p and human ortholog N6AMT2 can methylate eEF1a from either species in vitro
YOL052C SPE2 adenosylmethionine decarboxylase SPE2 S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase; required for the biosynthesis of spermidine and spermine; cells lacking Spe2p require spermine or spermidine for growth in the presence of oxygen but not when grown anaerobically
YBL024W NCL1 TRM4 | tRNA (cytosine-C5-)-methyltransferase S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent tRNA: m5C-methyltransferase; methylates cytosine to m5C at several positions in tRNAs and intron-containing pre-tRNAs; increases proportion of tRNALeu(CAA) with m5C at wobble position in response to hydrogen peroxide, causing selective translation of mRNA from genes enriched in TTG codon; loss of NCL1 confers hypersensitivity to oxidative stress; similar to Nop2p and human proliferation associated nucleolar protein p120
YER043C SAH1 adenosylhomocysteinase S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase; catabolizes S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine which is formed after donation of the activated methyl group of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to an acceptor; regulates cellular lipid homoeostasis by regulating phosphatidylcholine(PC)synthesis and triacylglycerol (TG) levels
YNR050C LYS9 LYS13 | saccharopine dehydrogenase (NADP+, L-glutamate-forming) Saccharopine dehydrogenase (NADP+, L-glutamate-forming); catalyzes the formation of saccharopine from alpha-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde, the seventh step in lysine biosynthesis pathway; exhibits genetic and physical interactions with TRM112
YIR034C LYS1 saccharopine dehydrogenase (NAD+, L-lysine-forming) Saccharopine dehydrogenase (NAD+, L-lysine-forming); catalyzes the conversion of saccharopine to L-lysine, which is the final step in the lysine biosynthesis pathway; also has mRNA binding activity
YLR268W SEC22 SLY2 | SNAP receptor SEC22 | TS26 | TSL26 R-SNARE protein; assembles into SNARE complex with Bet1p, Bos1p and Sed5p; cycles between the ER and Golgi complex; involved in anterograde and retrograde transport between the ER and Golgi; synaptobrevin homolog
YNL061W NOP2 rRNA (cytosine-C5-)-methyltransferase NOP2 | YNA1 rRNA m5C methyltransferase; methylates cytosine at position 2870 of 25S rRNA; has an essential function independent of rRNA methylation; contains seven beta-strand methyltransferase motif; essential for processing and maturation of 27S pre-rRNA and large ribosomal subunit biogenesis; localized to the nucleolus; constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; rRNA methylation defect and lethality are functionally complemented by human NOP2, a gene upregulated in cancer
YNL022C RCM1 rRNA (cytosine-C5-)-methyltransferase RCM1 rRNA m5C methyltransferase; methylates cytosine at position 2278 of 25S rRNA while Nop2p methylates cytosine at position 2870; contains seven beta-strand methyltransferase motif; localized to the nucleolus; interacts with Trm112p; homolog of NSUN5A, a human gene which is deleted in Williams-Beuren Syndrome
YDL213C NOP6 rRNA-binding protein required for 40S ribosomal subunit biogenesis; contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM); hydrophilin essential to overcome the stress of the desiccation-rehydration process; NOP6 may be a fungal-specific gene as no homologs have been yet identified in higher eukaryotes
YDR207C UME6 CAR80 | DNA-binding transcriptional regulator UME6 | NIM2 | RIM16 Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex subunit; key transcriptional regulator of early meiotic genes; involved in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional repression via DNA looping; binds URS1 upstream regulatory sequence, represses transcription by recruiting conserved histone deacetylase Rpd3p (through co-repressor Sin3p) and chromatin-remodeling factor Isw2p; couples metabolic responses to nutritional cues with initiation and progression of meiosis
YDR088C SLU7 mRNA splicing protein SLU7 | SLT17 RNA splicing factor; required for ATP-independent portion of 2nd catalytic step of spliceosomal RNA splicing; interacts with Prp18p; contains zinc knuckle domain
YNR052C POP2 CAF1 | CCR4-NOT core DEDD family RNase subunit POP2 RNase of the DEDD superfamily; subunit of the Ccr4-Not complex that mediates 3' to 5' mRNA deadenylation
YPR110C RPC40 DNA-directed RNA polymerase core subunit RPC40 | RPC5 RNA polymerase subunit AC40; common to RNA polymerase I and III; predominant determinant targeting Ty1 integration upstream of Pol III-transcribed genes
YNL113W RPC19 AC19 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase core subunit RPC19 RNA polymerase subunit AC19; common to RNA polymerases I and III
YPR187W RPO26 ABC23 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase core subunit RPO26 | RPB6 RNA polymerase subunit ABC23; common to RNA polymerases I, II, and III; part of central core; similar to bacterial omega subunit
YOR224C RPB8 ABC14.5 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase core subunit RPB8 RNA polymerase subunit ABC14.5; common to RNA polymerases I, II, and III
YOR210W RPB10 ABC10-beta | DNA-directed RNA polymerase core subunit RPB10 RNA polymerase subunit ABC10-beta; common to RNA polymerases I, II, and III
YHR143W-A RPC10 ABC10-alpha | DNA-directed RNA polymerase core subunit RPC10 | RPB12 RNA polymerase subunit ABC10-alpha, found in RNA pol I, II, and III; relocalizes from nucleolus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YDR026C NSI1 YTT1 RNA polymerase I termination factor; binds to rDNA terminator element, required for efficient Pol I termination; required for rDNA silencing at NTS1; facilities association of Sir2p with NTS1, contributes to rDNA stability and cell longevity; interacts physically with Fob1p and RENT subunits, Sir2p and Net1p; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; Myb-like DNA-binding protein; NSI1 has a paralog, REB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL248C RPA49 A49 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA49 RNA polymerase I subunit A49; essential for nucleolar assembly and for high polymerase loading rate; required for nucleolar localization of Rpa34p
YOR340C RPA43 A43 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA43 RNA polymerase I subunit A43
YJL148W RPA34 A34.5 | CST21 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA34 RNA polymerase I subunit A34.5; essential for nucleolar assembly and for high polymerase loading rate; nucleolar localization depends on Rpa49p
YDR156W RPA14 A14 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA14 RNA polymerase I subunit A14
YJR063W RPA12 A12.2 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I core subunit RPA12 | RRN4 RNA polymerase I subunit A12.2; contains two zinc binding domains, and the N terminal domain is responsible for anchoring to the RNA pol I complex; physically interacts with transcriptional activator Msn4p, to regulate transcription of AYR1, a gene involved in lipid metabolism
YPR010C RPA135 A135 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I core subunit RPA135 | RPA2 | RRN2 | SRP3 RNA polymerase I second largest subunit A135
YOR341W RPA190 A190 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I core subunit RPA190 | RRN1 RNA polymerase I largest subunit A190
YDL115C IWR1 RNA polymerase II transport factor, conserved from yeast to humans; also has a role in transporting RNA polymerase III into the nucleus; interacts with most of the RNAP II subunits; nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein; deletion causes hypersensitivity to K1 killer toxin; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YIL021W RPB3 B44 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II core subunit RPB3 RNA polymerase II third largest subunit B44; part of central core; similar to prokaryotic alpha subunit
YJL140W RPB4 B32 | CTF15 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4 RNA polymerase II subunit B32; forms dissociable heterodimer with Rpb7p; Rpb4/7 dissociates from RNAPII as Ser2 CTD phosphorylation increases; Rpb4/7 regulates cellular lifespan via mRNA decay process; involved in recruitment of 3'-end processing factors to transcribing RNAPII complex, export of mRNA to cytoplasm under stress conditions; also involved in translation initiation
YDR404C RPB7 B16 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7 RNA polymerase II subunit B16; forms dissociable heterodimer with Rpb4p; Rpb4/7 dissociates from RNAPII as Ser2 CTD phosphorylation increases; Rpb4/7 regulates cellular lifespan via mRNA decay process; involved in recruitment of 3'-end processing factors to transcribing RNA polymerase II complex, export of mRNA to cytoplasm under stress conditions; also involved in translation initiation
YGL070C RPB9 B12.6 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II core subunit RPB9 | SHI | SSU73 RNA polymerase II subunit B12.6; contacts DNA; mutations affect transcription start site selection and fidelity of transcription
YOL005C RPB11 B12.5 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II core subunit RPB11 RNA polymerase II subunit B12.5; part of central core; similar to Rpc19p and bacterial alpha subunit
YOR151C RPB2 B150 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II core subunit RPB2 | RPB150 | RPO22 | SIT2 | SOH2 RNA polymerase II second largest subunit B150; part of central core; similar to bacterial beta subunit
YDL140C RPO21 B220 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II core subunit RPO21 | RPB1 | RPB220 | SUA8 RNA polymerase II largest subunit B220; part of central core; phosphorylation of C-terminal heptapeptide repeat domain regulates association with transcription and splicing factors; similar to bacterial beta-prime
YPR190C RPC82 DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit C82 | RPC3 | RPC80 RNA polymerase III subunit C82
YDL150W RPC53 C53 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit C53 | RPC4 RNA polymerase III subunit C53
YKR025W RPC37 C37 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit C37 RNA polymerase III subunit C37
YJL011C RPC17 C17 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC17 RNA polymerase III subunit C17; physically interacts with C31, C11, and TFIIIB70; may be involved in the recruitment of pol III by the preinitiation complex; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YOR116C RPO31 C160 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III core subunit RPO31 | RPC1 | RPC160 RNA polymerase III largest subunit C160; part of core enzyme; similar to bacterial beta-prime subunit and to RPA190 and RPO21
YBR049C REB1 DNA-binding protein REB1 | GRF2 RNA polymerase I enhancer binding protein; DNA binding protein that binds to genes transcribed by both RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase II; required for termination of RNA polymerase I transcription; Reb1p bound to DNA acts to block RNA polymerase II readthrough transcription
YOR110W TFC7 tau 55 | transcription factor TFIIIC subunit TFC7 RNA pol III transcription initiation factor complex (TFIIIC) subunit; part of the TauA globular domain of TFIIIC that binds DNA at the BoxA promoter sites of tRNA and similar genes; TFC7 has a paralog, YNL108C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL054C DEF1 DNA damage-responsive RNA polymerase-degradation factor DEF1 | VID31 RNAPII degradation factor; forms a complex with Rad26p in chromatin, enables ubiquitination and proteolysis of RNAPII present in an elongation complex; mutant is deficient in Zip1p loading onto chromosomes during meiosis
YKL149C DBR1 PRP26 | RNA lariat debranching enzyme RNA lariat debranching enzyme; catalyzes debranching of lariat introns formed during pre-mRNA splicing; required for efficient Ty1 transposition; knockdown of human homolog Dbr1 rescues toxicity of RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS which are implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggests potential therapeutic target for ALS and related TDP-43 proteinopathies; human homolog DBR1 can complement yeast dbr1 null mutant
YGL120C PRP43 DEAH-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase PRP43 | JA1 RNA helicase in the DEAH-box family; functions in both RNA polymerase I and polymerase II transcript metabolism; catalyzes removal of U2, U5, and U6 snRNPs from the postsplicing lariat-intron ribonucleoprotein complex; required for efficient biogenesis of both small- and large-subunit rRNAs; acts with Sqs1p to promote 20S to 18S rRNA processing catalyzed by endonuclease Nob1p
YBR237W PRP5 DEAD-box RNA helicase PRP5 | RNA5 RNA helicase in the DEAD-box family; necessary for prespliceosome formation, bridges U1 and U2 snRNPs and enables stable U2 snRNP association with intron RNA
YER107C GLE2 RAE1 | RNA export factor GLE2 RNA export factor associated with the nuclear pore complex (NPC); associates with NUP116p; required for polyadenylated RNA export but not for protein import; homologous to S. pombe Rae1p and human RAE1
YLR107W REX3 RNA exonuclease RNA exonuclease; required for maturation of the RNA component of RNase MRP; functions redundantly with Rnh70p and Rex2p in processing of U5 snRNA and RNase P RNA; member of RNase D family of exonucleases
YNR011C PRP2 DEAH-box RNA-dependent ATPase PRP2 | RNA2 RNA-dependent DExD/H-box ATPase; required for activation of spliceosome before first transesterification step in RNA splicing; implicated in rearranging and proofreading snRNA structure in catalytic activation of spliceosome; ortholog of human protein DHX16
YER172C BRR2 ATP-dependent RNA helicase BRR2 | PRP44 | RSS1 | SLT22 | SNU246 RNA-dependent ATPase RNA helicase (DEIH box); required for disruption of U4/U6 base-pairing in native snRNPs to activate the spliceosome for catalysis; homologous to human U5-200kD
YGL078C DBP3 RNA-dependent ATPase DBP3 RNA-Dependent ATPase, member of DExD/H-box family; involved in cleavage of site A3 within the ITS1 spacer during rRNA processing; not essential for growth, but deletion causes severe slow-growth phenotype
YDL175C AIR2 TRAMP complex RNA-binding subunit RNA-binding subunit of the TRAMP nuclear RNA surveillance complex; involved in nuclear RNA processing and degradation; involved in TRAMP complex assembly as a bridge between Mtr4p and Trf4p; stimulates the poly(A) polymerase activity of Pap2p in vitro; has 5 zinc knuckle motifs; AIR2 has a paralog, AIR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; Air2p and Air1p have nonredundant roles in regulation of substrate specificity of the exosome
YDR301W CFT1 YHH1 RNA-binding subunit of the mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation factor; involved in poly(A) site recognition and required for both pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation, 51% sequence similarity with mammalian AAUAA-binding subunit of CPSF
YNL251C NRD1 Nrd1 complex RNA-binding subunit RNA-binding subunit of Nrd1 complex; complex interacts with exosome to mediate 3'-end formation of some mRNAs, snRNAs, snoRNAs, and CUTs; interacts with CTD of RNA pol II large subunit Rpo21p at phosphorylated Ser5 to direct transcription termination of non-polyadenylated transcripts; H3K4 trimethylation of transcribed regions by Set1p enhances recruitment of Nrd1p to those sites; role in regulation of mitochondrial abundance and cell size
YNL197C WHI3 mRNA-binding protein WHI3 RNA binding protein that sequesters CLN3 mRNA in cytoplasmic foci; regulates genes involved in the cell cycle, sister chromatid cohesion, and stress response; acts as a cytoplasmic retention factor for Cdc28p and associated cyclins; regulates cell fate and dose-dependently regulates the critical cell size required for passage through Start; Tpk1p (PKA) mediated phosphorylation (S568) inhibits Whi3p function, decreasing its interaction with CLN3 mRNA; regulates ploidy
YBR212W NGR1 RBP1 RNA binding protein that negatively regulates growth rate; interacts with the 3' UTR of the mitochondrial porin (POR1) mRNA and enhances its degradation; overexpression impairs mitochondrial function; interacts with Dhh1p to mediate POR1 mRNA decay; expressed in stationary phase
YPL184C MRN1 PTR69 RNA-binding protein that may be involved in translational regulation; binds specific categories of mRNAs, including those that contain upstream open reading frames (uORFs) and internal ribosome entry sites (IRES); interacts genetically with chromatin remodelers and splicing factors, linking chromatin state, splicing and as a result mRNA maturation
YER035W EDC2 RNA-binding protein that directly activates mRNA decapping; binds mRNA substrate and enhances activity of decapping proteins Dcp1p and Dcp2p; has a role in translation during heat stress; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes to nucleolus and to nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress; EDC2 has a paralog, EDC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL130C SHE2 RNA-binding protein that binds specific mRNAs and interacts with She3p; part of the mRNA localization machinery that restricts accumulation of certain proteins to the bud; binds to ER-derived membranes and targets mRNAs to cortical ER
YDR515W SLF1 SRO99 RNA binding protein that associates with polysomes; may be involved in regulating mRNA translation; involved in the copper-dependent mineralization of copper sulfide complexes on cell surface in cells cultured in copper salts; SLF1 has a paralog, SRO9, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGL222C EDC1 RNA-binding protein that activates mRNA decapping directly; binds to mRNA substrate and enhances activity of decapping proteins Dcp1p and Dcp2p; has a role in translation during heat stress; protein becomes more abundant and forms cytoplasmic foci in response to DNA replication stress; EDC1 has a paralog, EDC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL190C NAB3 HMD1 RNA-binding protein, subunit of Nrd1 complex (Nrd1p-Nab3p-Sen1p); complex interacts with exosome to mediate 3'-end formation of some mRNAs, snRNAs, snoRNAs, and CUTs; required for termination of non-poly(A) transcripts and efficient splicing; Nrd1-Nab3 pathway appears to have a role in rapid suppression of some genes when cells are shifted to poor growth conditions, indicating role for Nrd1-Nab3 in regulating cellular response to nutrient availability
YNL124W NAF1 RNA-binding snoRNP assembly protein RNA-binding protein required for the assembly of box H/ACA snoRNPs; thus required for pre-rRNA processing; forms a complex with Shq1p and interacts with H/ACA snoRNP components Nhp2p and Cbf5p; similar to Gar1p
YDL051W LHP1 LAH1 | YLA1 RNA binding protein required for maturation of tRNA and U6 snRNA; acts as a molecular chaperone for RNAs transcribed by polymerase III; homologous to human La (SS-B) autoantigen
YDR432W NPL3 mRNA-binding protein NPL3 | MTR13 | MTS1 | NAB1 | NOP3 RNA-binding protein; promotes elongation, regulates termination, and carries poly(A) mRNA from nucleus to cytoplasm; represses translation initiation by binding eIF4G; required for pre-mRNA splicing; interacts with E3 ubiquitin ligase Bre1p, linking histone ubiquitination to mRNA processing; may have role in telomere maintenance; dissociation from mRNAs promoted by Mtr10p; phosphorylated by Sky1p in cytoplasm; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR195W REF2 RNA-processing protein REF2 RNA-binding protein; involved in the cleavage step of mRNA 3'-end formation prior to polyadenylation, and in snoRNA maturation; part of holo-CPF subcomplex APT, which associates with 3'-ends of snoRNA- and mRNA-encoding genes; putative regulatory subunit of type 1 protein phosphatase Glc7p, required for actomyosin ring formation, and for timely dephosphorylation and release of Bnr1p from the division site; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YMR229C RRP5 RNA binding protein involved in synthesis of 18S and 5.8S rRNAs; component of ribosomal small subunit (SSU) processome and 90S preribosome; required for pre-rRNA packaging and compaction of processome into dense terminal balls; part of Mak21p-Noc2p-Rrp5p module that associates with nascent pre-rRNA during transcription with role in biogenesis of large ribosomal subunit; binds single stranded tracts of U's; relocalizes from nucleolus to nucleus upon DNA replication stress
YDR243C PRP28 mRNA splicing protein PRP28 RNA binding protein; involved in RNA isomerization at the 5' splice site and for exchange of U6 for U1 snRNA at the 5' splice site; similar to the RNA helicases of the DEAD-box family
YBL032W HEK2 KHD1 RNA binding protein involved in asymmetric localization of ASH1 mRNA; represses translation of ASH1 mRNA, an effect reversed by Yck1p-dependent phosphoryation; regulates telomere position effect and length; similarity to hnRNP-K
YBR233W PBP2 HEK1 RNA binding protein; has similarity to mammalian heterogeneous nuclear RNP K protein, involved in the regulation of telomere position effect and telomere length; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YHR086W NAM8 MRE2 | MUD15 RNA binding protein, component of the U1 snRNP protein; mutants are defective in meiotic recombination and in formation of viable spores, involved in the formation of DSBs through meiosis-specific splicing of REC107 pre-mRNA; Nam8p regulon embraces the meiotic pre-mRNAs of REC107, HFM1, AMA1 SPO22 and PCH2; the putative RNA binding domains RRM2 and RRM3 are required for Nam8p meiotic function
YPL228W CET1 CES5 | polynucleotide 5'-phosphatase RNA 5'-triphosphatase involved in mRNA 5' capping; subunit of mRNA capping enzyme, which is a heterotetramer composed of a Cet1p homodimer and two molecules of guanylyltransferase Ceg1p; Cet1p also has a role in regulation of RNAPII pausing at promoter-proximal sites; interaction between Cet1p and Ceg1p is required for Ceg1p nuclear import; mammalian enzyme is single bifunctional polypeptide; human homolog RNGTT can complement yeast cet1 null mutant
YDR313C PIB1 phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding ubiquitin-protein ligase RING-type ubiquitin ligase of the endosomal and vacuolar membranes; binds phosphatidylinositol(3)-phosphate; contains a FYVE finger domain
YDR266C HEL2 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HEL2 | RQT1 RING finger ubiquitin ligase (E3); involved in ubiquitination and degradation of excess histones; interacts with Ubc4p and Rad53p; null mutant sensitive to hydroxyurea (HU); green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; computational analysis suggests a role as a transcription factor
YJL210W PEX2 CRT1 | PAS5 | ubiquitin-protein ligase peroxin 2 RING-finger peroxin and E3 ubiquitin ligase; peroxisomal membrane protein with a C-terminal zinc-binding RING domain, forms translocation subcomplex with Pex10p and Pex12p which functions in peroxisomal matrix protein import
YGR251W NOP19 DHI1 Ribosome biogenesis factor; nucleolar protein associated with pre-rRNA components of the 90S preribosome, required for cleavage of pre-rRNA at A0, A1 and A2 sites; interacts with RNA helicase Dhr2p and RNA helicase-like protein Utp25p; required for incorporation of Utp25p into preribosomes
YIL016W SNL1 Ribosome-associated protein; proposed to act in protein synthesis and nuclear pore complex biogenesis and maintenance as well as protein folding; has similarity to the mammalian BAG-1 protein
YIL137C TMA108 RBF108 | TAE3 Ribosome-associated, nascent chain binding factor; binds N-terminal region of nascent peptides during translation; recognizes target proteins via its putative metallopeptidase peptide-binding pocket
YGR285C ZUO1 zuotin Ribosome-associated chaperone; zuotin functions in ribosome biogenesis and as a chaperone for nascent polypeptide chains in partnership with Ssz1p and SSb1/2; contains a DnaJ domain and functions as a J-protein partner for Ssb1p and Ssb2p; human gene DNAJC2 can partially complement yeast zuo1 null mutant
YDL081C RPP1A P1A | ribosomal protein P1A | RPLA1 Ribosomal stalk protein P1 alpha; involved in the interaction between translational elongation factors and the ribosome; free (non-ribosomal) P1 stimulates the phosphorylation of the eIF2 alpha subunit (Sui2p) by Gcn2p; accumulation of P1 in the cytoplasm is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with the P2 stalk component
YDR169C STB3 Ribosomal RNA processing element (RRPE)-binding protein; involved in the glucose-induced transition from quiescence to growth; restricted to nucleus in quiescent cells, released into cytoplasm after glucose repletion; binds Sin3p; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YDR382W RPP2B L45 | P2B | ribosomal protein P2B | RPL45 | YP2beta | YPA1 Ribosomal protein P2 beta; a component of the ribosomal stalk, which is involved in the interaction between translational elongation factors and the ribosome; free (non-ribosomal) P2 stimulates the phosphorylation of the eIF2 alpha subunit (Sui2p) by Gcn2p; regulates the accumulation of P1 (Rpp1Ap and Rpp1Bp) in the cytoplasm
YOL039W RPP2A P2A | ribosomal protein P2A | RPL44 | RPLA2 Ribosomal protein P2 alpha; a component of the ribosomal stalk, which is involved in the interaction between translational elongation factors and the ribosome; free (non-ribosomal) P2 stimulates the phosphorylation of the eIF2 alpha subunit (Sui2p) by Gcn2p; regulates the accumulation of P1 (Rpp1Ap and Rpp1Bp) in the cytoplasm
YDL130W RPP1B Ax | L44' | P1B | ribosomal protein P1B | RPL44' | RPLA3 | YP1beta Ribosomal protein P1 beta; component of the ribosomal stalk, which is involved in interaction of translational elongation factors with ribosome; free (non-ribosomal) P1 stimulates the phosphorylation of the eIF2 alpha subunit (Sui2p) by Gcn2p; accumulation is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with the P2 stalk component
YDR447C RPS17B eS17 | ribosomal 40S subunit protein S17B | rp51B | RP51B | RPL51B | S17B | S17e Ribosomal protein 51 (rp51) of the small (40s) subunit; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein S17, no bacterial homolog; RPS17B has a paralog, RPS17A, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YML024W RPS17A eS17 | ribosomal 40S subunit protein S17A | rp51A | RP51A | RPL51A | S17A | S17e Ribosomal protein 51 (rp51) of the small (40s) subunit; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein S17, no bacterial homolog; RPS17A has a paralog, RPS17B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR132W RPS23B ribosomal 40S subunit protein S23B | rp37 | S12 | S23B | S28B | uS12 | YS14 Ribosomal protein 28 (rp28) of the small (40S) ribosomal subunit; required for translational accuracy; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein S23 and bacterial S12; RPS23B has a paralog, RPS23A, that arose from the whole genome duplication; deletion of both RPS23A and RPS23B is lethal
YGR118W RPS23A ribosomal 40S subunit protein S23A | rp37 | S12 | S23A | S28A | uS12 | YS14 Ribosomal protein 28 (rp28) of the small (40S) ribosomal subunit; required for translational accuracy; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein S23 and bacterial S12; RPS23A has a paralog, RPS23B, that arose from the whole genome duplication; deletion of both RPS23A and RPS23B is lethal
YML063W RPS1B eS1 | PLC2 | ribosomal 40S subunit protein S1B | rp10B | RP10B | S1B | S1e Ribosomal protein 10 (rp10) of the small (40S) subunit; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein S3A, no bacterial homolog; RPS1B has a paralog, RPS1A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR441C RPS1A eS1 | ribosomal 40S subunit protein S1A | rp10A | RP10A | S1A | S1e Ribosomal protein 10 (rp10) of the small (40S) subunit; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein S3A, no bacterial homolog; RPS1A has a paralog, RPS1B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR257C RKM4 ribosomal lysine N-methyltransferase | RMS1 | SET7 Ribosomal lysine methyltransferase; specific for monomethylation of Rpl42ap and Rpl42bp (lysine 55); nuclear SET-domain containing protein
YBR030W RKM3 protein-lysine N-methyltransferase Ribosomal lysine methyltransferase; specific for monomethylation of Rpl42ap and Rpl42bp (lysine 40); nuclear SET domain containing protein; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YOR272W YTM1 CST14 Ribosomal assembly factor and 66S pre-ribosomal particle constituent; subunit of the Nop7-subcomplex (PeBoW complex), required for an early nucleolar step in pre-60S ribosomal particle maturation; interaction of its ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain with the MIDAS domain in the Rea1p tail triggers release of the subcomplex and possibly other biogenesis factors via cycles of ATP hydrolysis; involved in the processing of 27S pre-rRNA; contains an N-terminal UBL domain and seven C-terminal WD repeats
YNL067W RPL9B L6 | L8B | L9B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L9B | rp24 | uL6 | YL11 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L9B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L9 and bacterial L6; RPL9B has a paralog, RPL9A, that arose from a single-locus duplication
YGL147C RPL9A L6 | L8A | L9A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L9A | rp24 | uL6 | YL11 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L9A; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L9 and bacterial L6; RPL9A has a paralog, RPL9B, that arose from a single-locus duplication
YLL045C RPL8B eL8 | KRB1 | L4B | L8B | L8e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L8B | rp6 | SCL41 | YL5 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L8B; required for processing of 27SA3 pre-rRNA to 27SB pre-rRNA during assembly of large ribosomal subunit; depletion leads to a turnover of pre-rRNA; L8 binds to Domain I of 25S and 5.8 S rRNAs; mutation results in decreased amounts of free 60S subunits; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L7A, no bacterial homolog; RPL8B has a paralog, RPL8A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHL033C RPL8A eL8 | L4A | L8A | L8e | MAK7 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L8A | rp6 | YL5 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L8A; required for processing of 27SA3 pre-rRNA to 27SB pre-rRNA during assembly of large ribosomal subunit; depletion leads to a turnover of pre-rRNA; L8 binds to Domain I of 25S and 5.8 S rRNAs; mutation results in decreased amounts of free 60S subunits; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L7A, no bacterial homolog; RPL8A has a paralog, RPL8B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL198W RPL7B L30 | L6B | L7B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L7B | rp11 | uL30 | YL8 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L7B; required for processing of 27SA3 pre-rRNA to 27SB pre-rRNA during assembly of large ribosomal subunit; depletion leads to a turnover of pre-rRNA; contains a conserved C-terminal Nucleic acid Binding Domain (NDB2); binds to Domain II of 25S and 5.8S rRNAs; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L7 and bacterial L30; RPL7B has a paralog, RPL7A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL076C RPL7A L30 | L6A | L7A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L7A | rp11 | uL30 | YL8 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L7A; required for processing of 27SA3 pre-rRNA to 27SB pre-rRNA during assembly of large ribosomal subunit; depletion leads to a turnover of pre-rRNA; contains a conserved C-terminal Nucleic acid Binding Domain (NDB2); binds to Domain II of 25S and 5.8S rRNAs; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L7 and bacterial L30; RPL7A has a paralog, RPL7B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR448W RPL6B eL6 | L17B | L6B | L6e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L6B | rp18 | YL16 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L6B; binds 5.8S rRNA; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L6, no bacterial homolog; RPL6B has a paralog, RPL6A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML073C RPL6A eL6 | L17A | L6A | L6e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L6A | rp18 | YL16 | YL16A Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L6A; N-terminally acetylated; binds 5.8S rRNA; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L6, no bacterial homolog; RPL6A has a paralog, RPL6B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL131W RPL5 L18 | L1a | L5 | LPI14 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L5 | RPL1 | uL18 | YL3 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L5; nascent Rpl5p is bound by specific chaperone Syo1p during translation; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L5 and bacterial L18; binds 5S rRNA and is required for 60S subunit assembly
YDR012W RPL4B L2B | L4 | L4B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L4B | rp2 | uL4 | YL2 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L4B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L4 and bacterial L4; RPL4B has a paralog, RPL4A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR031W RPL4A L2A | L4 | L4A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L4A | rp2 | uL4 | YL2 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L4A; N-terminally acetylated; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L4 and bacterial L4; RPL4A has a paralog, RPL4B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR094W-A RPL43B eL43 | L43B | L43e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L43B Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L43B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L37A, no bacterial homolog; RPL43B has a paralog, RPL43A, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPR043W RPL43A eL43 | L43A | L43e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L43A Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L43A; null mutation confers a dominant lethal phenotype; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L37A, no bacterial homolog; RPL43A has a paralog, RPL43B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR141C RPL42B eL42 | L41B | L42B | L44e | MAK18 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L42B | YL27 | YP44 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L42B; required for propagation of the killer toxin-encoding M1 double-stranded RNA satellite of the L-A double-stranded RNA virus; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L36A, no bacterial homolog; RPL42B has a paralog, RPL42A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL162W RPL42A eL42 | L41A | L42A | L44e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L42A | YL27 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L42A; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L36A, no bacterial homolog; RPL42A has a paralog, RPL42B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL133C-A RPL41B eL41 | L41B | L41e | L47B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L41B | RPL47B | YDL134C-A | YL41 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L41B; comprises only 25 amino acids; rpl41a rpl41b double null mutant is viable; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L41, no bacterial homolog; RPL41B has a paralog, RPL41A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL184C RPL41A eL41 | L41A | L41e | L47A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L41A | RPL47A | YL41 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L41A; comprises only 25 amino acids; rpl41a rpl41b double null mutant is viable; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L41, no bacterial homolog; RPL41A has a paralog, RPL41B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR063W RPL3 L3 | MAK8 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L3 | rp1 | TCM1 | uL3 | YL1 | YOR29-14 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L3; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L3 and bacterial L3; plays an important role in function of eIF5B in stimulating 3' end processing of 18S rRNA in context of 80S ribosomes that have not yet engaged in translation; involved in replication and maintenance of killer double stranded RNA virus
YLR325C RPL38 eL38 | L38 | L38e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L38 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L38; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L38, no bacterial homolog
YDR500C RPL37B eL37 | L37B | L37e | L43 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L37B | YL35 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L37B; required for processing of 27SB pre-rRNA and formation of stable 66S assembly intermediates; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L37, no bacterial homolog; RPL37B has a paralog, RPL37A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR185W RPL37A eL37 | L37A | L37e | L43 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L37A | YL35 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L37A; required for processing of 27SB pre-rRNA and formation of stable 66S assembly intermediates; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L37, no bacterial homolog; RPL37A has a paralog, RPL37B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL249C-A RPL36B eL36 | L36B | L36e | L39 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L36B | YL39 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L36B; binds to 5.8 S rRNA; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L36, no bacterial homolog; RPL36B has a paralog, RPL36A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR194W RPL36A eL36 | L36A | L36e | L39 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L36A | RPL39B | YL39 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L36A; N-terminally acetylated; binds to 5.8 S rRNA; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L36, no bacterial homolog; RPL36A has a paralog, RPL36B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL136W RPL35B L29 | L35B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L35B | SOS2 | uL29 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L35B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L35 and bacterial L29; RPL35B has a paralog, RPL35A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL191W RPL35A L29 | L35A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L35A | SOS1 | uL29 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L35A; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L35 and bacterial L29; RPL35A has a paralog, RPL35B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL052C RPL34B eL34 | L34B | L34e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L34B Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L34B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L34, no bacterial homolog; RPL34B has a paralog, RPL34A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER056C-A RPL34A eL34 | L34A | L34e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L34A Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L34A; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L34, no bacterial homolog; RPL34A has a paralog, RPL34B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR234C RPL33B eL33 | L33B | L33e | L37B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L33B | rp47 | RPL37B | Yl37 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L33B; rpl33b null mutant exhibits normal growth while rpl33a rpl33b double null mutant is inviable; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L35A, no bacterial homolog; RPL33B has a paralog, RPL33A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR406C RPL31B eL31 | L31B | L31e | L34B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L31B | YL28 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L31B; associates with karyopherin Sxm1p; loss of both Rpl31p and Rpl39p confers lethality; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L31, no bacterial homolog; RPL31B has a paralog, RPL31A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFR031C-A RPL2A L2 | L2A | L5A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L2A | rp8 | RPL5B | uL2 | YL6 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L2A; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L2 and bacterial L2; RPL2A has a paralog, RPL2B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFR032C-A RPL29 eL29 | L29 | L29e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L29 | YL43 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L29; not essential for translation, but required for proper joining of large and small ribosomal subunits and for normal translation rate; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L29, no bacterial homolog
YDR471W RPL27B eL27 | L27B | L27e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L27B Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L27B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L27, no bacterial homolog; RPL27B has a paralog, RPL27A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR010W RPL27A eL27 | L27A | L27e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L27A | RPL27 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L27A; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L27, no bacterial homolog; RPL27A has a paralog, RPL27B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR034W RPL26B L24 | L26B | L33B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L26B | uL24 | YL33 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L26B; binds to 5.8S rRNA; non-essential even when paralog is also deleted; deletion has minimal affections on ribosome biosynthesis; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L26 and bacterial L24; RPL26B has a paralog, RPL26A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR344W RPL26A L24 | L26A | L33A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L26A | uL24 | YL33 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L26A; binds to 5.8S rRNA; non-essential even when paralog is also deleted; deletion has minimal affections on ribosome biosynthesis; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L26 and bacterial L24; RPL26A has a paralog, RPL26B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR148C RPL24B eL24 | L24B | L24e | L30B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L24B | rp29 | RPL30B | YL21 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L24B; not essential for translation but may be required for normal translation rate; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L24, no bacterial homolog; RPL24B has a paralog, RPL24A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL031C RPL24A eL24 | L24A | L24e | L30A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L24A | rp29 | RPL30A | YL21 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L24A; not essential for translation but may be required for normal translation rate; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L24, no bacterial homolog; RPL24A has a paralog, RPL24B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER117W RPL23B L14 | L17aB | L23B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L23B | uL14 | YL32 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L23B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L23 and bacterial L14; RPL23B has a paralog, RPL23A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL087C RPL23A L14 | L17aA | L23A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L23A | uL14 | YL32 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L23A; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L23 and bacterial L14; RPL23A has a paralog, RPL23B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR061W RPL22A eL22 | l1c | L22A | L22e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L22A | rp4 | YL31 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L22A; required for translation of long 5' UTR of IME1 mRNA and meiotic entry; required for the oxidative stress response, pseudohyphal and invasive growth; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L22, no bacterial homolog; RPL22A has a paralog, RPL22B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFL034C-A RPL22B eL22 | l1c | L22B | L22e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L22B | rp4 | YFL035C-B | YL31 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L22A; required for translation of long 5' UTR of IME1 mRNA and meiotic entry; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L22, no bacterial homolog; RPL22B has a paralog, RPL22A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL079W RPL21B eL21 | L21B | L21e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L21B Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L21B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L21, no bacterial homolog; RPL21B has a paralog, RPL21A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR191W RPL21A eL21 | L21A | L21e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L21A | URP1 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L21A; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L21, no bacterial homolog; RPL21A has a paralog, RPL21B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR312C RPL20B eL20 | L18B | L20B | L20e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L20B | RPL18A1 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L20B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L18A, no bacterial homolog; RPL20B has a paralog, RPL20A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR242C RPL20A eL20 | L18A | L20A | L20e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L20A | RPL18A2 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L20A; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L18A, no bacterial homolog; RPL20A has a paralog, RPL20B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL135W RPL1B L1 | L1B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L1B | SSM2 | uL1 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L1B; N-terminally acetylated; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L10A and bacterial L1; RPL1B has a paralog, RPL1A, that arose from the whole genome duplication; rpl1a rpl1b double null mutation is lethal
YPL220W RPL1A L1 | L1A | PUB2 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L1A | SSM1 | uL1 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L1A; N-terminally acetylated; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L10A and bacterial L1; RPL1A has a paralog, RPL1B, that arose from the whole genome duplication; rpl1a rpl1b double null mutation is lethal
YBL027W RPL19B eL19 | L19B | L19e | L23B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L19B | rpl5L | YL14 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L19B; rpl19a and rpl19b single null mutations result in slow growth, while the double null mutation is lethal; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L19, no bacterial homolog; RPL19B has a paralog, RPL19A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR084C-A RPL19A eL19 | L19A | L19e | L23A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L19A | rpl5L | YL14 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L19A; rpl19a and rpl19b single null mutations result in slow growth, while the double null mutation is lethal; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L19, no bacterial homolog; RPL19A has a paralog, RPL19B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL301C RPL18B eL18 | L18B | L18e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L18B | rp28B | RP28B Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L18B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L18, no bacterial homolog; RPL18B has a paralog, RPL18A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL177W RPL17B L17B | L20B | L22 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L17B | uL22 | YL17 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L17B; required for processing of 27SB pre-rRNA and formation of stable 66S assembly intermediates; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L17 and bacterial L22; RPL17B has a paralog, RPL17A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL180W RPL17A L17A | L20A | L22 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L17A | RPL17 | uL22 | YL17 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L17A; required for processing of 27SB pre-rRNA and formation of stable 66S assembly intermediates; copurifies with the Dam1 complex (aka DASH complex); homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L17 and bacterial L22; RPL17A has a paralog, RPL17B, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YIL133C RPL16A L13 | L16A | L21A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L16A | rp22 | RPL13 | uL13 | YL15 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L16A; N-terminally acetylated, binds 5.8 S rRNA; transcriptionally regulated by Rap1p; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L13A and bacterial L13; RPL16A has a paralog, RPL16B, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR121C RPL15B eL15 | L13B | L15B | L15e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L15B | rp15R | YL10 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L15B; binds to 5.8 S rRNA; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L15, no bacterial homolog; RPL15B has a paralog, RPL15A, that arose from the whole genome duplication; relocalizes from nucleus to nucleolus upon DNA replication stress
YHL001W RPL14B eL14 | L14B | L14e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L14B Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L14B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L14, no bacterial homolog; RPL14B has a paralog, RPL14A, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL006W RPL14A eL14 | L14A | L14e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L14A Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L14A; N-terminally acetylated; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L14, no bacterial homolog; RPL14A has a paralog, RPL14B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR142C RPL13B eL13 | L13B | L13e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L13B Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L13B; not essential for viability; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L13, no bacterial homolog; RPL13B has a paralog, RPL13A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR418W RPL12B L11 | L12B | L15B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L12B | uL11 | YL23 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L12B; rpl12a rpl12b double mutant exhibits slow growth and slow translation; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L12 and bacterial L11; RPL12B has a paralog, RPL12A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL054C RPL12A L11 | L12A | L15A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L12A | uL11 | YL23 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L12A; rpl12a rpl12b double mutant exhibits slow growth and slow translation; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L12 and bacterial L11; RPL12A has a paralog, RPL12B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR085C RPL11B L11B | L16A | L5 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L11B | rp39B | uL5 | YL22 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L11B; expressed at half the level of Rpl11Ap; involved in ribosomal assembly; depletion causes degradation of 60S proteins and RNA; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L11 and bacterial L5; RPL11B has a paralog, RPL11A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR102C RPL11A L11A | L16B | L5 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L11A | rp39A | uL5 | YL22 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L11A; expressed at twice the level of Rpl11Bp; involved in ribosomal assembly; depletion causes degradation of 60S proteins and RNA; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L11 and bacterial L5; RPL11A has a paralog, RPL11B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR075W RPL10 GRC5 | L10 | L16 | QSR1 | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L10 | uL16 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L10; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L10 and bacterial L16; responsible for joining the 40S and 60S subunits; regulates translation initiation; similar to members of the QM gene family; protein abundance increases under DNA replication stress; mutations in human homolog implicated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and also autism spectrum disorders (ASD); human RPL10 can complement yeast null mutant
YGR214W RPS0A NAB1 | NAB1A | ribosomal 40S subunit protein S0A | S0A | S2 | uS2 | YST1 Ribosomal 40S subunit protein S0A; required for maturation of 18S rRNA along with Rps0Bp; deletion of either RPS0 gene reduces growth rate, deletion of both genes is lethal; homologous to human ribosomal protein SA and bacterial S2; RPS0A has a paralog, RPS0B, that arose from the whole genome duplication;
YOR201C MRM1 PET56 Ribose methyltransferase; modifies a functionally critical, conserved nucleotide in mitochondrial 21S rRNA
YOR095C RKI1 ribose-5-phosphate isomerase RKI1 Ribose-5-phosphate ketol-isomerase; catalyzes the interconversion of ribose 5-phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway; participates in pyridoxine biosynthesis
YML058W SML1 ribonucleotide reductase inhibiting protein SML1 Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor; involved in regulating dNTP production; regulated by Mec1p and Rad53p during DNA damage and S phase; SML1 has a paralog, DIF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML058W-A HUG1 Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor; intrinsically disordered protein that binds to and inhibits Rnr2p; involved in the Mec1p-mediated checkpoint pathway; transcription is induced by genotoxic stress and by activation of the Rad53p pathway; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YJL026W RNR2 CRT6 | ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase subunit RNR2 Ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase (RNR), small subunit; the RNR complex catalyzes the rate-limiting step in dNTP synthesis and is regulated by DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint pathways via localization of the small subunits; RNR2 has a paralog, RNR4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR180C RNR4 CRT3 | PSO3 | ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase subunit RNR4 Ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase (RNR) small subunit; the RNR complex catalyzes the rate-limiting step in dNTP synthesis and is regulated by DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint pathways via localization of the small subunits; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; RNR4 has a paralog, RNR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR478W SNM1 Ribonuclease MRP complex subunit; ribonuclease (RNase) MRP cleaves pre-rRNA and has a role in cell cycle-regulated degradation of daughter cell-specific mRNAs; binds to the NME1 RNA subunit of RNase MRP
YLR154C RNH203 Rnh2C Ribonuclease H2 subunit; required for RNase H2 activity; role in ribonucleotide excision repair; related to human AGS3 that causes Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome
YDR279W RNH202 Rnh2B Ribonuclease H2 subunit; required for RNase H2 activity; role in ribonucleotide excision repair; related to human AGS2 that causes Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome
YNL072W RNH201 ribonuclease H2 catalytic subunit RNH201 | Rnh2A | RNH35 Ribonuclease H2 catalytic subunit; removes RNA primers during Okazaki fragment synthesis and errant ribonucleotides misincorporated during DNA replication; role in ribonucleotide excision repair; homolog of RNAse HI; related to human AGS4 which causes Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome
YMR234W RNH1 RNA-DNA hybrid ribonuclease Ribonuclease H1; able to bind double-stranded RNAs and RNA-DNA hybrids; associates with RNAse polymerase I.
YBR256C RIB5 riboflavin synthase Riboflavin synthase; catalyzes the last step of the riboflavin biosynthesis pathway
YDR236C FMN1 riboflavin kinase Riboflavin kinase, produces riboflavin monophosphate (FMN); FMN is a necessary cofactor for many enzymes; predominantly localizes to the microsomal fraction and also found in the mitochondrial inner membrane; human RFK functionally complements the lethality of the null mutation
YER155C BEM2 IPL2 | SUP9 | TSL1 Rho GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP); involved in the control of cytoskeleton organization and cellular morphogenesis; required for bud emergence; potential GAP for Rho4p
YPL115C BEM3 Rho GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP); involved in control of the cytoskeleton organization; targets the essential Rho-GTPase Cdc42p, which controls establishment and maintenance of cell polarity, including bud-site assembly
YDL135C RDI1 Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor; involved in the localization and regulation of Cdc42p and Rho1p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR251C TUM1 thiosulfate sulfurtransferase Rhodanese domain sulfur transferase; accepts persulfite from Nfs1p and transfers it to Uba4p in the pathway for 2-thiolation of the wobble uridine base of tRNAs; also stimulates sulfur transfer by Nfs1p; may be mitochondrially localized
YDR170W-A gag protein Retrotransposon TYA Gag gene; Gag is a nucleocapsid protein that is the structural constituent of virus-like particles (VLPs); similar to retroviral Gag; YDR170W-A is part of a mutant retrotransposon; distribution in the cytoplasm becomes irregular rather than punctate upon DNA replication stress
YLR035C-A gag-pol fusion protein Retrotransposon TYA Gag and TYB Pol genes; polyprotein is processed to make a nucleocapsid-like protein (Gag), reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR), and integrase (IN); YLR035C-A is part of a mutant retrotransposon
YAR009C truncated gag-pol fusion protein | YARCTyB1-1 Retrotransposon TYA Gag and TYB Pol genes; Gag processing produces capsid proteins, Pol is cleaved to produce protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase activities; in YARCTy1-1 TYB is mutant and probably non-functional; protein product forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YDL204W RTN2 Reticulon protein; involved in nuclear pore assembly and maintenance of tubular ER morphology; promotes membrane curvature; regulates the ER asymmetry-induced inheritance block during ER stress; role in ER-derived peroxisomal biogenesis; interacts with Sec6p, Yip3p, and Sbh1p; less abundant than RTN1; member of RTNLA (reticulon-like A) subfamily; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes to plasma membrane upon DNA replication stress
YDR233C RTN1 Reticulon protein; involved in nuclear pore assembly and maintenance of tubular ER morphology; promotes membrane curvature; regulates the ER asymmetry-induced inheritance block during ER stress; role in ER-derived peroxisomal biogenesis; increases tubular ER when overexpressed; mutants have reduced phosphatidylserine transfer between the ER and mitochondria; interacts with exocyst subunit Sec6p, Yip3p, and Sbh1p; member of the RTNLA subfamily
YPR028W YOP1 YIP2 Reticulon-interacting protein; ER integral membrane protein involved in the generation of tubular ER morphology; promotes membrane curvature; forms tubules in vitro; regulates the ER asymmetry-induced inheritance block during ER stress; role in ER-derived peroxisomal biogenesis; interacts with Yip1p to mediate membrane traffic and with Sey1p to maintain ER morphology; facilitates lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria; forms ER foci upon DNA replication stress
YHL038C CBP2 Required for splicing of the group I intron bI5 of the COB pre-mRNA; nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein that binds to the RNA to promote splicing; also involved in but not essential for splicing of the COB bI2 intron and the intron in the 21S rRNA gene
YPR129W SCD6 LSM13 Repressor of translation initiation; binds eIF4G through its RGG domain and inhibits recruitment of the preinitiation complex; also contains an Lsm domain; may have a role in RNA processing; overproduction suppresses null mutation in clathrin heavy chain gene CHC1; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YOR083W WHI5 transcriptional repressor WHI5 Repressor of G1 transcription; binds to SCB binding factor (SBF) at SCB target promoters in early G1; dilution of Whi5p concentration during cell growth determines cell size; phosphorylation of Whi5p by the CDK, Cln3p/Cdc28p relieves repression and promoter binding by Whi5, and contributes to both the determination of critical cell size at START and cell fate; periodically expressed in G1
YDR481C PHO8 alkaline phosphatase PHO8 | phoH Repressible vacuolar alkaline phosphatase; regulated by levels of Pi and by Pho4p, Pho9p, Pho80p, Pho81p and Pho85p; dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl peptides; contributes to NAD+ metabolism by producing nicotinamide riboside from NMN
YBR093C PHO5 acid phosphatase PHO5 | phoE Repressible acid phosphatase; 1 of 3 repressible acid phosphatases that also mediates extracellular nucleotide-derived phosphate hydrolysis; secretory pathway derived cell surface glycoprotein; induced by phosphate starvation and coordinately regulated by PHO4 and PHO2
YMR048W CSM3 Replication fork associated factor; required for stable replication fork pausing; component of the DNA replication checkpoint pathway; required for accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YDR028C REG1 HEX2 | protein phosphatase regulator REG1 | PZF240 | SPP43 | SRN1 Regulatory subunit of type 1 protein phosphatase Glc7p; involved in negative regulation of glucose-repressible genes; involved in regulation of the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Hxk2p; REG1 has a paralog, REG2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR261C TPS3 trehalose 6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase complex subunit Regulatory subunit of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase; involved in synthesis of storage carbohydrate trehalose; expression is induced by stress conditions and repressed by the Ras-cAMP pathway; TPS3 has a paralog, TSL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER072W VTC1 NRF1 | PHM4 Regulatory subunit of the vacuolar transporter chaperone (VTC) complex; VTC complex is involved in membrane trafficking, vacuolar polyphosphate accumulation, microautophagy and non-autophagic vacuolar fusion; also has mRNA binding activity; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL019C VTC3 PHM2 | vacuolar transporter chaperone Regulatory subunit of the vacuolar transporter chaperone (VTC) complex; involved in membrane trafficking, vacuolar polyphosphate accumulation, microautophagy and non-autophagic vacuolar fusion; VTC3 has a paralog, VTC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFL004W VTC2 PHM1 | vacuolar transporter chaperone Regulatory subunit of the vacuolar transporter chaperone (VTC) complex; involved in membrane trafficking, vacuolar polyphosphate accumulation, microautophagy and non-autophagic vacuolar fusion; VTC2 has a paralog, VTC3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL193C SDS22 EGP1 | type 1 protein phosphatase-activating protein SDS22 Regulatory subunit of the type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) Glc7p; whether it functions as a positive or negative regulator of Glc7p is controversial; involved in the regulation of Glc7p nuclear localization and function
YIL033C BCY1 cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit BCY1 | SRA1 Regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA); PKA is a component of a signaling pathway that controls a variety of cellular processes, including metabolism, cell cycle, stress response, stationary phase, and sporulation
YPR185W ATG13 APG13 | serine/threonine protein kinase regulatory subunit ATG13 Regulatory subunit of the Atg1p signaling complex; stimulates Atg1p kinase activity; required for vesicle formation during autophagy and the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway; contains a HORMA domain required for autophagy and for recruitment of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex subunit Atg14p to the pre-autophagosomal structure
YBL046W PSY4 HSM6 Regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase PP4; presence of Psy4p in the PP4 complex (along with catalytic subunit Pph3p and Psy2p) is required for dephosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX, but not for dephosphorylation of Rad53p, during recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint; localization is cell-cycle dependent and regulated by Cdc28p phosphorylation; required for cisplatin resistance; homolog of mammalian R2
YMR311C GLC8 Regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (Glc7p); involved in glycogen metabolism and chromosome segregation; proposed to regulate Glc7p activity via conformational alteration; ortholog of the mammalian protein phosphatase inhibitor 2; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR052C DBF4 DNA52 | LSD7 | protein serine/threonine kinase activating protein DBF4 Regulatory subunit of Cdc7p-Dbf4p kinase complex; required for Cdc7p kinase activity and initiation of DNA replication; phosphorylates the Mcm2-7 family of proteins; cell cycle regulated; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; co-expression of human CDC7 and DBF4 complements single cdc7 or dbf4 null mutations or the cdc7 dbf4 double null mutation
YCL009C ILV6 acetolactate synthase regulatory subunit Regulatory subunit of acetolactate synthase; acetolactate synthase catalyzes the first step of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis; enhances activity of the Ilv2p catalytic subunit, localizes to mitochondria
YCR024C-A PMP1 proteolipid ATPase Regulatory subunit for the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase Pma1p; small single-membrane span proteolipid; forms unique helix and positively charged cytoplasmic domain that is able to specifically segregate phosphatidylserines; PMP1 has a paralog, PMP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL190C CDC55 protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit CDC55 | TMR4 Regulatory subunit B of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A); Zds1p/2p-dependent localization to cytoplasm promotes mitotic entry; localization to nucleus prevents mitotic exit; required for correct nuclear division, chromosome segregation during achiasmate meiosis; maintains nucleolar sequestration of Cdc14p during early meiosis; limits formation of PP2A-Rts1p holocomplexes to ensure timely dissolution of sister chromosome cohesion; homolog of mammalian B55
YAL016W TPD3 FUN32 | protein phosphatase 2A structural subunit TPD3 Regulatory subunit A of the heterotrimeric PP2A complex; the heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complex also contains regulatory subunit Cdc55p and either catalytic subunit Pph21p or Pph22p; required for cell morphogenesis and transcription by RNA polymerase III
YDL080C THI3 branched-chain-2-oxoacid decarboxylase THI3 | KID1 Regulatory protein that binds Pdc2p and Thi2p transcription factors; activates thiamine biosynthesis transcription factors Pdc2p and Thi2p by binding to them, but releases and de-activates them upon binding to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the end product of the pathway; has similarity to decarboxylases but enzymatic activity is not detected
YPR188C MLC2 Regulatory light chain for the type II myosin Myo1p; binds to an IQ motif of Myo1p, localization to the bud neck depends on Myo1p; involved in the disassembly of the Myo1p ring
YGR097W ASK10 RGC2 Regulator of the Fps1p glycerol channel; under nonstress conditions, binds to Fps1p to positively regulate glycerol transport; under osmotic stress, multiple phosphorylation by Hog1p causes Ask10p to dissociate from Fps1p; forms homodimers and heterodimerizes with paralog Rgc1p; phosphorylated in response to oxidative stress; has a role in destruction of Ssn8p; associates with RNA polymerase II holoenzyme
YIL135C VHS2 Regulator of septin dynamics; involved in the regulation of septin dynamics at bud neck after mitotic entry, likely by stabilizing septin structure; regulated at post-translational level by cell cycle dependent phosphorylation; likely phosphorylated by Cdc28p and dephosphorylated by Cdc14p before cytokinesis; high-copy suppressor of synthetic lethality of sis2 sit4 double mutant; VHS2 has a paralog, MLF3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR104C FHL1 SPP42 Regulator of ribosomal protein (RP) transcription; has forkhead associated domain that binds phosphorylated proteins; recruits coactivator Ifh1p or corepressor Crf1p to RP gene promoters; also has forkhead DNA-binding domain though in vitro DNA binding assays give inconsistent results; computational analyses suggest it binds DNA directly at highly active RP genes and indirectly through Rap1p motifs at others; suppresses RNA pol III and splicing factor prp4 mutants
YPL066W RGL1 Regulator of Rho1p signaling, cofactor of Tus1p; required for the localization of Tus1p during all phases of cytokinesis; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the bud neck and cytoplasm; null mutant is viable and exhibits growth defect on a non-fermentable (respiratory) carbon source
YDL233W MFG1 Regulator of filamentous growth; interacts with FLO11 promoter and regulates FLO11 expression; binds to transcription factors Flo8p and Mss11p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus; YDL233W is not an essential gene
YLR403W SFP1 [ISP(+)] | [ISP+] | zinc-coordinating transcription factor SFP1 Regulates transcription of ribosomal protein and biogenesis genes; regulates response to nutrients and stress, G2/M transitions during mitotic cell cycle and DNA-damage response, and modulates cell size; regulated by TORC1 and Mrs6p; sequence of zinc finger, ChIP localization data, and protein-binding microarray (PBM) data, and computational analyses suggest it binds DNA directly at highly active RP genes and indirectly through Rap1p at others; can form the [ISP+] prion
YDR309C GIC2 Redundant rho-like GTPase Cdc42p effector; involved in initiation of budding and cellular polarization; interacts with Cdc42p via the Cdc42/Rac-interactive binding (CRIB) domain and with PI(4,5)P2 via a polybasic region; GIC2 has a paralog, GIC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR190C SGS1 ATP-dependent DNA helicase SGS1 RecQ family nucleolar DNA helicase; role in genome integrity maintenance, chromosome synapsis, meiotic joint molecule/crossover formation; stimulates activity of Top3p; rapidly lost in response to rapamycin in Rrd1p-dependent manner; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress; yeast SGS1 complements mutations in human homolog BLM implicated in Bloom syndrome; also similar to human WRN implicated in Werner syndrome; human BLM and WRN can each complement yeast null mutant
YOL082W ATG19 CVT19 Receptor protein for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway; delivers cargo proteins aminopeptidase I (Ape1p) and alpha-mannosidase (Ams1p) to the phagophore assembly site for packaging into Cvt vesicles; interaction with Atg19p during the Cvt pathway requires phosphorylation by Hrr25p
YFL026W STE2 alpha-factor pheromone receptor STE2 Receptor for alpha-factor pheromone; seven transmembrane-domain GPCR that interacts with both pheromone and a heterotrimeric G protein to initiate the signaling response that leads to mating between haploid a and alpha cells
YGL164C YRB30 RanGTP-binding protein; inhibits RanGAP1 (Rna1p)-mediated GTP hydrolysis of RanGTP (Gsp1p); shares similarity to proteins in other fungi but not in higher eukaryotes
YNL304W YPT11 Rab family GTPase YPT11 Rab GTPase; Myo2p-binding protein implicated in mother-to-bud transport of cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER), late Golgi, and mitochondria during cell division; function is regulated at multiple levels; abundance of active Ypt11p forms is controlled by phosphorylation status and degradation; normally a low-abundance protein whose ER localization is only detected when protein is highly over expressed
YNL293W MSB3 GYP3 | Rab GTPase-activating protein MSB3 Rab GTPase-activating protein; regulates endocytosis via inactivation of Vps21p at endosomes and vacuole fusion via inactivation of Ypt7p at vacuoles; also acts on Ypt52p and Sec4p; localizes to plasma membrane, sites of polarized growth; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; similar to TBC-domain Tre2 oncogene; MSB3 has a paralog, MSB4, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human homolog USP6NL can complement yeast msb3 msb4 double null
YBR264C YPT10 Rab family GTPase YPT10 Rab family GTP-binding protein; contains the PEST signal sequence specific for proteolytic enzymes; may be involved in vesicular transport; overexpression leads to accumulation of Golgi-like cisternae with budding vesicles
YLR262C YPT6 Rab family GTPase YPT6 Rab family GTPase; required for endosome-to-Golgi, intra-Golgi retrograde, and retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport; temporarily at the Golgi, dissociating into the cytosol on arrival of the late Golgi GTPase Ypt32p; Golgi-localized form is GTP bound, while cytosolic form is GDP-bound; required for delivery of Atg9p to the phagophore assembly site during autophagy under heat stress, with Ypt6p for starvation induced autophagy and for the CVT pathway; homolog of mammalian Rab6
YER031C YPT31 Rab family GTPase YPT31 | YPT8 Rab family GTPase; involved in the exocytic pathway; mediates intra-Golgi traffic or the budding of post-Golgi vesicles from the trans-Golgi; YPT31 has a paralog, YPT32, that arose from the whole genome duplication; localizes to the transitional and late Golgi
YGL210W YPT32 Rab family GTPase YPT32 Rab family GTPase involved in the exocytic pathway; mediates intra-Golgi traffic or the budding of post-Golgi vesicles from the trans-Golgi; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; YPT32 has a paralog, YPT31, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML001W YPT7 AST4 | Rab family GTPase YPT7 | VAM4 Rab family GTPase; GTP-binding protein of the rab family; required for homotypic fusion event in vacuole inheritance, for endosome-endosome fusion; localizes to sites of contact between the vacuole and mitochondria (vCLAMPs); interacts with the cargo selection/retromer complex for retrograde sorting; similar to mammalian Rab7
YOR370C MRS6 GTPase-activating protein MRS6 | MSI4 Rab escort protein; forms a complex with the Ras-like small GTPase Ypt1p that is required for the prenylation of Ypt1p by protein geranylgeranyltransferase type II (Bet2p-Bet4p); sequence similarity to mammalian choroideraemia gene; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YFR047C BNA6 nicotinate-nucleotide diphosphorylase (carboxylating) | QPT1 Quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase; required for the de novo biosynthesis of NAD from tryptophan via kynurenine; expression regulated by Hst1p
YAL038W CDC19 PYK1 | pyruvate kinase CDC19 Pyruvate kinase; functions as a homotetramer in glycolysis to convert phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, the input for aerobic (TCA cycle) or anaerobic (glucose fermentation) respiration; regulated via allosteric activation by fructose bisphosphate; CDC19 has a paralog, PYK2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR347C PYK2 pyruvate kinase PYK2 Pyruvate kinase; appears to be modulated by phosphorylation; transcription repressed by glucose, and Pyk2p may be active under low glycolytic flux; PYK2 has a paralog, CDC19, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL062W PYC1 pyruvate carboxylase 1 Pyruvate carboxylase isoform; cytoplasmic enzyme that converts pyruvate to oxaloacetate; differentially regulated than isoform Pyc2p; mutations in the human homolog are associated with lactic acidosis; PYC1 has a paralog, PYC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR218C PYC2 pyruvate carboxylase 2 Pyruvate carboxylase isoform; cytoplasmic enzyme that converts pyruvate to oxaloacetate; differentially regulated than isoform Pyc1p; mutations in the human homolog are associated with lactic acidosis; PYC2 has a paralog, PYC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR520C URC2 RRT4 Putative Zn(II)2Cys6 motif containing transcription factor; non-essential gene identified in a screen for mutants with increased levels of rDNA transcription; similar to S. kluyveri Urc2p involved in uracil catabolism
YPR013C CMR3 Putative zinc finger protein; YPR013C is not an essential gene
YMR182C RGM1 Putative zinc finger DNA binding transcription factor; contains two N-terminal C2H2 zinc fingers and C-terminal proline rich domain; overproduction impairs cell growth and induces expression of genes involved in monosaccharide catabolism and aldehyde metabolism; regulates expression of of Y' telomeric elements and subtelomeric COS genes; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; RGM1 has a paralog, USV1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFR006W putative Xaa-Pro dipeptidase Putative X-Pro aminopeptidase; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YFR006W is not an essential gene
YOL092W YPQ1 cationic amino acid transporter Putative vacuolar membrane transporter for cationic amino acids; likely contributes to amino acid homeostasis by exporting cationic amino acids from the vacuole; member of the PQ-loop family, with seven transmembrane domains; similar to mammalian PQLC2 vacuolar transporter; YPQ1 has a paralog, RTC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR352W YPQ2 Putative vacuolar membrane transporter for cationic amino acids; likely contributes to amino acid homeostasis by exporting cationic amino acids from the vacuole; member of the PQ-loop family, with seven transmembrane domains; mutant phenotype is functionally complemented by rat PQLC2 vacuolar transporter
YIL045W PIG2 putative protein phosphatase regulator PIG2 Putative type-1 protein phosphatase targeting subunit; tethers Glc7p type-1 protein phosphatase to Gsy2p glycogen synthase; PIG2 has a paralog, GIP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR094W PBY1 putative tubulin tyrosine ligase Putative tubulin tyrosine ligase associated with P-bodies; may have a role in mRNA metabolism; yeast knockout collection strain identified as a pby1 null mutant is actually wild-type for PBY1 and deleted for mms4
YGL232W TAN1 putative tRNA acetyltransferase Putative tRNA acetyltransferase; RNA-binding protein required for the formation of the modified nucleoside N(4)-acetylcytidine in serine and leucine tRNAs but not required for the same modification in 18S rRNA; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKR103W NFT1 putative multidrug transporter NFT1 Putative transporter of the MRP subfamily; adjacent ORFs YKR103W and YKR104W are merged in different strain backgrounds; MRP stands for multidrug resistance-associated protein
YBR241C Putative transporter, member of the sugar porter family; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the vacuolar membrane; YBR241C is not an essential gene; YBR241C has a paralog, VPS73, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL088C AVT7 Putative transporter; member of a family of seven S. cerevisiae genes (AVT1-7) related to vesicular GABA-glycine transporters
YNR055C HOL1 Putative transporter in the major facilitator superfamily; member of the 12-spanner drug:H(+) antiporter DHA1 family; mutations in membrane-spanning domains permit cation and histidinol uptake
YNR056C BIO5 Putative transmembrane protein involved in the biotin biosynthesis; responsible for uptake of 7-keto 8-aminopelargonic acid; BIO5 is in a cluster of 3 genes (BIO3, BIO4, and BIO5) that mediate biotin synthesis
YLR183C TOS4 Putative transcription factor, contains Forkhead Associated domain; binds chromatin; involved in expression homeostasis, buffering of mRNA synthesis rate against gene dosage changes during S phase; target of SBF transcription factor; expression is periodic and peaks in G1; involved in DNA replication checkpoint response; interacts with Rpd3 and Set3 histone deacetylase complexes; APCC(Cdh1) substrate; relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YMR019W STB4 Putative transcription factor; contains a Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc finger domain characteristic of DNA-binding proteins; computational analysis suggests a role in regulation of expression of genes encoding transporters; binds Sin3p in a two-hybrid assay;
YOL089C HAL9 Putative transcription factor containing a zinc finger; overexpression increases salt tolerance through increased expression of the ENA1 (Na+/Li+ extrusion pump) gene while gene disruption decreases both salt tolerance and ENA1 expression; HAL9 has a paralog, TBS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR022C SDD4 Putative transcription factor, as suggested by computational analysis; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS; overproduction of a truncation allele suppresses lethality due to expression of the dominant PET9 allele AAC2-A128P
YKR064W OAF3 Putative transcriptional repressor with Zn(2)-Cys(6) finger; negatively regulates transcription in response to oleate levels, based on mutant phenotype and localization to oleate-responsive promoters; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YKR077W MSA2 Putative transcriptional activator; interacts with G1-specific transcription factor MBF and G1-specific promoters; MSA2 has a paralog, MSA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR003C Putative sulfate permease; physically interacts with Hsp82p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the ER; YPR003C is not an essential gene
YKR060W UTP30 Putative subunit of U3-containing 90S preribosome complex; complex is involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of small ribosomal subunit
YLR003C CMS1