ORF Standard name Aliases Description
YLR342W FKS1 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase | CND1 | CWH53 | ETG1 | GSC1 | PBR1 Catalytic subunit of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase; functionally redundant with alternate catalytic subunit Gsc2p; binds to regulatory subunit Rho1p; involved in cell wall synthesis and maintenance; localizes to sites of cell wall remodeling; FKS1 has a paralog, GSC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR343W GAS2 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase; involved with Gas4p in spore wall assembly; has similarity to Gas1p
YOL030W GAS5 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase; has similarity to Gas1p; localizes to the cell wall
YMR307W GAS1 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase GAS1 | CWH52 | GGP1 Beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase; required for cell wall assembly and also has a role in transcriptional silencing; localizes to cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor; also found at nuclear periphery; genetic interactions with histone H3 lysine acetyltransferases GCN5 and SAS3 indicate previously unsuspected functions for Gas1 in DNA damage response and cell cycle regulation
YER177W BMH1 14-3-3 family protein BMH1 | APR6 14-3-3 protein, major isoform; controls proteome at post-transcriptional level, binds proteins and DNA, involved in regulation of exocytosis, vesicle transport, Ras/MAPK and rapamycin-sensitive signaling, aggresome formation, spindle position checkpoint; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; antiapoptotic gene similar to human 14-3-3; BMH1 has a paralog, BMH2, that arose from whole genome duplication
YDR099W BMH2 14-3-3 family protein BMH2 | SCD3 14-3-3 protein, minor isoform; controls proteome at post-transcriptional level, binds proteins and DNA, involved in regulation of many processes including exocytosis, vesicle transport, Ras/MAPK signaling, and rapamycin-sensitive signaling; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; abundance relative to Bmh1p increases during sporulation
YEL011W GLC3 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme | GHA1 Glycogen branching enzyme, involved in glycogen accumulation; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress; glycogen accumulation defect of the null mutant is functionally complemented by human GBE1, which is associated with glycogen storage disease
YIL020C HIS6 1-(5-phosphoribosyl)-5- ((5-phosphoribosylamino)methylideneamino)imidazole-4-carboxamide isomerase HIS6 Enzyme that catalyzes the fourth step in the histidine pathway; Phosphoribosylformimino-5-aminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide isomerase; mutations cause histidine auxotrophy and sensitivity to Cu, Co, and Ni salts
YBR056W 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-like protein Putative glycoside hydrolase of the mitochondrial intermembrane space
YCR047C BUD23 18S rRNA (guanine1575-N7)-methyltransferase Methyltransferase that methylates residue G1575 of 18S rRNA; required for rRNA processing and nuclear export of 40S ribosomal subunits independently of methylation activity; diploid mutant displays random budding pattern; functional homolog of human WBSCR22
YLR186W EMG1 18S rRNA pseudouridine methyltransferase | NEP1 Methyltransferase for rRNA; methylates pseudouridine 18S rRNA residue 1191; member of the SPOUT methyltransferase family; required for maturation of 18S rRNA and for 40S ribosomal subunit production independent of methyltransferase activity; forms homodimers; human ortholog is mutated in Bowen-Conradi syndrome, and equivalent yeast mutation affects Emg1p dimerization and localization but not methyltransferase activity; human EMG1 complements lethality of null and ts mutant
YDL052C SLC1 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase SLC1 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase; catalyzes the acylation of lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in lipid metabolism; enzymatic activity detected in lipid particles and microsomes
YFR019W FAB1 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase | SVL7 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase; vacuolar membrane kinase that generates phosphatidylinositol (3,5)P2, which is involved in vacuolar sorting and homeostasis
YNL267W PIK1 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase | PIK120 | PIK41 Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase; catalyzes first step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate; may control cytokinesis through the actin cytoskeleton; may control nonselective autophagy and mitophagy through trafficking of Atg9p
YDR208W MSS4 1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase; involved in actin cytoskeleton organization and cell morphogenesis; multicopy suppressor of stt4 mutation
YHR037W PUT2 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase; nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein involved in utilization of proline as sole nitrogen source; deficiency of human homolog ALDH4A1 causes type II hyperprolinemia (HPII), an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism; human homolog ALDH4A1 can complement yeast null mutant
YGR247W CPD1 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase; hydrolyzes ADP-ribose 1'', 2''-cyclic phosphate to ADP-ribose 1''-phosphate; may have a role in tRNA splicing; no detectable phenotype is conferred by null mutation or by overexpression; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR141C BMT2 25S rRNA (adenine2142-N1)-methyltransferase Nucleolar S-adenosylmethionine-dependent rRNA methyltransferase; methylates adenine (m1A) of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA at position 2142; belongs to Rossmann fold superfamily; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleolus; YBR141C is not an essential gene
YDR083W RRP8 25S rRNA (adenine645-N1)-methyltransferase Nucleolar S-adenosylmethionine-dependent rRNA methyltransferase; methylates adenine (m1A) of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA at position 645; involved in pre-rRNA cleavage at site A2; mutation is synthetically lethal with a gar1 mutation; deletion disrupts telomere maintenance by influencing the expression of neighboring gene STN1
YIL096C BMT5 25S rRNA (uracil2634-N3)-methyltransferase Methyltransferase required for m3U2634 methylation of the 25S rRNA; S-adenosylmethionine-dependent; associates with precursors of the 60S ribosomal subunit; predicted to be involved in ribosome biogenesis
YLR063W BMT6 25S rRNA (uracil2843-N3)-methyltransferase Methyltransferase required for m3U2843 methylation of the 25S rRNA; S-adenosylmethionine-dependent; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YLR063W is not an essential gene
YER152C 2-aminoadipate transaminase Protein with 2-aminoadipate transaminase activity; shares amino acid similarity with the aminotransferases Aro8p and Aro9p; YER152C is not an essential gene
YHR063C PAN5 2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase PAN5 2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase; part of the pantothenic acid pathway, structurally homologous to E. coli panE
YHR043C DOG2 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphatase 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase; member of a family of low molecular weight phosphatases, induced by oxidative and osmotic stress, confers 2-deoxyglucose resistance when overexpressed; DOG2 has a paralog, DOG1, that arose from a single-locus duplication; the last half of DOG1 and DOG2 are subject to gene conversions among S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus, and S. mikatae
YML110C COQ5 2-hexaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone methyltransferase | DBI56 2-hexaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone methyltransferase; involved in ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) biosynthesis; localizes to the matrix face of the mitochondrial inner membrane in a large complex with other ubiquinone biosynthetic enzymes; respiratory defect of the null mutant is partially complemented by human COQ5
YNL104C LEU4 2-isopropylmalate synthase LEU4 Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase (2-isopropylmalate synthase); the main isozyme responsible for the first step in the leucine biosynthesis pathway; LEU4 has a paralog, LEU9, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR108W LEU9 2-isopropylmalate synthase LEU9 Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase II (2-isopropylmalate synthase); catalyzes the first step in the leucine biosynthesis pathway; the minor isozyme, responsible for the residual alpha-IPMS activity detected in a leu4 null mutant; LEU9 has a paralog, LEU4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL064C MET22 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase | HAL2 Bisphosphate-3'-nucleotidase; involved in salt tolerance and methionine biogenesis; dephosphorylates 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate, intermediates of the sulfate assimilation pathway; human homolog BPNT1 complements yeast null mutant
YDR487C RIB3 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase RIB3 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (DHBP synthase); required for riboflavin biosynthesis from ribulose-5-phosphate, also has an unrelated function in mitochondrial respiration
YOR360C PDE2 3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE2 | SRA5 High-affinity cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase; component of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling system, protects the cell from extracellular cAMP, contains readthrough motif surrounding termination codon
YIR002C MPH1 3'-5' DNA helicase 3'-5' DNA helicase involved in error-free bypass of DNA lesions; binds flap DNA, stimulates activity of Rad27p and Dna2p; prevents crossovers between ectopic sequences by removing substrates for Mus81-Mms4 or Rad1-Rad10 cleavage; homolog of human FANCM Fanconi anemia protein that is involved in stabilizing and remodeling blocked replication forks; member of SF2 DExD/H superfamily of helicases; nonsense or missense mutations in FANCM can make people more likely to get cancer
YBL055C 3'-5'-exodeoxyribonuclease | Tat-D 3'-->5' exonuclease and endonuclease with a possible role in apoptosis; has similarity to mammalian and C. elegans apoptotic nucleases
YBR265W TSC10 3-dehydrosphinganine reductase 3-ketosphinganine reductase; catalyzes the second step in phytosphingosine synthesis; essential for growth in the absence of exogenous dihydrosphingosine or phytosphingosine; localized to lipid droplets; member of short chain dehydrogenase/reductase protein family
YDR035W ARO3 3-deoxy-7-phosphoheptulonate synthase ARO3 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase; catalyzes the first step in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and is feedback-inhibited by phenylalanine or high concentration of tyrosine or tryptophan
YBR249C ARO4 3-deoxy-7-phosphoheptulonate synthase ARO4 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase; catalyzes the first step in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and is feedback-inhibited by tyrosine or high concentrations of phenylalanine or tryptophan; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YJR025C BNA1 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase | HAD1 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase; required for the de novo biosynthesis of NAD from tryptophan via kynurenine; expression regulated by Hst1p
YGL009C LEU1 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase LEU1 Isopropylmalate isomerase; catalyzes the second step in the leucine biosynthesis pathway
YLR100W ERG27 3-keto-steroid reductase 3-keto sterol reductase; catalyzes the last of three steps required to remove two C-4 methyl groups from an intermediate in ergosterol biosynthesis; mutants are sterol auxotrophs; mutation is functionally complemented by human HSD17B7
YBR176W ECM31 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase Ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase; required for pantothenic acid biosynthesis, converts 2-oxoisovalerate into 2-dehydropantoate
YKL055C OAR1 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase (NADPH) Mitochondrial 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase; may comprise a type II mitochondrial fatty acid synthase along with Mct1p; human homolog CBR4 complements yeast null mutant
YHL018W MCO14 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase Putative 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to mitochondria and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YNR033W ABZ1 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase Para-aminobenzoate (PABA) synthase; has similarity to Escherichia coli PABA synthase components PabA and PabB; required for the synthesis of para-aminobenzoic acid, an important intermediate for folate and ubiquinone Q biosynthesis; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGR019W UGA1 4-aminobutyrate transaminase Gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) transaminase; also known as 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase; involved in the 4-aminobutyrate and glutamate degradation pathways; required for normal oxidative stress tolerance and nitrogen utilization; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNR041C COQ2 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase Para hydroxybenzoate polyprenyl transferase; catalyzes the second step in ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) biosynthesis; human COQ2, mutations in which are implicated in an increased risk of mutiple-system atrophy, can complement a yeast coq2 null mutant
YDL236W PHO13 4-nitrophenylphosphatase Conserved phosphatase acting as a metabolite repair enzyme; shows specific dephosphorylating activity on two side-products of central carbohydrate metabolism, 2-phosphoglycolate and 4-phosphoerythronate; alkaline phosphatase specific for p-nitrophenyl phosphate; also has protein phosphatase activity; human ortholog PGP shows similar substrate specificity, deletion causes similar metabolite accumulation phenotypes, suggesting conserved role in eliminating glycolytic byproducts
YDR232W HEM1 5-aminolevulinate synthase | CYD1 | OLE3 5-aminolevulinate synthase; catalyzes the first step in the heme biosynthetic pathway; an N-terminal signal sequence is required for localization to the mitochondrial matrix; expression is regulated by Hap2p-Hap3p; has a pyridoxal phosphate cofactor whose insertion is mediated by Mcx1p
YER183C FAU1 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate synthetase; involved in folic acid biosynthesis
YER091C MET6 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate-homocysteine S-methyltransferase Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase; involved in methionine biosynthesis and regeneration; requires a minimum of two glutamates on the methyltetrahydrofolate substrate, similar to bacterial metE homologs
YOR173W DCS2 5'-(N(7)-methyl 5'-triphosphoguanosine)-(mRNA) diphosphatase m(7)GpppX pyrophosphatase regulator; non-essential, stress induced regulatory protein; modulates m7G-oligoribonucleotide metabolism; inhibits Dcs1p; regulated by Msn2p, Msn4p, and the Ras-cAMP-cAPK signaling pathway; mutant has increased aneuploidy tolerance; DCS2 has a paralog, DCS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR270W DCS1 5'-(N(7)-methyl 5'-triphosphoguanosine)-(mRNA) diphosphatase | DcpS Non-essential hydrolase involved in mRNA decapping; activates Xrn1p; may function in a feedback mechanism to regulate deadenylation, contains pyrophosphatase activity and a HIT (histidine triad) motif; acts as inhibitor of neutral trehalase Nth1p; required for growth on glycerol medium; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; DCS1 has a paralog, DCS2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL215C OXP1 5-oxoprolinase 5-oxoprolinase; enzyme is ATP-dependent and functions as a dimer; similar to mouse Oplah gene; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOL136C PFK27 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase | PFK-2 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase; catalyzes synthesis of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate; inhibited by phosphoenolpyruvate and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, expression induced by glucose and sucrose, transcriptional regulation involves protein kinase A
YGR240C PFK1 6-phosphofructokinase subunit alpha Alpha subunit of heterooctameric phosphofructokinase; involved in glycolysis, indispensable for anaerobic growth, activated by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and AMP, mutation inhibits glucose induction of cell cycle-related genes
YMR205C PFK2 6-phosphofructokinase subunit beta Beta subunit of heterooctameric phosphofructokinase; involved in glycolysis; indispensable for anaerobic growth; activated by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and AMP; mutation inhibits glucose induction of cell cycle-related genes
YHR163W SOL3 6-phosphogluconolactonase SOL3 6-phosphogluconolactonase; catalyzes the second step of the pentose phosphate pathway; weak multicopy suppressor of los1-1 mutation; homologous to Sol2p and Sol1p; SOL3 has a paralog, SOL4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR248W SOL4 6-phosphogluconolactonase SOL4 6-phosphogluconolactonase; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; SOL4 has a paralog, SOL3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML060W OGG1 8-oxoguanine glycosylase OGG1 Nuclear and mitochondrial glycosylase/lyase; specifically excises 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine residues located opposite cytosine or thymine residues in DNA, repairs oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA, contributes to UVA resistance
YJR063W RPA12 A12.2 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I core subunit RPA12 | RRN4 RNA polymerase I subunit A12.2; contains two zinc binding domains, and the N terminal domain is responsible for anchoring to the RNA pol I complex; physically interacts with transcriptional activator Msn4p, to regulate transcription of AYR1, a gene involved in lipid metabolism
YPR010C RPA135 A135 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I core subunit RPA135 | RPA2 | RRN2 | SRP3 RNA polymerase I second largest subunit A135
YDR156W RPA14 A14 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA14 RNA polymerase I subunit A14
YOR341W RPA190 A190 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I core subunit RPA190 | RRN1 RNA polymerase I largest subunit A190
YJL148W RPA34 A34.5 | CST21 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA34 RNA polymerase I subunit A34.5; essential for nucleolar assembly and for high polymerase loading rate; nucleolar localization depends on Rpa49p
YOR340C RPA43 A43 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA43 RNA polymerase I subunit A43
YNL248C RPA49 A49 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA49 RNA polymerase I subunit A49; essential for nucleolar assembly and for high polymerase loading rate; required for nucleolar localization of Rpa34p
YDL040C NAT1 AAA1 | NAA15 | peptide alpha-N-acetyltransferase complex A subunit NAT1 Subunit of protein N-terminal acetyltransferase NatA; NatA comprised of Nat1p, Ard1p, and Nat5p; N-terminally acetylates many proteins to influence multiple processes such as cell cycle progression, heat-shock resistance, mating, sporulation, telomeric silencing and early stages of mitophagy; orthologous to human NAA15; expression of both human NAA10 and NAA15 functionally complements ard1 nat1 double mutant although single mutations are not complemented by their orthologs
YLR397C AFG2 AAA family ATPase AFG2 | DRG1 ATPase of the CDC48/PAS1/SEC18 (AAA) family, forms a hexameric complex; is essential for pre-60S maturation and release of several preribosome maturation factors; releases Rlp24p from purified pre-60S particles in vitro; target of the ribosomal biosynthesis inhibitor diazaborine; may be involved in degradation of aberrant mRNAs
YER017C AFG3 AAA family ATPase AFG3 | YTA10 Mitochondrial inner membrane m-AAA protease component; mediates degradation of misfolded or unassembled proteins; also required for correct assembly of mitochondrial enzyme complexes; involved in cytoplasmic mRNA translation and aging; expression of human homolog AFG3L2 can complement yeast yta12 afg3 double mutant
YDL126C CDC48 AAA family ATPase CDC48 AAA ATPase; subunit of polyUb-selective segregase complex involved in ERAD, INM-associated degradation (INMAD), mitotic spindle disassembly, macroautophagy, PMN, ribosome-associated degradation, ribophagy, homotypic ER membrane fusion, SCF complex disassembly, cell wall integrity during heat stress, and telomerase regulation; mobilizes membrane-anchored transcription factors by regulated Ub/proteasome-dependent processing (RUP); human ortholog VCP complements a cdc48 mutant
YJL194W CDC6 AAA family ATPase CDC6 Essential ATP-binding protein required for DNA replication; component of the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) which requires ORC to associate with chromatin and is in turn required for Mcm2-7p DNA association; homologous to S. pombe Cdc18p; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; degraded in response to plasma membrane stress
YLR106C REA1 AAA family ATPase midasin | MDN1 Huge dynein-related AAA-type ATPase (midasin); forms extended pre-60S particle with the Rix1 complex; involved with interaction partners Rsa4p and Ytm1p, in the ATP-dependent remodeling of the pre-60S particle at successive maturation steps during ribosomal biogenesis; involved in the removal of biogenesis factors including GTPase Nog2p prior to nuclear export; contains a hexameric AAA-motor head domain and a long flexible tail with a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) domain
YKL197C PEX1 AAA family ATPase peroxin 1 | PAS1 AAA-peroxin; heterodimerizes with AAA-peroxin Pex6p and participates in the recycling of peroxisomal signal receptor Pex5p from the peroxisomal membrane to the cystosol; induced by oleic acid and upregulated during anaerobiosis; mutations in human PEX1 can lead to severe peroxisomal disorders and early death
YNL329C PEX6 AAA family ATPase peroxin 6 | PAS8 AAA-peroxin; heterodimerizes with AAA-peroxin Pex1p and participates in the recycling of peroxisomal signal receptor Pex5p from the peroxisomal membrane to the cystosol; mutations in human PEX6 can lead to severe peroxisomal disorders and early death
YBR080C SEC18 AAA family ATPase SEC18 | ANU4 AAA ATPase and SNARE disassembly chaperone; required for vesicular transport between ER and Golgi, the 'priming' step in homotypic vacuole fusion, autophagy, and protein secretion; releases Sec17p from SNAP complexes; has similarity to mammalian N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF)
YPR173C VPS4 AAA family ATPase VPS4 | CSC1 | DID6 | END13 | GRD13 | VPL4 | VPT10 AAA-ATPase involved in multivesicular body (MVB) protein sorting; ATP-bound Vps4p localizes to endosomes and catalyzes ESCRT-III disassembly and membrane release; ATPase activity is activated by Vta1p; regulates cellular sterol metabolism
YML081W TDA9 AAF1 Transcription factor that regulates acetate production; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus; null mutant is sensitive to expression of the top1-T722A allele; not an essential gene; TDA9 has a paralog, RSF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR047C AAP1 AAP1' | arginine/alanine aminopeptidase Arginine/alanine amino peptidase; overproduction stimulates glycogen accumulation; AAP1 has a paralog, APE2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR084C TUP1 AAR1 | AER2 | AMM1 | chromatin-silencing transcriptional regulator TUP1 | CRT4 | CYC9 | FLK1 | ROX4 | SFL2 | UMR7 General repressor of transcription; forms complex with Cyc8p, involved in the establishment of repressive chromatin structure through interactions with histones H3 and H4, appears to enhance expression of some genes
YDR283C GCN2 AAS1 | AAS102 | NDR2 | serine/threonine-protein kinase GCN2 Protein kinase; phosphorylates the alpha-subunit of translation initiation factor eIF2 (Sui2p) in response to starvation; activated by uncharged tRNAs and the Gcn1p-Gcn20p complex; contributes to DNA damage checkpoint control
YEL009C GCN4 AAS101 | AAS3 | amino acid starvation-responsive transcription factor GCN4 | ARG9 bZIP transcriptional activator of amino acid biosynthetic genes; activator responds to amino acid starvation; expression is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and translational levels
YGL195W GCN1 AAS103 | NDR1 Positive regulator of the Gcn2p kinase activity; forms a complex with Gcn20p; proposed to stimulate Gcn2p activation by an uncharged tRNA
YGR252W GCN5 AAS104 | ADA4 | histone acetyltransferase GCN5 | KAT2 | SWI9 Catalytic subunit of ADA and SAGA histone acetyltransferase complexes; modifies N-terminal lysines on histones H2B and H3; acetylates Rsc4p, a subunit of the RSC chromatin-remodeling complex, altering replication stress tolerance; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; mutant displays reduced transcription elongation in the G-less-based run-on (GLRO) assay; greater involvement in repression of RNAPII-dependent transcription than in activation
YKR026C GCN3 AAS2 | translation initiation factor eIF2B subunit alpha Alpha subunit of translation initiation factor eIF2B; guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2; activity subsequently regulated by phosphorylated eIF2; positive regulator of GCN4 expression; assembles into filaments with Gcd2p, Gcd6p, Gcd7p, and Sui2p as cells approach stationary phase and under cytosolic acidification and starvation conditions; human homolog EIF2B1 can complement yeast null mutant
YGL119W COQ8 ABC1 | protein kinase COQ8 ATPase required for ubiquinone biosynthesis and respiratory growth; maintains levels of CoQ biosynthetic proteins; binds to CoQ biosynthesis intermediates; UbiB protein kinase-like family member that lacks canonical protein kinase activity; similar to prokaryotic proteins involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis; human homolog ADCK3 complements a coq8 null, is associated with CoQ and respiratory-chain deficiencies, and is mutated in autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia type 2
YHR143W-A RPC10 ABC10-alpha | DNA-directed RNA polymerase core subunit RPC10 | RPB12 RNA polymerase subunit ABC10-alpha, found in RNA pol I, II, and III; relocalizes from nucleolus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YOR210W RPB10 ABC10-beta | DNA-directed RNA polymerase core subunit RPB10 RNA polymerase subunit ABC10-beta; common to RNA polymerases I, II, and III
YOR224C RPB8 ABC14.5 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase core subunit RPB8 RNA polymerase subunit ABC14.5; common to RNA polymerases I, II, and III
YPR187W RPO26 ABC23 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase core subunit RPO26 | RPB6 RNA polymerase subunit ABC23; common to RNA polymerases I, II, and III; part of central core; similar to bacterial omega subunit
YOL051W GAL11 ABE1 | MED15 | RAR3 | SDS4 | SPT13 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; affects transcription by acting as target of activators and repressors; forms part of the tail domain of mediator
YNR016C ACC1 ABP2 | acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1 | FAS3 | MTR7 Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, biotin containing enzyme; catalyzes carboxylation of cytosolic acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA and regulates histone acetylation by regulating the availablity of acetyl-CoA; required for de novo biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids; ACC1 has a paralog, HFA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR129C SAC6 ABP67 | fimbrin Fimbrin, actin-bundling protein; cooperates with Scp1p in organization and maintenance of the actin cytoskeleton; phosphorylated by Cdc28p/Clb2p in metaphase on T103, to regulate conformation, and modulate actin filament binding affinity and actin cable dynamics; relocalizes from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; human homologs PLS3 and LCP1 implicated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) can each complement yeast null mutant
YNR054C ESF2 ABT1 | RNA-binding ATPase activator ESF2 Essential nucleolar protein involved in pre-18S rRNA processing; binds to RNA and stimulates ATPase activity of Dbp8; involved in assembly of the small subunit (SSU) processome
YNL113W RPC19 AC19 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase core subunit RPC19 RNA polymerase subunit AC19; common to RNA polymerases I and III
YIL036W CST6 ACA2 | SHF1 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor from ATF/CREB family involved in stress-responsive regulatory network; mediates transcriptional activation of NCE103 in response to low CO2 levels; proposed to be a regulator of oleate responsive genes; involved in utilization of non-optimal carbon sources and chromosome stability; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; CST6 has a paralog, ACA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL141W BPL1 ACC2 | biotin--[acetyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase BPL1 Biotin:apoprotein ligase; covalently modifies proteins with the addition of biotin, required for acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc1p) holoenzyme formation; comparative analysis suggests that a mitochondrially targeted form may result from translation starting at a non-canonical codon upstream of the annotated start codon; human homolog HLCS can complement yeast BPL1 mutant
YGL166W CUP2 ACE1 Copper-binding transcription factor; activates transcription of the metallothionein genes CUP1-1 and CUP1-2 in response to elevated copper concentrations; required for regulation of copper genes in response to DNA-damaging reagents; CUP2 has a paralog, HAA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YAL054C ACS1 acetate--CoA ligase 1 | FUN44 Acetyl-coA synthetase isoform; along with Acs2p, acetyl-coA synthetase isoform is the nuclear source of acetyl-coA for histone acetylation; expressed during growth on nonfermentable carbon sources and under aerobic conditions
YLR153C ACS2 acetate--CoA ligase ACS2 Acetyl-coA synthetase isoform; along with Acs1p, acetyl-coA synthetase isoform is the nuclear source of acetyl-coA for histone acetylation; mutants affect global transcription; required for growth on glucose; expressed under anaerobic conditions
YMR108W ILV2 acetolactate synthase catalytic subunit | SMR1 | THI1 Acetolactate synthase; catalyses the first common step in isoleucine and valine biosynthesis and is the target of several classes of inhibitors, localizes to the mitochondria; expression of the gene is under general amino acid control
YCL009C ILV6 acetolactate synthase regulatory subunit Regulatory subunit of acetolactate synthase; acetolactate synthase catalyzes the first step of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis; enhances activity of the Ilv2p catalytic subunit, localizes to mitochondria
YPL028W ERG10 acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase | LPB3 | TSM0115 Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase); cytosolic enzyme that transfers an acetyl group from one acetyl-CoA molecule to another, forming acetoacetyl-CoA; involved in the first step in mevalonate biosynthesis; human ACAT1 functionally complements the growth defect caused by repression of ERG10 expression
YIL160C POT1 acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase | FOX3 | POX3 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase with broad chain length specificity; cleaves 3-ketoacyl-CoA into acyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA during beta-oxidation of fatty acids
YMR207C HFA1 acetyl-CoA carboxylase HFA1 Mitochondrial acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase; catalyzes production of malonyl-CoA in mitochondrial fatty acid biosynthesis; relocalizes from mitochondrion to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; genetic and comparative analysis suggests that translation begins at a non-canonical (Ile) start codon at -372 relative to the annotated start codon
YBL015W ACH1 acetyl-CoA hydrolase Protein with CoA transferase activity; particularly for CoASH transfer from succinyl-CoA to acetate; has minor acetyl-CoA-hydrolase activity; phosphorylated; required for acetate utilization and for diploid pseudohyphal growth
YJL071W ARG2 acetyl-CoA:L-glutamate N-acetyltransferase | HRB574 Acetylglutamate synthase (glutamate N-acetyltransferase); mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the arginine precursor ornithine; forms a complex with Arg5,6p
YOL140W ARG8 acetylornithine transaminase Acetylornithine aminotransferase; catalyzes the fourth step in the biosynthesis of the arginine precursor ornithine
YDR051C DET1 acid phosphatase DET1 Acid phosphatase; involved in the non-vesicular transport of sterols in both directions between the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane; deletion confers sensitivity to nickel
YAR071W PHO11 acid phosphatase PHO11 One of three repressible acid phosphatases; glycoprotein that is transported to the cell surface by the secretory pathway; induced by phosphate starvation and coordinately regulated by PHO4 and PHO2; PHO11 has a paralog, PHO12, that arose from a segmental duplication
YHR215W PHO12 acid phosphatase PHO12 | PHO10 One of three repressible acid phosphatases; glycoprotein that is transported to the cell surface by the secretory pathway; pregulated by phosphate starvation; PHO12 has a paralog, PHO11, that arose from a segmental duplication
YBR092C PHO3 acid phosphatase PHO3 | phoC Constitutively expressed acid phosphatase similar to Pho5p; brought to the cell surface by transport vesicles; hydrolyzes thiamin phosphates in the periplasmic space, increasing cellular thiamin uptake; expression is repressed by thiamin
YBR093C PHO5 acid phosphatase PHO5 | phoE Repressible acid phosphatase; 1 of 3 repressible acid phosphatases that also mediates extracellular nucleotide-derived phosphate hydrolysis; secretory pathway derived cell surface glycoprotein; induced by phosphate starvation and coordinately regulated by PHO4 and PHO2
YMR009W ADI1 acireductone dioxygenase (Ni2+-requiring) Acireductone dioxygenease involved in methionine salvage pathway; transcribed as polycistronic mRNA with YMR010W and regulated post-transcriptionally by RNase III (Rnt1p) cleavage; ADI1 mRNA is induced in heat shock conditions; human ortholog ADI1 can complement yeast adi1 mutant
YLL041C SDH2 ACN17 | SDHB | succinate dehydrogenase iron-sulfur protein subunit SDH2 Iron-sulfur protein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase; the complex couples the oxidation of succinate to the transfer of electrons to ubiquinone as part of the TCA cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain; other members are Sdh1p, Sdh3p, and Sdh4p
YDR178W SDH4 ACN18 | succinate dehydrogenase membrane anchor subunit SDH4 Membrane anchor subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); involved in coupling the oxidation of succinate to the transfer of electrons to ubiquinone as part of the TCA cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain; has similarity to human SDH subunit D (SDHD), which is implicated in paraganglioma
YDR511W SDH7 ACN9 Mitochondrial protein involved in assembly of succinate dehydrogenase; has a role in maturation of the Sdh2p subunit; localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space; required for acetate utilization and gluconeogenesis; mutation in Drosophila ortholog SDHAF3 causes reduced succinate dehydrogenase activity and neuronal and muscular dysfunction; member of the LYR protein family
YJL200C ACO2 aconitate hydratase ACO2 Putative mitochondrial aconitase isozyme; similarity to Aco1p, an aconitase required for the TCA cycle; expression induced during growth on glucose, by amino acid starvation via Gcn4p, and repressed on ethanol
YNL167C SKO1 ACR1 Basic leucine zipper transcription factor of the ATF/CREB family; forms a complex with Tup1p and Cyc8p to both activate and repress transcription; cytosolic and nuclear protein involved in osmotic and oxidative stress responses
YDL029W ARP2 ACT2 | actin-related protein 2 Essential component of the Arp2/3 complex; Arp2/3 is a highly conserved actin nucleation center required for the motility and integrity of actin patches; involved in endocytosis and membrane growth and polarity; required for efficient Golgi-to-ER trafficking in COPI mutants
YJL081C ARP4 ACT3 Nuclear actin-related protein involved in chromatin remodeling; component of chromatin-remodeling enzyme complexes
YHR129C ARP1 ACT5 | actin-related protein 1 Actin-related protein of the dynactin complex; required for spindle orientation and nuclear migration; forms actin-like short filament composed of 9 or 10 Arp1p monomers; putative ortholog of mammalian centractin
YOR181W LAS17 actin-binding protein LAS17 | BEE1 Actin assembly factor; C-terminal WCA domain activates Arp2/3 complex-mediated nucleation of branched actin filaments, polyproline domain nucleates actin filaments independent of Arp2/3; mutants are defective in endocytosis, bud site selection, cytokinesis; human homolog WAS (Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome) implicated in severe immunodeficiency; human WAS complements yeast null mutant, but only in presence of WIPF1, which mediates localization of WAS to cortical patches
YKL192C ACP1 acyl carrier protein Mitochondrial matrix acyl carrier protein; involved in biosynthesis of octanoate, which is a precursor to lipoic acid; activated by phosphopantetheinylation catalyzed by Ppt2p
YOR221C MCT1 [acyl-carrier-protein] S-malonyltransferase Predicted malonyl-CoA:ACP transferase; putative component of a type-II mitochondrial fatty acid synthase that produces intermediates for phospholipid remodeling
YKL094W YJU3 acylglycerol lipase Monoglyceride lipase (MGL); functional ortholog of mammalian MGL, localizes to lipid particles and membranes, also member of the eukaryotic serine hydrolase family
YPL254W HFI1 ADA1 | GAN1 | SRM12 | SUP110 Adaptor protein required for structural integrity of the SAGA complex; a histone acetyltransferase-coactivator complex that is involved in global regulation of gene expression through acetylation and transcription functions
YDR176W NGG1 ADA3 | histone acetyltransferase NGG1 | SWI7 Subunit of chromatin modifying histone acetyltransferase complexes; member of the ADA complex, the SAGA complex, and the SLIK complex; transcriptional regulator involved in glucose repression of Gal4p-regulated genes
YOL148C SPT20 ADA5 Subunit of the SAGA transcriptional regulatory complex; involved in maintaining the integrity of the complex; mutant displays reduced transcription elongation in the G-less-based run-on (GLRO) assay
YDL110C TMA17 ADC17 ATPase dedicated chaperone that adapts proteasome assembly to stress; Tma17p is induced upon stress; interacts with Rpt6p to assist its pairing to Rpt3p and early steps in proteasome biogenesis; associates with ribosomes; heterozygous deletion demonstrated increases in chromosome instability in a rad9 deletion background; protein abundance is decreased upon intracellular iron depletion
YOR184W SER1 ADE9 | O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate transaminase 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase; catalyzes the formation of phosphoserine from 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate, required for serine and glycine biosynthesis; regulated by the general control of amino acid biosynthesis mediated by Gcn4p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL141W AAH1 adenine deaminase Adenine deaminase (adenine aminohydrolase); converts adenine to hypoxanthine; involved in purine salvage; transcriptionally regulated by nutrient levels and growth phase; Aah1p degraded upon entry into quiescence via SCF and the proteasome
YML022W APT1 adenine phosphoribosyltransferase APT1 Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase; catalyzes the formation of AMP from adenine and 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate; involved in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis; APT1 has a paralog, APT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR441C APT2 adenine phosphoribosyltransferase APT2 Potential adenine phosphoribosyltransferase; encodes a protein with similarity to adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, but artificially expressed protein exhibits no enzymatic activity; APT2 has a paralog, APT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL125C HNT1 adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidase Adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidase; interacts physically and genetically with Kin28p, a CDK and TFIIK subunit, and genetically with CAK1; member of histidine triad (HIT) superfamily of nucleotide-binding proteins; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human homolog HINT1 can complement yeast hnt1 mutant
YJR105W ADO1 adenosine kinase Adenosine kinase; required for the utilization of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet); may be involved in recycling adenosine produced through the methyl cycle
YER043C SAH1 adenosylhomocysteinase S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase; catabolizes S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine which is formed after donation of the activated methyl group of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to an acceptor; regulates cellular lipid homoeostasis by regulating phosphatidylcholine(PC)synthesis and triacylglycerol (TG) levels
YOL052C SPE2 adenosylmethionine decarboxylase SPE2 S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase; required for the biosynthesis of spermidine and spermine; cells lacking Spe2p require spermine or spermidine for growth in the presence of oxygen but not when grown anaerobically
YJL005W CYR1 adenylate cyclase | CDC35 | FIL1 | HSR1 | SRA4 | TSM0185 Adenylate cyclase; required for cAMP production and cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling; the cAMP pathway controls a variety of cellular processes, including metabolism, cell cycle, stress response, stationary phase, and sporulation
YNL138W SRV2 adenylate cyclase-binding protein | CAP CAP (cyclase-associated protein); N-terminus binds adenylate cyclase and facilitates activation by RAS; N-terminus forms novel hexameric star-shaped shuriken structures that directly catalyze cofilin-mediated severing of actin filaments; C-terminus binds and recycles cofilin bound, ADP-actin monomers, facilitating regulation of actin dynamics and cell morphogenesis; N- and C-termini can function as physically separate proteins; mCAP1 is the mouse homolog
YDR226W ADK1 adenylate kinase ADK1 | AKY1 | AKY2 Adenylate kinase, required for purine metabolism; localized to the cytoplasm and the mitochondria; lacks cleavable signal sequence; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; mutations affecting Adk1p catalytic activity deregulate expression of phosphate utilization genes PHO5 and PHO84; human homolog AK1 can complement yeast adk1 mutant
YER170W ADK2 adenylate kinase ADK2 | AKY3 | PAK3 Mitochondrial adenylate kinase; catalyzes the reversible synthesis of GTP and AMP from GDP and ADP; may serve as a back-up for synthesizing GTP or ADP depending on metabolic conditions; 3' sequence of ADK2 varies with strain background
YPL106C SSE1 adenyl-nucleotide exchange factor SSE1 | LPG3 | MSI3 ATPase component of heat shock protein Hsp90 chaperone complex; serves as nucleotide exchange factor to load ATP onto the SSA class of cytosolic Hsp70s; plays a role in prion propagation and determining prion variants; binds unfolded proteins; member of Hsp110 subclass of HSP70 proteins; deletion results in spindle elongation in S phase; SSE1 has a paralog, SSE2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR169C SSE2 adenyl-nucleotide exchange factor SSE2 Member of Hsp110 subclass of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family; serves as nucleotide exchange factor to load ATP onto the SSA class of cytosolic Hsp70s; may be involved in protein folding; localized to the cytoplasm; SSE2 has a paralog, SSE1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL220W ADE12 adenylosuccinate synthase | BRA9 Adenylosuccinate synthase; catalyzes the first step in synthesis of adenosine monophosphate from inosine 5'monophosphate during purine nucleotide biosynthesis; exhibits binding to single-stranded autonomously replicating (ARS) core sequence
YKL001C MET14 adenylyl-sulfate kinase Adenylylsulfate kinase; required for sulfate assimilation and involved in methionine metabolism; human homolog PAPSS2 complements yeast null mutant
YDL168W SFA1 ADH5 | bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase/S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase Bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase; formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity is glutathione-dependent; functions in formaldehyde detoxification and formation of long chain and complex alcohols, regulated by Hog1p-Sko1p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR318C ADH6 ADHVI | NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenase; has broad substrate specificity; member of the cinnamyl family of alcohol dehydrogenases; may be involved in fusel alcohol synthesis or in aldehyde tolerance; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR056C AAC1 ADP/ATP carrier protein AAC1 Mitochondrial inner membrane ADP/ATP translocator; exchanges cytosolic ADP for mitochondrially synthesized ATP; phosphorylated; Aac1p is a minor isoform while Pet9p is the major ADP/ATP translocator; relocalizes from mitochondrion to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YBR085W AAC3 ADP/ATP carrier protein AAC3 | ANC3 Mitochondrial inner membrane ADP/ATP translocator; exchanges cytosolic ADP for mitochondrially synthesized ATP; expressed under anaerobic conditions; similar to Aac1p; has roles in maintenance of viability and in respiration; AAC3 has a paralog, PET9, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR111C YSA1 ADP-ribose diphosphatase | RMA2 Nudix hydrolase family member with ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase activity; shown to metabolize O-acetyl-ADP-ribose to AMP and acetylated ribose 5'-phosphate
YER122C GLO3 ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein (ARF GAP); involved in ER-Golgi transport; shares functional similarity with Gcs1p
YMR303C ADH2 ADR2 | alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 Glucose-repressible alcohol dehydrogenase II; catalyzes the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde; involved in the production of certain carboxylate esters; regulated by ADR1
YPL016W SWI1 ADR6 | GAM3 | LPA1 | [SWI(+)] | [SWI+] Subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; regulates transcription by remodeling chromatin; required for transcription of many genes, including ADH1, ADH2, GAL1, HO, INO1 and SUC2; self-assembles to form [SWI+] prion and to alter expression pattern; human homolog ARID1A is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer
YPL252C YAH1 adrenodoxin Ferredoxin of the mitochondrial matrix; required for formation of cellular iron-sulfur proteins; involved in heme A biosynthesis; human homolog FDX1L can complement yeast by allowing growth during down-regulation of yeast YAH1
YJR117W STE24 AFC1 | PIO2 | zinc metalloprotease Highly conserved zinc metalloprotease; functions in two steps of a-factor maturation, C-terminal CAAX proteolysis and the first step of N-terminal proteolytic processing; cleaves both isoprenylated and non-prenylated oligopeptides; contains multiple transmembrane spans; human homolog ZMPSTE24 implicated in mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD), and can complement yeast null mutant
YGR076C MRPL25 AFO1 | mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein YmL25 | mL59 | YmL25 | YMR26 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit; mutation confers increased replicative lifespan
YEL058W PCM1 AGM1 | phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase PCM1 Essential N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase; converts GlcNAc-6-P to GlcNAc-1-P, which is a precursor for the biosynthesis of chitin and for the formation of N-glycosylated mannoproteins and glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors
YFR011C MIC19 AIM13 | MCS19 Component of the MICOS complex; MICOS (formerly MINOS or MitOS) is a mitochondrial inner membrane complex that extends into the intermembrane space and has a role in the maintenance of crista junctions, inner membrane architecture, and formation of contact sites to the outer membrane; Mic19p is peripheral to the inner membrane and may connect Mic60p with the Mic10p-Mic12p-Mic27p subcomplex; both yeast and human Mic19p become oxidized, and oxidation may regulate MICOS
YGL220W BOL2 AIM15 | FRA2 Cytosolic protein involved in repression of iron regulon transcription; forms an iron-independent complex with Fra1p, Grx3p, and Grx4p; null mutant fails to repress the iron regulon and is sensitive to nickel; sequence similarity to human BOLA family member, BOLA2
YKR016W MIC60 AIM28 | FCJ1 | FMP13 Component of the MICOS complex; MICOS (formerly MINOS or MitOS) is a mitochondrial inner membrane complex that extends into the intermembrane space and has a role in the maintenance of crista junctions, inner membrane architecture, and formation of contact sites to the outer membrane; Mic60p is also involved in import of intermembrane space (IMS) proteins, probably by positioning Mia40p relative to the TOM complex to receive incoming proteins; ortholog of mammalian mitofilin
YLR168C UPS2 AIM30 | GEP1 | MSF1 | MSF1' Mitochondrial intermembrane space protein; involved in phospholipid metabolism; forms complex with Mdm35p that transfers phosphatidylserine from outer membrane to inner membrane for phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis; null mutant has defects in mitochondrial morphology; similar to Ups1p, Ups3p and to human PRELI; UPS2 has a paralog, UPS3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML030W RCF1 AIM31 Cytochrome c oxidase subunit; required for assembly of the Complex III-Complex IV supercomplex, and for assembly of Cox13p and Rcf2p into cytochrome c oxidase; similar to Rcf2p, and either Rcf1p or Rcf2p is required for late-stage assembly of the Cox12p and Cox13p subunits and for cytochrome c oxidase activity; required for growth under hypoxic conditions; member of the hypoxia induced gene family; C. elegans and human orthologs are functional in yeast
YNL100W MIC27 AIM37 | MCS27 Component of the MICOS complex; MICOS (formerly MINOS or MitOS) is a mitochondrial inner membrane complex that extends into the intermembrane space and has a role in the maintenance of crista junctions, inner membrane architecture, and formation of contact sites to the outer membrane; forms a subcomplex with Mic10p and Mic12p whose assembly and stability requires cardiolipin
YNR018W RCF2 AIM38 Cytochrome c oxidase subunit; has a role in assembly of respiratory supercomplexes; similar to Rcf1p, and either Rcf1p or Rcf2p is required for late-stage assembly of the Cox12p and Cox13p subunits and for cytochrome c oxidase activity; associates with the cytochrome c oxidase - cytochrome bc1 supercomplex; null mutant accumulates reactive oxygen species; member of the conserved hypoxia induced gene family; C. elegans homolog is functional in yeast
YOR205C GEP3 AIM40 | FMP38 | LRC5 | MTG3 Protein required for mitochondrial ribosome small subunit biogenesis; null mutant is defective in respiration and in maturation of 15S rRNA; protein is localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane; null mutant interacts synthetically with prohibitin (Phb1p)
YOR286W RDL2 AIM42 | FMP31 | thiosulfate sulfurtransferase RDL2 Protein with rhodanese activity; contains a rhodanese-like domain similar to Rdl1p, Uba4p, Tum1p, and Ych1p; overexpression causes a cell cycle delay; null mutant displays elevated frequency of mitochondrial genome loss
YBR262C MIC12 AIM5 | FMP51 | MCS12 Component of the MICOS complex; MICOS (formerly MINOS or MitOS) is a mitochondrial inner membrane complex that extends into the intermembrane space and has a role in the maintenance of crista junctions, inner membrane architecture, and formation of contact sites to the outer membrane; forms a subcomplex with Mic10p and Mic27p whose assembly and stability requires cardiolipin
YDR493W MZM1 AIM8 | FMP36 Protein required for assembly of the cytochrome bc(1) complex; acts as a chaperone for Rip1p and facilitates its insertion into the complex at a late stage of assembly; localized to the mitochondrial matrix; null mutant exhibits a respiratory growth defect and reduced mitochondrial zinc levels, which is characteristic of mutations affecting bc(1) complex assembly; member of the LYR protein family; human LYRM7 is a functional ortholog
YDL178W DLD2 AIP2 | D-lactate dehydrogenase D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, and minor D-lactate dehydrogenase; mitochondrial matrix protein that oxidizes D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), an oncometabolite, to alpha-ketoglutarate with a minor role in lactate catabolism; located in the mitochondrial matrix
YLR319C BUD6 AIP3 Actin- and formin-interacting protein; participates in actin cable assembly and organization as a nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) for formins Bni1p and Bnr1p; a triple helical coiled-coil domain in the C-terminal region interacts with Bni1p; involved in polarized cell growth; isolated as bipolar budding mutant; potential Cdc28p substrate
YDL130W-A STF1 AIS2 | ATPase-binding protein Protein involved in regulation of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase; Stf1p and Stf2p act as stabilizing factors that enhance inhibitory action of the Inh1p protein; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; STF1 has a paralog, INH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFL030W AGX1 alanine--glyoxylate transaminase Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT); catalyzes the synthesis of glycine from glyoxylate, which is one of three pathways for glycine biosynthesis in yeast; similar to mammalian and plant alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferases; human homolog AGXT complements yeast null mutant
YDR111C ALT2 alanine transaminase ALT2 Catalytically inactive alanine transaminase; expression is repressed in the presence of alanine and repression is mediated by Nrg1p; ALT2 has a paralog, ALT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR335C ALA1 alanine--tRNA ligase | CDC64 Cytoplasmic and mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase; required for protein synthesis; point mutation (cdc64-1 allele) causes cell cycle arrest at G1; lethality of null mutation is functionally complemented by human homolog AARS; mutations in human homolog AARS are associated with autoimmune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis
YMR083W ADH3 alcohol dehydrogenase ADH3 Mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme III; involved in the shuttling of mitochondrial NADH to the cytosol under anaerobic conditions and ethanol production
YGL256W ADH4 alcohol dehydrogenase ADH4 | NRC465 | ZRG5 Alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme type IV; dimeric enzyme demonstrated to be zinc-dependent despite sequence similarity to iron-activated alcohol dehydrogenases; transcription is induced in response to zinc deficiency
YBR145W ADH5 alcohol dehydrogenase ADH5 Alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme V; involved in ethanol production; ADH5 has a paralog, ADH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR177C ATF2 alcohol O-acetyltransferase Alcohol acetyltransferase; may play a role in steroid detoxification; forms volatile esters during fermentation, which is important for brewing and winemaking
YOR377W ATF1 alcohol O-acetyltransferase Alcohol acetyltransferase; responsible for the major part of volatile acetate ester production during fermentation; main enzyme involved in terpenyl acetate synthesis; potential roles in lipid and sterol metabolism
YPL061W ALD6 ALD1 | aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) ALD6 Cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase; activated by Mg2+ and utilizes NADP+ as the preferred coenzyme; required for conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate; constitutively expressed; locates to the mitochondrial outer surface upon oxidative stress
YOR374W ALD4 ALD7 | aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) ALD4 | ALDH2 Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase; required for growth on ethanol and conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate; phosphorylated; activity is K+ dependent; utilizes NADP+ or NAD+ equally as coenzymes; expression is glucose repressed; can substitute for cytosolic NADP-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase when directed to the cytosol; human homolog ALDH2 can complement yeast ald4 mutant
YMR170C ALD2 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(+)) ALD2 Cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase; involved in ethanol oxidation and beta-alanine biosynthesis; uses NAD+ as the preferred coenzyme; expression is stress induced and glucose repressed; very similar to Ald3p
YMR169C ALD3 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(+)) ALD3 Cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase; involved in beta-alanine synthesis; uses NAD+ as the preferred coenzyme; very similar to Ald2p; expression is induced by stress and repressed by glucose
YER073W ALD5 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)(+)) ALD5 Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase; involved in regulation or biosynthesis of electron transport chain components and acetate formation; activated by K+; utilizes NADP+ as the preferred coenzyme; constitutively expressed
YDL124W aldo-keto reductase superfamily protein NADPH-dependent alpha-keto amide reductase; reduces aromatic alpha-keto amides, aliphatic alpha-keto esters, and aromatic alpha-keto esters; member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) family; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YJR096W aldo-keto reductase superfamily protein Xylose and arabinose reductase; member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) family; GFP-fusion protein is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YFL045C SEC53 ALG4 | phosphomannomutase SEC53 Phosphomannomutase; involved in synthesis of GDP-mannose and dolichol-phosphate-mannose; required for folding and glycosylation of secretory proteins in the ER lumen
YPL087W YDC1 alkaline dihydroceramidase Alkaline dihydroceramidase, involved in sphingolipid metabolism; preferentially hydrolyzes dihydroceramide to a free fatty acid and dihydrosphingosine; has a minor reverse activity; YDC1 has a paralog, YPC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR481C PHO8 alkaline phosphatase PHO8 | phoH Repressible vacuolar alkaline phosphatase; regulated by levels of Pi and by Pho4p, Pho9p, Pho80p, Pho81p and Pho85p; dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl peptides; contributes to NAD+ metabolism by producing nicotinamide riboside from NMN
YHL027W RIM101 alkaline-responsive transcriptional regulator RIM101 | RIM1 Cys2His2 zinc-finger transcriptional repressor; involved in alkaline responsive gene repression as part of adaptation to alkaline conditions; involved in cell wall assembly; required for alkaline pH-stimulated haploid invasive growth and sporulation; activated by alkaline-dependent proteolytic processing which results in removal of the C-terminal tail; similar to A. nidulans PacC
YHR204W MNL1 alpha-1,2-mannosidase MNL1 | HTM1 Alpha-1,2-specific exomannosidase of the endoplasmic reticulum; involved in glycan trimming of both folded and misfolded glycoproteins; complexes with Pdi1p, and trims a mannose from Man8GlcNac2 glycans to generate Man7GlcNac2, an oligosaccharide signal on glycoproteins destined for ER-associated protein degradation; requires Pdi1p for stability and substrate recognition; human homolog EDEM1 can complement yeast null mutant
YNL048W ALG11 alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase ALG11 Alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase; catalyzes sequential addition of the two terminal alpha 1,2-mannose residues to the Man5GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol intermediate during asparagine-linked glycosylation in the ER
YDR483W KRE2 alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase KRE2 | MNT1 Alpha1,2-mannosyltransferase of the Golgi; involved in protein mannosylation; KRE2 has a paralog, KTR6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR099W KTR1 alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase KTR1 Alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase; involved in O- and N-linked protein glycosylation; type II membrane protein; member of the KRE2/MNT1 mannosyltransferase family; relocalizes from vacuole to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YBR015C MNN2 alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase MNN2 | CRV4 | LDB8 | TTP1 Alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase; responsible for addition of the first alpha-1,2-linked mannose to form the branches on the mannan backbone of oligosaccharides, localizes to an early Golgi compartment
YJL186W MNN5 alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase MNN5 Alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase; responsible for addition of the second alpha-1,2-linked mannose of the branches on the mannan backbone of oligosaccharides, localizes to an early Golgi compartment
YER001W MNN1 alpha-1,3-mannosyltransferase MNN1 Alpha-1,3-mannosyltransferase; integral membrane glycoprotein of the Golgi complex, required for addition of alpha1,3-mannose linkages to N-linked and O-linked oligosaccharides, one of five S. cerevisiae proteins of the MNN1 family
YJR075W HOC1 alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase Alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase; involved in cell wall mannan biosynthesis; subunit of a Golgi-localized complex that also contains Anp1p, Mnn9p, Mnn11p, and Mnn10p; identified as a suppressor of a cell lysis sensitive pkc1-371 allele
YJL183W MNN11 alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase Subunit of a Golgi mannosyltransferase complex; this complex also contains Anp1p, Mnn9p, Mnn10p, and Hoc1p, and mediates elongation of the polysaccharide mannan backbone; has homology to Mnn10p
YDR245W MNN10 alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase | BED1 | REC41 | SLC2 Subunit of a Golgi mannosyltransferase complex; complex mediates elongation of the polysaccharide mannan backbone; membrane protein of the mannosyltransferase family; other members of the complex are Anp1p, Mnn9p, Mnn11p, and Hoc1p
YDR001C NTH1 alpha,alpha-trehalase NTH1 Neutral trehalase, degrades trehalose; required for thermotolerance and may mediate resistance to other cellular stresses; phosphorylated and activated by Cdc28p at the G1/S phase transition to coordinately regulate carbohydrate metabolism and the cell cycle; inhibited by Dcs1p; NTH1 has a paralog, NTH2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR001C NTH2 alpha,alpha-trehalase NTH2 Putative neutral trehalase, required for thermotolerance; may mediate resistance to other cellular stresses; NTH2 has a paralog, NTH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR126C TPS1 alpha,alpha-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming) TPS1 | BYP1 | CIF1 | FDP1 | GGS1 | GLC6 | TSS1 Synthase subunit of trehalose-6-P synthase/phosphatase complex; synthesizes the storage carbohydrate trehalose, which is critically important for survival of long-term desiccation; also found in a monomeric form; expression is induced by the stress response and repressed by the Ras-cAMP pathway; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress and in response to prolonged exposure to boric acid
YDR125C ECM18 alpha/beta hydrolase family protein Protein of unknown function; ECM18 has a paralog, ICT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFL026W STE2 alpha-factor pheromone receptor STE2 Receptor for alpha-factor pheromone; seven transmembrane-domain GPCR that interacts with both pheromone and a heterotrimeric G protein to initiate the signaling response that leads to mating between haploid a and alpha cells
YIL125W KGD1 alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase KGD1 | OGD1 Subunit of the mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex; catalyzes a key step in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate to form succinyl-CoA
YDR148C KGD2 alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase KGD2 Dihydrolipoyl transsuccinylase; component of the mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA in the TCA cycle; phosphorylated
YGL156W AMS1 alpha-mannosidase Vacuolar alpha mannosidase; involved in free oligosaccharide (fOS) degradation; delivered to the vacuole in a novel pathway separate from the secretory pathway
YML085C TUB1 alpha-tubulin TUB1 Alpha-tubulin; associates with beta-tubulin (Tub2p) to form tubulin dimer, which polymerizes to form microtubules; relative distribution to nuclear foci increases upon DNA replication stress; TUB1 has a paralog, TUB3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML124C TUB3 alpha-tubulin TUB3 Alpha-tubulin; associates with beta-tubulin (Tub2p) to form tubulin dimer, which polymerizes to form microtubules; expressed at lower level than Tub1p; TUB3 has a paralog, TUB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML035C AMD1 AMD3 | AMP deaminase AMP deaminase; tetrameric enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to form IMP and ammonia; thought to be involved in regulation of intracellular purine (adenine, guanine, and inosine) nucleotide pools
YBR244W GPX2 AMI1 | glutathione peroxidase GPX2 Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase; protects cells from phospholipid hydroperoxides and nonphospholipid peroxides during oxidative stress; induced by glucose starvation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YJR062C NTA1 amidase | DEA1 Amidase; removes the amide group from N-terminal asparagine and glutamine residues to generate proteins with N-terminal aspartate and glutamate residues that are targets of ubiquitin-mediated degradation
YMR300C ADE4 amidophosphoribosyltransferase Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase (PRPPAT); catalyzes first step of the 'de novo' purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway; also known as amidophosphoribosyltransferase
YKR039W GAP1 amino acid permease GAP1 General amino acid permease; Gap1p senses the presence of amino acid substrates to regulate localization to the plasma membrane when needed; essential for invasive growth
YCL025C AGP1 amino acid transporter AGP1 | YCC5 Low-affinity amino acid permease with broad substrate range; involved in uptake of asparagine, glutamine, and other amino acids; expression regulated by SPS plasma membrane amino acid sensor system (Ssy1p-Ptr3p-Ssy5p); AGP1 has a paralog, GNP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR046C BAP3 amino acid transporter BAP3 | PAP1 Amino acid permease; involved in uptake of cysteine, leucine, isoleucine and valine; BAP3 has a paralog, BAP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR069C TAT1 amino acid transporter TAT1 | TAP1 | VAP1 Amino acid transporter for valine, leucine, isoleucine, and tyrosine; low-affinity tryptophan and histidine transporter; overexpression confers FK506 and FTY720 resistance; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBL057C PTH2 aminoacyl-tRNA hydrolase One of two mitochondrially-localized peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases; negatively regulates the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway via interactions with ubiquitin-like ubiquitin-associated proteins; dispensable for cell growth; see also PTH1
YHR189W PTH1 aminoacyl-tRNA hydrolase | PTH One of two mitochondrially-localized peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases; dispensable for respiratory growth on rich medium, but required for respiratory growth on minimal medium; see also PTH2
YMR289W ABZ2 aminodeoxychorismate lyase ABZ2 Aminodeoxychorismate lyase (4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase); catalyzes the third step in para-aminobenzoic acid biosynthesis; involved in folic acid biosynthesis
YER078C ICP55 aminopeptidase Mitochondrial aminopeptidase; cleaves the N termini of at least 38 imported proteins after cleavage by the mitochondrial processing peptidase (MPP), thereby increasing their stability; member of the aminopeptidase P family
YCR094W CDC50 aminophospholipid translocase regulatory protein CDC50 Endosomal protein that interacts with phospholipid flippase Drs2p; interaction with Cdc50p is essential for Drs2p catalytic activity; mutations affect cell polarity and polarized growth; similar to Lem3p; CDC50 has a paralog, YNR048W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER166W DNF1 aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type ATPase DNF1 Aminophospholipid translocase (flippase); type 4 P-type ATPase; involved in phospholipid translocation, contributing to endocytosis, protein transport, and cellular polarization; localizes primarily to the plasma membrane; localizes to the shmoo tip where it has a redundant role in the cellular response to mating pheromone; DNF1 has a paralog, DNF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR093W DNF2 aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type ATPase DNF2 Aminophospholipid translocase (flippase); type 4 P-type ATPase; involved in phospholipid translocation, contributing to endocytosis, protein transport, and cellular polarization; localizes primarily to the plasma membrane; localizes to the shmoo tip where it has a redundant role in the cellular response to mating pheromone; DNF2 has a paralog, DNF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR162C DNF3 aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type ATPase DNF3 Trans-golgi network aminophospholipid translocase (flippase); type 4 P-type ATPase; involved in phospholipid translocation, contributing to the maintenance of membrane lipid asymmetry in post-Golgi secretory vesicles; role in protein trafficking between the Golgi and endosomal system; localizes to the trans-Golgi network; localizes to the shmoo tip where it has a redundant role in the cellular response to mating pheromone
YAL026C DRS2 aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type ATPase DRS2 | FUN38 | SWA3 Trans-golgi network aminophospholipid translocase (flippase); maintains membrane lipid asymmetry in post-Golgi secretory vesicles; contributes to clathrin-coated vesicle formation, endocytosis, protein trafficking between the Golgi and endosomal system and the cellular response to mating pheromone; autoinhibited by its C-terminal tail; localizes to the trans-Golgi network; mutations in human homolog ATP8B1 result in liver disease
YGR001C EFM5 AML1 | protein-lysine N-methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine-dependent lysine methyltransferase; involved in the trimethylation of eEF1A (Tef1p/Tef2p) at lysine 79; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; required for replication of Brome mosaic virus in budding yeast; expresses a circular RNA; originally misclassified as a N-6-adenine specific DNA methyltransferase based on sequence similarity; both Efm5p and human ortholog N6AMT2 can methylate eEF1a from either species in vitro
YGR121C MEP1 ammonium permease MEP1 | AMT1 Ammonium permease; belongs to Mep-Amt-Rh family of well-conserved ammonium (NH4+) transporters that includes the human Rh factors; expression is under the nitrogen catabolite repression regulation; activity regulated by TORC1 effectors, Npr1p and Par32p; human homolog RHCG complements yeast null mutant; mutations in human homolog RHCG implicated in metabolic acidosis; MEP1 has a paralog, MEP3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL142W MEP2 ammonium permease MEP2 Ammonium permease involved in regulation of pseudohyphal growth; belongs to Mep-Amt-Rh family of well-conserved ammonium (NH4+) transporters that includes human Rh factors; expression is under the nitrogen catabolite repression regulation; activity is controlled by phospho-silencing; phosphorylation of Mep2 mediated by Npr1; dephosphorylation involves Psr1p and Psr2p
YPR138C MEP3 ammonium permease MEP3 Ammonium permease of high capacity and low affinity; belongs to Mep-Amt-Rh family of well-conserved ammonium (NH4+) transporters that includes the human Rh factors; expression is under the nitrogen catabolite repression regulation ammonia permease activity regulated by TORC1 effectors, Npr1p and Par32p; MEP3 has a paralog, MEP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL062C APM4 AMP1 Cargo-binding mu subunit of AP-2; AP-2 is a heterotetrameric endocytic cargo-binding adaptor that facilitates uptake of membrane proteins during clathrin-mediated endocytosis; Apm4p is required for AP-2 function and localization, and binds cell wall stress receptor Mid2p; AP-2 is required for cell polarity responses to pheromone, nutritional status and cell wall damage in S. cerevisiae, and for hyphal growth in C. albicans; AP-2 complex is conserved in mammals
YDR477W SNF1 AMP-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase catalytic subunit SNF1 | CAT1 | CCR1 | GLC2 | HAF3 | PAS14 AMP-activated S/T protein kinase; complexes with Snf4p and a Sip1p/Sip2p/Gal83p family member; required for glucose-repressed gene transcription, heat shock, sporulation, and peroxisome biogenesis; active form involved in mitotic spindle alignment in non-limiting glucose; regulates Hxk2p nucleocytoplasmic shuttling; regulates filamentous growth and acts as a non-canonical GEF-activating Arf3p during invasive growth; sumoylation inhibits Snf1p, targeting it for Ub-ligase mediated destruction
YGL115W SNF4 AMP-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase regulatory subunit SNF4 | CAT3 | SCI1 Activating gamma subunit of the AMP-activated Snf1p kinase complex; additional subunits of the complex are Snf1p and a Sip1p/Sip2p/Gal83p family member; activates glucose-repressed genes, represses glucose-induced genes; role in sporulation, and peroxisome biogenesis; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR388W RVS167 amphiphysin Calmodulin-binding actin-associated protein; roles in endocytic membrane tabulation and constriction, and exocytosis; N-BAR domain protein that interacts with Rvs161p to regulate actin cytoskeleton, endocytosis, and viability following starvation or osmotic stress; recruited to bud tips by Gyl1p and Gyp5p during polarized growth; homolog of mammalian amphiphysin
YCR009C RVS161 amphiphysin-like protein RVS161 | END6 | FUS7 | SPE161 Amphiphysin-like lipid raft protein; N-BAR domain protein that interacts with Rvs167p and regulates polarization of the actin cytoskeleton, endocytosis, cell polarity, cell fusion and viability following starvation or osmotic stress
YDL173W PAR32 AMU1 Low complexity protein; mediates inhibition of Mep1p and Mep3p activity; hyperphosphorylated upon rapamycin treatment in a Tap42p-dependent manner; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; phosphorylation and localization regulated by TORC1-effector kinase, Npr1p
YGL013C PDR1 AMY1 | ANT1 | BOR2 | CYH3 | drug-responsive transcription factor PDR1 | NRA2 | SMR2 | TIL1 | TPE1 | TPE3 Transcription factor that regulates the pleiotropic drug response; zinc cluster protein that is a master regulator involved in recruiting other zinc cluster proteins to pleiotropic drug response elements (PDREs) to fine tune the regulation of multidrug resistance genes; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; PDR1 has a paralog, PDR3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL005W PDR3 AMY2 | drug-responsive transcription factor PDR3 | TPE2 Transcriptional activator of the pleiotropic drug resistance network; regulates expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters through binding to cis-acting PDRE sites (PDR responsive elements); has a role in response to drugs and organic solvents; post-translationally up-regulated in cells lacking functional mitochondrial genome; involved in diauxic shift; relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; APCC(Cdh1) substrate
YNL172W APC1 anaphase promoting complex subunit 1 Largest subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome; APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; component of the platform domain of the APC/C, based on structural analysis; localizes to nuclear foci that become diffuse upon DNA replication stress
YDL008W APC11 anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 Catalytic core subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; contains a RING-H2 domain that is required for activity
YLR127C APC2 anaphase promoting complex subunit 2 | RSI1 | TID2 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; component of the catalytic core of the APC/C; has similarity to cullin Cdc53p
YDR118W APC4 anaphase promoting complex subunit 4 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; component of the platform domain of the APC/C, based on structural analysis; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YOR249C APC5 anaphase promoting complex subunit 5 | RMC1 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; component of the platform domain of the APC/C, based on structural analysis; relative distribution to nuclear foci decreases upon DNA replication stress
YLR102C APC9 anaphase promoting complex subunit 9 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition
YKL022C CDC16 anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC16 Subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; required for sporulation; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YHR166C CDC23 anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC23 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition
YFR036W CDC26 anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC26 | HIT3 | SCD26 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YBL084C CDC27 anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC27 | APC3 | SNB1 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition
YGL240W DOC1 anaphase promoting complex subunit DOC1 | APC10 Processivity factor; required for the ubiquitination activity of the anaphase promoting complex (APC), mediates the activity of the APC by contributing to substrate recognition; involved in cyclin proteolysis; contains a conserved DOC1 homology domain
YPL129W TAF14 ANC1 | SWP29 | TAF30 | TafII30 | TATA-binding protein-associated factor TAF14 | TFG3 Subunit of TFIID, TFIIF, INO80, SWI/SNF, and NuA3 complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification; contains a YEATS domain
YDR354W TRP4 anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase Anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase; transferase of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway; catalyzes the phosphoribosylation of anthranilate; subject to the general control system of amino acid biosynthesis
YER090W TRP2 anthranilate synthase TRP2 Anthranilate synthase; catalyzes the initial step of tryptophan biosynthesis, forms multifunctional hetero-oligomeric anthranilate synthase:indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase enzyme complex with Trp3p
YIL109C SEC24 ANU1 | COPII subunit SEC24 Component of the Sec23p-Sec24p heterodimer of the COPII vesicle coat; required for cargo selection during vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport; homologous to Sfb3p; SEC24 has a paralog, SFB2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL076W SEC28 ANU2 | coatomer subunit epsilon Epsilon-COP subunit of the coatomer; regulates retrograde Golgi-to-ER protein traffic; stabilizes Cop1p, the alpha-COP and the coatomer complex; non-essential for cell growth; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR208W SEC13 ANU3 | GTPase-activating protein SEC13 Structural component of 3 complexes; subunit of the Nup84p nuclear pore subcomplex that contributes to nucleocytoplasmic transport and NPC biogenesis; subunit of the COPII vesicle coat required for ER-to-Golgi transport; subunit of SEACAT, a subcomplex of the coatomer-related, vacuolar-associated SEA complex, that inhibits the TORC1 inhibitory role of SEACIT (Iml1p-Npr2p-Npr3p), a GAP for Gtr1p, thereby resulting in activation of TORC1 signaling; human SEC13 homolog
YBR231C SWC5 AOR1 Component of the SWR1 complex; complex exchanges histone variant H2AZ (Htz1p) for chromatin-bound histone H2A; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YLR372W ELO3 APA1 | fatty acid elongase ELO3 | SRE1 | SUR4 | VBM1 Elongase; involved in fatty acid and sphingolipid biosynthesis; synthesizes very long chain 20-26-carbon fatty acids from C18-CoA primers; involved in regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis; lethality of the elo2 elo3 double null mutation is functionally complemented by human ELOVL1 and weakly complemented by human ELOVL3 or ELOV7
YDL212W SHR3 APF1 Endoplasmic reticulum packaging chaperone; required for incorporation of amino acid permeases into COPII coated vesicles for transport to the cell surface
YGL180W ATG1 APG1 | AUT3 | CVT10 | serine/threonine protein kinase ATG1 Protein serine/threonine kinase; required for vesicle formation in autophagy and the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway; structurally required for phagophore assembly site formation; during autophagy forms a complex with Atg13p and Atg17p; essential for cell cycle progression from G2/M to G1 under nitrogen starvation
YPR185W ATG13 APG13 | serine/threonine protein kinase regulatory subunit ATG13 Regulatory subunit of the Atg1p signaling complex; stimulates Atg1p kinase activity; required for vesicle formation during autophagy and the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway; contains a HORMA domain required for autophagy and for recruitment of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex subunit Atg14p to the pre-autophagosomal structure
YMR159C ATG16 APG15 | APG16 | CVT11 | SAP18 Conserved protein involved in autophagy; interacts with Atg12p-Atg5p conjugates to form Atg12p-Atg5p-Atg16p multimers, which binds to membranes and localizes to the pre-autophagosomal structure and are required for autophagy; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YLR423C ATG17 APG17 | protein kinase regulatory subunit ATG17 Scaffold protein responsible for phagophore assembly site organization; regulatory subunit of an autophagy-specific complex that includes Atg1p and Atg13p; stimulates Atg1p kinase activity; human ortholog RB1CC1/FIP200 interacts with p53, which inhibits autophagy in human cells
YNL242W ATG2 APG2 | AUT8 | SPO72 Peripheral membrane protein required for autophagic vesicle formation; also required for vesicle formation during pexophagy and the cytoplasm-to-vaucole targeting (Cvt) pathway; involved in Atg9p cycling between the phagophore assembly site and mitochondria; contains an APT1 domain that binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; essential for cell cycle progression from G2/M to G1 under nitrogen starvation; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YNR007C ATG3 APG3 | AUT1 E2-like enzyme; involved in autophagy and cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway; plays a role in formation of Atg8p-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugates, which are involved in membrane dynamics during autophagy and Cvt; interaction with Atg8p regulated by acetylation by NuA4 histone acetyltransferase Esa1p while attenuation of Atg3 acetylation is mediated by histone deacetylase Rpd3p; Atg12p-Atg5p conjugate enhances E2 activity of Atg3p by rearranging its catalytic site
YNL223W ATG4 APG4 | AUT2 | cysteine protease ATG4 Conserved cysteine protease required for autophagy; cleaves Atg8p to a form required for autophagosome and Cvt vesicle generation
YPL120W VPS30 APG6 | ATG6 | beclin 1 | VPT30 Subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase complexes I and II; Complex I is essential in autophagy, Complex II is required for vacuolar protein sorting; required for overflow degradation of misfolded proteins when ERAD is saturated; C-terminus has novel globular fold essential for autophagy through the targeting of the PI3-kinase complex I to the pre-autophagosomal structure; ortholog of higher eukaryote gene Beclin 1; human BECN1 can complement yeast null mutant
YDR305C HNT2 APH1 | bis(5'-adenosyl)-triphosphatase Dinucleoside triphosphate hydrolase; has similarity to the tumor suppressor FHIT and belongs to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily of nucleotide-binding proteins
YKL103C APE1 API | LAP4 | metalloaminopeptidase APE1 | YSC1 Vacuolar aminopeptidase yscI; zinc metalloproteinase that belongs to the peptidase family M18; often used as a marker protein in studies of autophagy and cytosol to vacuole targeting (CVT) pathway; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to cytoplasmic foci increases upon DNA replication stress
YDR372C VPS74 API1 | MNN3 Golgi phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase effector and PtdIns4P sensor; interacts with the cytosolic domains of cis and medial glycosyltransferases, and in the PtdIns4P-bound state mediates the targeting of these enzymes to the Golgi; interacts with the catalytic domain of Sac1p, the major cellular PtdIns4P phosphatase, to direct dephosphosphorylation of the Golgi pool of PtdIns4P; tetramerization required for function; ortholog of human GOLPH3/GPP34/GMx33
YKR020W VPS51 API3 | VPS67 | WHI6 Component of the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein) complex; GARP is required for the recycling of proteins from endosomes to the late Golgi, and for mitosis after DNA damage induced checkpoint arrest; links the (VFT/GARP) complex to the SNARE Tlg1p; members of the GARP complex are Vps51p-Vps52p-Vps53p-Vps54p
YNL051W COG5 API4 | COD4 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG5 Component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YMR192W GYL1 APP2 Putative GTPase activating protein (GAP) with a role in exocytosis; stimulates Gyp5p GAP activity on Ypt1p, colocalizes with Gyp5p at sites of polarized growth; interacts with Gyp5p, Rvs161p, and Rvs167p; involved in recruiting Rvs167p to the bud tip during polarized growth; increases in abundance and relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; GYL1 has a paralog, GYP5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL153C INO1 APR1 | inositol-3-phosphate synthase INO1 Inositol-3-phosphate synthase; involved in synthesis of inositol phosphates and inositol-containing phospholipids; transcription is coregulated with other phospholipid biosynthetic genes by Ino2p and Ino4p, which bind the UASINO DNA element
YLR118C TML25 APT1 | palmitoyl-(protein) hydrolase Acyl-protein thioesterase responsible for depalmitoylation of Gpa1p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YBR286W APE3 APY1 Vacuolar aminopeptidase Y; processed to mature form by Prb1p
YER005W YND1 APY1 | apyrase | YEJ5 Apyrase with wide substrate specificity; helps prevent inhibition of glycosylation by hydrolyzing nucleoside tri- and diphosphates that inhibit glycotransferases; partially redundant with Gda1p; mediates adenovirus E4orf4-induced toxicity
YBR043C QDR3 AQR2 Multidrug transporter of the major facilitator superfamily; member of the 12-spanner drug:H(+) antiporter DHA1 family; has a role in polyamine homeostasis; involved in spore wall asembly; sequence similarity to DTR1 and QDR1, and the triple mutant dtr1 qdr1 qdr3 exhibits reduced dityrosine fluorescence relative to the single mutants; expression is upregulated under polyamine stress; required for resistance to quinidine, barban, cisplatin, and bleomycin
YOR253W NAT5 ARD2 | NAA50 | peptide alpha-N-acetyltransferase subunit NAT5 | ROG2 Subunit of protein N-terminal acetyltransferase NatA; NatA is comprised of Nat1p, Ard1p, and Nat5p; N-terminally acetylates many proteins, which influences multiple processes such as the cell cycle, heat-shock resistance, mating, sporulation, and telomeric silencing
YDL192W ARF1 Arf family GTPase ARF1 ADP-ribosylation factor; GTPase of the Ras superfamily involved in regulation of coated vesicle formation in intracellular trafficking within the Golgi; ARF1 has a paralog, ARF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; arf1 arf2 double null mutation is complemented by human ARF1, ARF4, ARF5, or ARF6
YDL137W ARF2 Arf family GTPase ARF2 ADP-ribosylation factor; GTPase of the Ras superfamily involved in regulation of coated formation vesicles in intracellular trafficking within the Golgi; ARF2 has a paralog, ARF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; arf1 arf2 double null mutation is complemented by human ARF1, ARF4, ARF5, or ARF6
YOR094W ARF3 Arf family GTPase ARF3 | ARL2 Glucose-repressible ADP-ribosylation factor; GTPase of Ras superfamily involved in regulating cell polarity and invasive growth; localizes to dynamic spots at plasma membrane and modulates PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels to facilitate endocytosis; required for localization of endocytic protein Lsb5p to correct cortical site in cells; also has mRNA binding activity; homolog of mammalian Arf6
YBR164C ARL1 Arf family GTPase ARL1 | DLP2 Soluble GTPase with a role in regulation of membrane traffic; regulates potassium influx; role in membrane organization at trans-Golgi network; required for delivery of Atg9p to the phagophore assembly site during autophagy under high temperature stress; required with Ypt6p for starvation-induced autophagy; required for the CVT pathway under non-starvation conditions; G protein of the Ras superfamily, similar to ADP-ribosylation factor
YPL051W ARL3 Arf family GTPase ARL3 ARF-like small GTPase of the RAS superfamily; required for recruitment of Arl1p, a GTPase that regulates membrane traffic, to the Golgi apparatus; NatC-catalyzed N-terminal acetylation regulates Golgi membrane association mediated by interaction with membrane receptor, Sys1p; similar to ADP-ribosylation factor and orthologous to mammalian ARFRP1
YMR138W CIN4 Arf family GTPase CIN4 | GTP1 | UGX1 GTP-binding protein involved in beta-tubulin (Tub2p) folding; isolated as mutant with increased chromosome loss and sensitivity to benomyl; regulated by the GTPase-activating protein, Cin2p, the human retinitis pigmentosa 2 (RP2) homolog
YJR031C GEA1 Arf family guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEA1 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs); involved in vesicular transport between the Golgi and ER, Golgi organization, and actin cytoskeleton organization; GEA1 has a paralog, GEA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL022W GEA2 Arf family guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEA2 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs); involved in vesicular transport between the Golgi and ER, Golgi organization, and actin cytoskeleton organization; GEA2 has a paralog, GEA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER019C-A SBH2 Arf family guanine nucleotide exchange factor SBH2 | SEB2 Ssh1p-Sss1p-Sbh2p complex component; involved in protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum; SBH2 has a paralog, SBH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR170C SEC7 Arf family guanine nucleotide exchange factor SEC7 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for ADP ribosylation factors; involved in proliferation of the Golgi, intra-Golgi transport and ER-to-Golgi transport; found in the cytoplasm and on Golgi-associated coated vesicles
YBL060W YEL1 Arf family guanine nucleotide exchange factor YEL1 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor specific for Arf3p; localized to the bud neck and tip; required for localization of Arf3p to the bud neck and tip
YOL058W ARG1 ARG10 | argininosuccinate synthase Arginosuccinate synthetase; catalyzes the formation of L-argininosuccinate from citrulline and L-aspartate in the arginine biosynthesis pathway; potential Cdc28p substrate
YOR130C ORT1 ARG11 Ornithine transporter of the mitochondrial inner membrane; exports ornithine from mitochondria as part of arginine biosynthesis; functionally complemented by human ortholog, SLC25A15, which is associated with hyperammonaemia-hyperornithinaemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome, but HHH-associated variants fail to complement
YER069W ARG5,6 argB | argC | bifunctional acetylglutamate kinase/N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase Acetylglutamate kinase and N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase; N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyzes the 2nd and N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase (NAGSA), the 3rd step in arginine biosynthesis; synthesized as a precursor which is processed in the mitochondrion to yield mature NAGK and NAGSA; enzymes form a metabolon complex with Arg2p; NAGK C-terminal domain stabilizes the enzymes, slows catalysis and is involved in feed-back inhibition by arginine
YJL088W ARG3 argF | ornithine carbamoyltransferase Ornithine carbamoyltransferase; also known as carbamoylphosphate:L-ornithine carbamoyltransferase; catalyzes the biosynthesis of the arginine precursor citrulline
YPL111W CAR1 arginase | cargA | LPH15 Arginase, catabolizes arginine to ornithine and urea; expression responds to both induction by arginine and nitrogen catabolite repression; disruption decreases production of carcinogen ethyl carbamate during wine fermentation and also enhances freeze tolerance
YEL063C CAN1 arginine permease CAN1 Plasma membrane arginine permease; requires phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) for localization, exclusively associated with lipid rafts; mutation confers canavanine resistance; CAN1 has a paralog, ALP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR018C ARG4 argininosuccinate lyase ARG4 Argininosuccinate lyase; catalyzes the final step in the arginine biosynthesis pathway
YGL017W ATE1 arginyltransferase Arginyl-tRNA-protein transferase; catalyzes post-translational conjugation of arginine to the amino termini of acceptor proteins which are then subject to degradation via the N-end rule pathway
YMR042W ARG80 ARGR1 | ARGRI Transcription factor involved in regulating arginine-responsive genes; acts with Arg81p and Arg82p
YML099C ARG81 ARGR2 | ARGRII Zinc finger transcription factor involved in arginine-responsive genes; Zn(2)-Cys(6) binuclear cluster domain type; involved in the regulation of arginine-responsive genes; acts with Arg80p and Arg82p
YDR173C ARG82 ARGR3 | ARGRIII | inositol polyphosphate multikinase | IPK2 Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK); sequentially phosphorylates Ins(1,4,5)P3 to form Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5; also has diphosphoinositol polyphosphate synthase activity; regulates arginine-, phosphate-, and nitrogen-responsive genes
YCL029C BIK1 ARM5 | PAC14 Microtubule-associated protein; component of the interface between microtubules and kinetochore, involved in sister chromatid separation; essential in polyploid cells but not in haploid or diploid cells; ortholog of mammalian CLIP-170
YEL065W SIT1 ARN3 | siderophore transporter Ferrioxamine B transporter; member of the ARN family of transporters that specifically recognize siderophore-iron chelates; transcription is induced during iron deprivation and diauxic shift; potentially phosphorylated by Cdc28p
YHR137W ARO9 aromatic-amino-acid:2-oxoglutarate transaminase Aromatic aminotransferase II; catalyzes the first step of tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine catabolism
YOL020W TAT2 aromatic amino acid transmembrane transporter TAT2 | LTG3 | SAB2 | SCM2 | TAP2 High affinity tryptophan and tyrosine permease; overexpression confers FK506 and FTY720 resistance
YBR211C AME1 ARP100 Essential kinetochore protein associated with microtubules and SPBs; component of the kinetochore sub-complex COMA (Ctf19p, Okp1p, Mcm21p, Ame1p); involved in spindle checkpoint maintenance; orthologous to human centromere constitutive-associated network (CCAN) subunit CENP-U and fission yeast Mis17; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YDL100C GET3 ARR4 | guanine nucleotide exchange factor GET3 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Gpa1p; amplifies G protein signaling; functions as a chaperone under ATP-depleted oxidative stress conditions; subunit of GET complex, involved in ATP dependent Golgi to ER trafficking and insertion of tail-anchored (TA) proteins into ER membrane under non-stress conditions; binds as dimer to transmembrane domain (TMD) cargo, shielding TMDs from aqueous solvent; protein abundance increases under DNA replication stress
YOR322C LDB19 ART1 Alpha-arrestin involved in ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis; regulates endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins by recruiting the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p to its targets; involved in the basal internalization and turnover of alpha-factor receptor Ste2p; recruits ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p to Ste2p via its 2 PPXY motifs; inhibited by Npr1p-mediated phosphorylation, which affects translocation between the cytosol and the plasma membrane
YER111C SWI4 ART1 | SBF complex DNA-binding subunit SWI4 DNA binding component of the SBF complex (Swi4p-Swi6p); a transcriptional activator that in concert with MBF (Mbp1-Swi6p) regulates late G1-specific transcription of targets including cyclins and genes required for DNA synthesis and repair; Slt2p-independent regulator of cold growth; acetylation at two sites, K1016 and K1066, regulates interaction with Swi6p
YBL101C ECM21 ART2 Protein involved in regulating endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins; identified as a substrate for ubiquitination by Rsp5p and deubiquitination by Ubp2p; promoter contains several Gcn4p binding elements; ECM21 has a paralog, CSR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL084C ALY2 ART3 Alpha arrestin; controls nutrient-mediated intracellular sorting of permease Gap1p; interacts with AP-1 subunit Apl4p; phosphorylated by Npr1p and also by cyclin-CDK complex Pcl7p-Pho85p; promotes endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins; ALY2 has a paralog, ALY1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR018W ROD1 ART4 Alpha-arrestin involved in ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis; activating dephosphorylation relays glucose signaling to transporter endocytosis; calcineurin dephosphorylation is required for Rsp5p-dependent internalization of agonist-occupied Ste2p, as part of signal desensitization; recruits Rsp5p to Ste2p via its 2 PPXY motifs; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; ROD1 has a paralog, ROG3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR021W ALY1 ART6 Alpha arrestin, substrate of calcineurin; controls nutrient-mediated intracellular sorting of permease Gap1p; interacts with AP-1 subunit Apl4p; dephosphorylation of Aly1p required for the endocytosis of Dip5p; may regulate endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins by recruiting ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p to plasma membrane targets; ALY1 has a paralog, ALY2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL045W RIM8 ART9 | PAL3 | YGL046W Protein involved in proteolytic activation of Rim101p; part of response to alkaline pH; interacts with ESCRT-1 subunits Stp22p and Vps28p; essential for anaerobic growth; member of the arrestin-related trafficking adaptor family
YDR227W SIR4 ASD1 | chromatin-silencing protein SIR4 | STE9 | UTH2 SIR protein involved in assembly of silent chromatin domains; silent information regulator (SIR) along with SIR2 and SIR3; involved in assembly of silent chromatin domains at telomeres and the silent mating-type loci; some alleles of SIR4 prolong lifespan; required for telomere hypercluster formation in quiescent yeast cells
YPL084W BRO1 ASI6 | LPF2 | NPI3 | VPS31 Cytoplasmic class E vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) factor; coordinates deubiquitination in the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway by recruiting Doa4p to endosomes
YPR145W ASN1 asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) 1 Asparagine synthetase; catalyzes the synthesis of L-asparagine from L-aspartate in the asparagine biosynthetic pathway; ASN1 has a paralog, ASN2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR124W ASN2 asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) 2 Asparagine synthetase; catalyzes the synthesis of L-asparagine from L-aspartate in the asparagine biosynthetic pathway; ASN2 has a paralog, ASN1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR024C SLM5 asparagine--tRNA ligase SLM5 Mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase
YER052C HOM3 aspartate kinase | BOR1 | SIL4 | THR3 Aspartate kinase (L-aspartate 4-P-transferase); cytoplasmic enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the common pathway for methionine and threonine biosynthesis; expression regulated by Gcn4p and the general control of amino acid synthesis
YDR158W HOM2 aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase | THR2 Aspartic beta semi-aldehyde dehydrogenase; catalyzes the second step in the common pathway for methionine and threonine biosynthesis; expression regulated by Gcn4p and the general control of amino acid synthesis
YKL106W AAT1 aspartate transaminase AAT1 Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase; catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate to aspartate in aspartate and asparagine biosynthesis
YLL018C DPS1 aspartate--tRNA ligase DPS1 | AspRS Aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, primarily cytoplasmic; homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes the specific aspartylation of tRNA(Asp); class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetase; binding to its own mRNA may confer autoregulation; shares five highly conserved amino acids with human that when mutated cause leukoencephalopathy characterized by hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL)
YPL104W MSD1 aspartate--tRNA ligase MSD1 | LPG5 Mitochondrial aspartyl-tRNA synthetase; required for acylation of aspartyl-tRNA; yeast and bacterial aspartyl-, asparaginyl-, and lysyl-tRNA synthetases contain regions with high sequence similarity, suggesting a common ancestral gene
YHR113W APE4 aspartyl aminopeptidase Cytoplasmic aspartyl aminopeptidase with possible vacuole function; Cvt pathway cargo protein; cleaves unblocked N-terminal acidic amino acids from peptide substrates; forms a 12-subunit homo-oligomer; M18 metalloprotease family
YLR120C YPS1 aspartyl protease | YAP3 Aspartic protease; hyperglycosylated member of the yapsin family of proteases, attached to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor; involved in nutrient limitation-induced cleavage of the extracellular inhibitory domain of signaling mucin Msb2p, resulting in activation of the filamentous growth MAPK pathway; involved with other yapsins in the cell wall integrity response; role in KEX2-independent processing of the alpha factor precursor
YDR144C MKC7 aspartyl protease | YPS2 GPI-anchored aspartyl protease; member of the yapsin family of proteases involved in cell wall growth and maintenance; shares functions with Yap3p and Kex2p; MKC7 has a paralog, YPS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR121C YPS3 aspartyl protease | YPS4 Aspartic protease; member of the yapsin family of proteases involved in cell wall growth and maintenance; attached to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor
YIL015W BAR1 aspartyl protease BAR1 | SST1 Aspartyl protease; secreted into the periplasmic space of mating type a cell; helps cells find mating partners; cleaves and inactivates alpha factor allowing cells to recover from alpha-factor-induced cell cycle arrest
YML001W YPT7 AST4 | Rab family GTPase YPT7 | VAM4 Rab family GTPase; GTP-binding protein of the rab family; required for homotypic fusion event in vacuole inheritance, for endosome-endosome fusion; localizes to sites of contact between the vacuole and mitochondria (vCLAMPs); interacts with the cargo selection/retromer complex for retrograde sorting; similar to mammalian Rab7
YJL036W SNX4 ATG24 | CVT13 Sorting nexin; involved in retrieval of late-Golgi SNAREs from post-Golgi endosomes to the trans-Golgi network and in cytoplasm to vacuole transport; contains a PX phosphoinositide-binding domain; forms complexes with Snx41p and with Atg20p
YMR282C AEP2 ATP13 Mitochondrial protein; likely involved in translation of the mitochondrial OLI1 mRNA; exhibits genetic interaction with the OLI1 mRNA 5'-untranslated leader
YDR322C-A TIM11 ATP21 | F1F0 ATP synthase subunit e Subunit e of mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase; ATPase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; essential for the dimeric and oligomeric state of ATP synthase, which in turn determines the shape of inner membrane cristae
YDL181W INH1 ATPase inhibitor Protein that inhibits ATP hydrolysis by the F1F0-ATP synthase; inhibitory function is enhanced by stabilizing proteins Stf1p and Stf2p; has a calmodulin-binding motif and binds calmodulin in vitro; INH1 has a paralog, STF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR008C STF2 ATPase-stabilizing factor family protein Protein involved in resistance to desiccation stress; Stf2p exhibits antioxidant properties, and its overexpression prevents ROS accumulation and apoptosis; binds to F0 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATPase in vitro and may modulate the inhibitory action of Inh1p and Stf1p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; STF2 has a paralog, TMA10, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL209C STE6 ATP-binding cassette a-factor transporter STE6 Plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter; required for the export of a-factor, catalyzes ATP hydrolysis coupled to a-factor transport; contains 12 transmembrane domains and two ATP binding domains; expressed only in MATa cells; human homolog ABCB1 mediates multidrug resistance in many chemotherapy-resistant tumors by effluxing toxic compounds from the cell
YLL015W BPT1 ATP-binding cassette bilirubin transporter BPT1 ABC type transmembrane transporter of MRP/CFTR family; found in vacuolar membrane, involved in the transport of unconjugated bilirubin and in heavy metal detoxification via glutathione conjugates, along with Ycf1p
YER036C ARB1 ATP-binding cassette family ATPase ARB1 ATPase of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family; involved in 40S and 60S ribosome biogenesis, has similarity to Gcn20p; shuttles from nucleus to cytoplasm, physically interacts with Tif6p, Lsg1p; human homolog ABCF2 can complement yeast ARB1 mutant
YMR301C ATM1 ATP-binding cassette Fe/S cluster precursor transporter ATM1 Mitochondrial inner membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter; exports mitochondrially synthesized precursors of iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters to the cytosol; human homolog ABCB7 can complement yeast null mutant
YDR135C YCF1 ATP-binding cassette glutathione S-conjugate transporter YCF1 Vacuolar glutathione S-conjugate transporter; ABC-C transporter of the ATP-binding cassette family; required for vacuole fusion; forms stable complexes with vacuole fusion machinery; regulates Vam7p recruitment to vacuoles; role in detoxifying metals (Cd, Hg, As); transports GSSG that is not immediately reduced in cytosol to vacuole; transports unconjugated bilirubin, selenodigluthatione, oxidized glutathione; similar to human cystic fibrosis protein CFTR
YPL058C PDR12 ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter PDR12 Plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter; weak-acid-inducible multidrug transporter required for weak organic acid resistance; induced by sorbate and benzoate and regulated by War1p; mutants exhibit sorbate hypersensitivity
YOR153W PDR5 ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter PDR5 | LEM1 | STS1 | YDR1 Plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter; multidrug transporter actively regulated by Pdr1p; also involved in steroid transport, cation resistance, and cellular detoxification during exponential growth; PDR5 has a paralog, PDR15, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR188W MDL1 ATP-binding cassette permease MDL1 Mitochondrial inner membrane half-type ABC transporter; mediates export of peptides generated upon proteolysis of mitochondrial proteins; plays a role in the regulation of cellular resistance to oxidative stress
YPL270W MDL2 ATP-binding cassette permease MDL2 Mitochondrial inner membrane half-type ABC transporter; required for respiratory growth at high temperature; localizes to vacuole membrane in response to H2O2; similar to human TAP1 and TAP2 implicated in bare lymphocyte syndrome and Wegener-like granulomatosis
YDR011W SNQ2 ATP-binding cassette transporter SNQ2 Plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter; multidrug transporter involved in multidrug resistance and resistance to singlet oxygen species
YGR281W YOR1 ATP-binding cassette transporter YOR1 | YRS1 Plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter; multidrug transporter mediates export of many different organic anions including oligomycin; homolog of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor (CFTR)
YNL082W PMS1 ATP-binding mismatch repair protein ATP-binding protein required for mismatch repair; required for both mitosis and meiosis; functions as a heterodimer with Mlh1p; binds double- and single-stranded DNA via its N-terminal domain, similar to E. coli MutL
YDR291W HRQ1 ATP-dependent 3'-5' DNA helicase 3'-5' DNA helicase that has DNA strand annealing activity; helicase activity is stimulated by fork structure and 3'-tail length of substrates; acts with Rad4p in nucleotide-excision repair; belongs to the widely conserved RecQ family of proteins which are involved in maintaining genomic integrity; similar to the human RecQ4p implicated in Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS)
YKL017C HCS1 ATP-dependent 5'-3' DNA helicase HCS1 | DIP1 Hexameric DNA polymerase alpha-associated DNA helicase A; involved in lagging strand DNA synthesis; contains single-stranded DNA stimulated ATPase and dATPase activities; replication protein A stimulates helicase and ATPase activities
YMR190C SGS1 ATP-dependent DNA helicase SGS1 RecQ family nucleolar DNA helicase; role in genome integrity maintenance, chromosome synapsis, meiotic joint molecule/crossover formation; stimulates activity of Top3p; rapidly lost in response to rapamycin in Rrd1p-dependent manner; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress; yeast SGS1 complements mutations in human homolog BLM implicated in Bloom syndrome; also similar to human WRN implicated in Werner syndrome; human BLM and WRN can each complement yeast null mutant
YMR284W YKU70 ATP-dependent DNA helicase YKU70 | HDF1 | KU70 | NES24 Subunit of the telomeric Ku complex (Yku70p-Yku80p); involved in telomere length maintenance, structure and telomere position effect; required for localization of telomerase ribonucleoprotein to nucleus via interaction with the TLC1 guide RNA; relocates to sites of double-strand cleavage to promote nonhomologous end joining during DSB repair
YMR106C YKU80 ATP-dependent DNA helicase YKU80 | HDF2 Subunit of telomeric Ku complex (Yku70p-Yku80p); involved in telomere length maintenance, structure and telomere position effect; required for localization of telomerase ribonucleoprotein via interaction with TLC1 guide RNA; relocates to sites of double-strand cleavage to promote nonhomologous end joining during DSB repair; colocalizes with quiescent cell telomere hyperclusters
YBL022C PIM1 ATP-dependent Lon protease PIM1 | LON1 ATP-dependent Lon protease; involved in degradation of misfolded proteins in mitochondria; required for biogenesis and maintenance of mitochondria
YGL064C MRH4 ATP-dependent RNA helicase Mitochondrial ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DEAD-box family; required for assembly of the large subunit of mitochondrial ribosomes; binds to the large subunit rRNA, 21S_rRNA; localizes to the matrix face of the mitochondrial inner membrane and associates with the large subunit precursor and with mature ribosomes
YDR194C MSS116 ATP-dependent RNA helicase Mitochondrial transcription elongation factor; DEAD-box protein; required for efficient splicing of mitochondrial Group I and II introns; non-polar RNA helicase that also facilities strand annealing; promotes RNA folding by stabilizing an early assembly intermediate
YER172C BRR2 ATP-dependent RNA helicase BRR2 | PRP44 | RSS1 | SLT22 | SNU246 RNA-dependent ATPase RNA helicase (DEIH box); required for disruption of U4/U6 base-pairing in native snRNPs to activate the spliceosome for catalysis; homologous to human U5-200kD
YOR046C DBP5 ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP5 | RAT8 Cytoplasmic ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DEAD-box family; involved in mRNA export from the nucleus, remodeling messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs), with ATPase activity stimulated by Gle1p, IP6 and Nup159p; involved in translation termination along with Sup45p (eRF1); role in the cellular response to heat stress
YHR169W DBP8 ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP8 ATPase, putative RNA helicase of the DEAD-box family; component of 90S preribosome complex involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of 40S small ribosomal subunit; ATPase activity stimulated by association with Esf2p
YMR128W ECM16 ATP-dependent RNA helicase ECM16 | DHR1 Essential DEAH-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase specific to U3 snoRNP; predominantly nucleolar in distribution; required for 18S rRNA synthesis
YDR021W FAL1 ATP-dependent RNA helicase FAL1 Nucleolar protein required for maturation of 18S rRNA; member of the eIF4A subfamily of DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicases; 18S rRNA biogenesis defect of the null mutant is functionally complemented by human EIF4A3
YJL050W MTR4 ATP-dependent RNA helicase MTR4 | DOB1 ATP-dependent 3'-5' RNA helicase of the DExD/H family; involved in nuclear RNA processing and degradation both as a component of TRAMP complex and in TRAMP-independent processes; TRAMP unwinds RNA duplexes, with Mtr4p unwinding activity stimulated by Pap2p/Air2p but not dependent on ongoing polyadenylation; contains an arch domain, with two coiled-coil arms/stalks and a globular fist/KOW domain, which has RNA binding activity and is required for 5.8S rRNA processing
YMR080C NAM7 ATP-dependent RNA helicase NAM7 | IFS2 | MOF4 | SUP113 | SUT2 | UPF1 ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the SFI superfamily; involved in nonsense mediated mRNA decay; required for efficient translation termination at nonsense codons and targeting of NMD substrates to P-bodies; binds to the small ribosomal subunit via an interaction with Rps26; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YDL084W SUB2 ATP-dependent RNA helicase SUB2 Component of the TREX complex required for nuclear mRNA export; member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase superfamily and is involved in early and late steps of spliceosome assembly; homolog of the human splicing factor hUAP56; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YPL029W SUV3 ATP-dependent RNA helicase SUV3 | LPB2 ATP-dependent RNA helicase; component of the mitochondrial degradosome along with the RNase Dss1p; the degradosome associates with the ribosome and mediates RNA turnover; also required during splicing of the COX1 AI5_beta intron; expression of a processed form of human homolog SUPV3L1 carrying an N-terminal deletion of 46 amino acids rescues yeast suv3 null mutant
YPL271W ATP15 ATPEPSILON | F1F0 ATP synthase subunit epsilon Epsilon subunit of the F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; which is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; F1 translationally regulates ATP6 and ATP8 expression to achieve a balanced output of ATP synthase genes encoded in nucleus and mitochondria; phosphorylated
YBR127C VMA2 ATPSV | H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit B | VAT2 Subunit B of V1 peripheral membrane domain of vacuolar H+-ATPase; electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; contains nucleotide binding sites; also detected in the cytoplasm; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human homolog ATP6V1B1, implicated in autosomal-recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) with sensorineural deafness, complements yeast null mutant
YJL180C ATP12 ATP synthase complex assembly protein ATP12 Assembly factor for F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; conserved protein; required for assembly of alpha and beta subunits into F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; human homolog ATPAF2 can complement yeast atp12 mutant; mutation of human homolog reduces active ATP synthase levels and is associated with the disorder ATPAF2 deficiency
YCR079W PTC6 AUP1 | PPP2 | type 2C protein phosphatase PTC6 Mitochondrial type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C); has similarity to mammalian PP1Ks; involved in mitophagy; null mutant is sensitive to rapamycin and has decreased phosphorylation of the Pda1 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase
YPL209C IPL1 aurora kinase | PAC15 Aurora kinase of chromosomal passenger complex; mediates release of mono-oriented kinetochores from microtubules in meiosis I, and kinetochore release from SPB clusters at meiotic exit; helps maintain condensed chromosomes during anaphase; required for SPB cohesion and prevention of multipolar spindle formation; promotes telomerase release at G2/M; Iocalizes to nuclear foci that diffuse upon DNA replication stress; required for inhibition of karyopherin Pse1p upon SAC arrest
YFR021W ATG18 AUT10 | CVT18 | NMR1 | phosphoinositide binding protein ATG18 | SVP1 Phosphoinositide binding protein; required for vesicle formation in autophagy and the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (CVT) pathway; binds PtdIns(3,5)P2, PI3P and PI4P; WD-40 repeat containing protein and PROPPIN family member; relocalizes from the vacuole to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; mammalian homologs include: WIPI1, WIPI2, WIPI3 and WIPI4/WDR45; mutations in human WDR45 cause static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA)
YGL124C MON1 AUT12 Subunit of a heterodimeric guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF); subunit of the Mon1-Ccz1 GEF complex which stimulates nucleotide exchange and activation of Ypt7p, a Rab family GTPase involved in membrane tethering and fusion events at the late endosome and vacuole; GEF activity is stimulated by membrane association and anionic phospholipids; role in localizing Ypt7p to the vacuolar membrane; required for autophagy, the CVT pathway and mitophagy; potential Cdc28 substrate
YPR049C ATG11 autophagy protein ATG11 | CVT3 | CVT9 Adapter protein for pexophagy and the Cvt targeting pathway; directs receptor-bound cargo to the phagophore assembly site (PAS) for packaging into vesicles; required for recruiting other proteins to the PAS; recruits Dnm1p to facilitate fission of mitochondria that are destined for removal by mitophagy
YDR320C SWA2 AUX1 | BUD24 Auxilin-like protein involved in vesicular transport; clathrin-binding protein required for uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles
YLR385C SWC7 AWS1 Protein of unknown function; component of the Swr1p complex that incorporates Htz1p into chromatin
YDL130W RPP1B Ax | L44' | P1B | ribosomal protein P1B | RPL44' | RPLA3 | YP1beta Ribosomal protein P1 beta; component of the ribosomal stalk, which is involved in interaction of translational elongation factors with ribosome; free (non-ribosomal) P1 stimulates the phosphorylation of the eIF2 alpha subunit (Sui2p) by Gcn2p; accumulation is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with the P2 stalk component
YNL039W BDP1 B" | TFC5 | TFC7 | TFIIIB90 | transcription factor TFIIIB subunit BDP1 Essential subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription factor (TFIIIB); TFIIIB is involved in transcription of genes encoding tRNAs, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, and other small RNAs
YOL005C RPB11 B12.5 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II core subunit RPB11 RNA polymerase II subunit B12.5; part of central core; similar to Rpc19p and bacterial alpha subunit
YGL070C RPB9 B12.6 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II core subunit RPB9 | SHI | SSU73 RNA polymerase II subunit B12.6; contacts DNA; mutations affect transcription start site selection and fidelity of transcription
YOR151C RPB2 B150 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II core subunit RPB2 | RPB150 | RPO22 | SIT2 | SOH2 RNA polymerase II second largest subunit B150; part of central core; similar to bacterial beta subunit
YDR404C RPB7 B16 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7 RNA polymerase II subunit B16; forms dissociable heterodimer with Rpb4p; Rpb4/7 dissociates from RNAPII as Ser2 CTD phosphorylation increases; Rpb4/7 regulates cellular lifespan via mRNA decay process; involved in recruitment of 3'-end processing factors to transcribing RNA polymerase II complex, export of mRNA to cytoplasm under stress conditions; also involved in translation initiation
YDL140C RPO21 B220 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II core subunit RPO21 | RPB1 | RPB220 | SUA8 RNA polymerase II largest subunit B220; part of central core; phosphorylation of C-terminal heptapeptide repeat domain regulates association with transcription and splicing factors; similar to bacterial beta-prime
YJL140W RPB4 B32 | CTF15 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4 RNA polymerase II subunit B32; forms dissociable heterodimer with Rpb7p; Rpb4/7 dissociates from RNAPII as Ser2 CTD phosphorylation increases; Rpb4/7 regulates cellular lifespan via mRNA decay process; involved in recruitment of 3'-end processing factors to transcribing RNAPII complex, export of mRNA to cytoplasm under stress conditions; also involved in translation initiation
YIL021W RPB3 B44 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase II core subunit RPB3 RNA polymerase II third largest subunit B44; part of central core; similar to prokaryotic alpha subunit
YKL112W ABF1 BAF1 | DNA-binding protein ABF1 | GFI | OBF1 | REB2 | SBF1 | SBF-B DNA binding protein with possible chromatin-reorganizing activity; involved in transcriptional activation, gene silencing, and DNA replication and repair
YDR463W STP1 BAP1 | SSY2 Transcription factor; contains a N-terminal regulatory motif (RI) that acts as a cytoplasmic retention determinant and as an Asi dependent degron in the nucleus; undergoes proteolytic processing by SPS (Ssy1p-Ptr3p-Ssy5p)-sensor component Ssy5p in response to extracellular amino acids; activates transcription of amino acid permease genes and may have a role in tRNA processing; STP1 has a paralog, STP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL106C PHO2 BAS2 | GRF10 | phoB Homeobox transcription factor; regulatory targets include genes involved in phosphate metabolism; binds cooperatively with Pho4p to the PHO5 promoter; phosphorylation of Pho2p facilitates interaction with Pho4p; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YLL048C YBT1 BAT1 | bile acid-transporting ATPase YBT1 Transporter of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family; involved in bile acid transport; negative regulator of vacuole fusion; regulates release of lumenal Ca2+ stores; similar to mammalian bile transporters; YBT1 has a paralog, VMR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR116W MSL5 BBP | mRNA splicing protein MSL5 Component of commitment complex; which defines first step in splicing pathway; essential protein that interacts with Mud2p and Prp40p, forming a bridge between the intron ends; also involved in nuclear retention of pre-mRNA; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YPL057C SUR1 BCL21 | CSG1 | LPE15 | mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide synthase catalytic subunit SUR1 Mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) synthase catalytic subunit; forms a complex with regulatory subunit Csg2p; function in sphingolipid biosynthesis is overlapping with that of Csh1p; SUR1 has a paralog, CSH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YAL060W BDH1 BDH | (R,R)-butanediol dehydrogenase NAD-dependent (R,R)-butanediol dehydrogenase; catalyzes oxidation of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol to (3R)-acetoin, oxidation of meso-butanediol to (3S)-acetoin, and reduction of acetoin; enhances use of 2,3-butanediol as an aerobic carbon source
YER114C BOI2 BEB1 Protein implicated in polar growth, functionally redundant with Boi1p; interacts with bud-emergence protein Bem1p; contains an SH3 (src homology 3) domain and a PH (pleckstrin homology) domain; BOI2 has a paralog, BOI1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL236W SIN4 BEL2 | GAL22 | MED16 | RYE1 | SDI3 | SSF5 | SSN4 | SSX3 | TSF3 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; contributes to both postive and negative transcriptional regulation; dispensible for basal transcription
YKL164C PIR1 beta-1,3-glucan linked protein | CCW6 O-glycosylated protein required for cell wall stability; attached to the cell wall via beta-1,3-glucan; mediates mitochondrial translocation of Apn1p; expression regulated by the cell integrity pathway and by Swi5p during the cell cycle; PIR1 has a paralog, YJL160C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR159W KRE6 beta-glucan synthesis-associated protein KRE6 | CWH48 Type II integral membrane protein; required for beta-1,6 glucan biosynthesis; putative beta-glucan synthase; localizes to ER, plasma membrane, sites of polarized growth and secretory vesicles; functionally redundant with Skn1p; KRE6 has a paralog, SKN1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR300W EXG1 BGL1 | glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase | SCW6 Major exo-1,3-beta-glucanase of the cell wall; involved in cell wall beta-glucan assembly; exists as three differentially glycosylated isoenzymes; EXG1 has a paralog, SPR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL202W ARO8 bifunctional 2-aminoadipate transaminase/aromatic-amino-acid:2-oxoglutarate transaminase Aromatic aminotransferase I; expression is regulated by general control of amino acid biosynthesis
YPR184W GDB1 bifunctional 4-alpha-glucanotransferase/amylo-alpha-1,6-glucosidase Glycogen debranching enzyme; contains glucanotranferase and alpha-1,6-amyloglucosidase activities; required for glycogen degradation; phosphorylated in mitochondria; activity is inhibited by Igd1p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR375C BCS1 bifunctional AAA family ATPase chaperone/translocase BCS1 Protein translocase and chaperone required for Complex III assembly; member of the AAA ATPase family; forms a homo-oligomeric complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane that translocates the C-terminal domain of Rip1p from the matrix across the inner membrane and delivers it to an assembly intermediate of respiratory Complex III; also required for assembly of the Qcr10p subunit; mutation is functionally complemented by human homolog BCS1L, linked to neonatal diseases
YGL234W ADE5,7 bifunctional aminoimidazole ribotide synthase/glycinamide ribotide synthase Enzyme of the 'de novo' purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway; contains aminoimidazole ribotide synthetase and glycinamide ribotide synthetase activities
YNL045W LAP2 bifunctional aminopeptidase/epoxide hydrolase Leucyl aminopeptidase yscIV with epoxide hydrolase activity; metalloenzyme containing one zinc atom; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; also known as leukotriene A4 hydrolase
YKL211C TRP3 bifunctional anthranilate synthase/indole-3-glycerol-phosphate synthase Indole-3-glycerol-phosphate synthase; forms bifunctional hetero-oligomeric anthranilate synthase:indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase enzyme complex with Trp2p
YDR530C APA2 bifunctional AP-4-A phosphorylase/ADP sulfurylase Diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate phosphorylase II; AP4A phosphorylase involved in catabolism of bis(5'-nucleosidyl) tetraphosphates; APA2 has a paralog, APA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCL050C APA1 bifunctional AP-4-A phosphorylase/ADP sulfurylase | DTP1 AP4A phosphorylase; bifunctional diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate phosphorylase and ADP sulfurylase involved in catabolism of bis(5'-nucleosidyl) tetraphosphates; catalyzes phosphorolysis of dinucleoside oligophosphates, cleaving substrates' alpha/beta-anhydride bond and introducing Pi into the beta-position of the corresponding NDP formed; protein abundance increases under DNA replication stress; APA1 has a paralog, APA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR164C DNA2 bifunctional ATP-dependent DNA helicase/ssDNA endodeoxyribonuclease DNA2 | WEB2 Tripartite DNA replication factor; single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase, ATP-dependent nuclease, helicase; tracking protein for flap cleavage during Okazaki fragment maturation; involved in DNA repair/processing of meiotic DNA double strand breaks; component of telomeric chromatin with cell-cycle dependent localization; required for telomerase-dependent telomere synthesis; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress; human homolog DNA2 complements yeast dna2 mutant
YJL130C URA2 bifunctional carbamoylphosphate synthetase/aspartate transcarbamylase Bifunctional carbamoylphosphate synthetase/aspartate transcarbamylase; catalyzes the first two enzymatic steps in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines; both activities are subject to feedback inhibition by UTP
YLR133W CKI1 bifunctional choline kinase/ethanolamine kinase CKI1 Choline kinase; catalyzes the first step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the CDP-choline (Kennedy pathway); exhibits some ethanolamine kinase activity contributing to phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway; CKI1 has a paralog, EKI1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR147W EKI1 bifunctional choline kinase/ethanolamine kinase EKI1 Ethanolamine kinase; primarily responsible for phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway; exhibits some choline kinase activity, thus contributing to phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the CDP-choline pathway; EKI1 has a paralog, CKI1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL148W ARO2 bifunctional chorismate synthase/riboflavin reductase [NAD(P)H] ARO2 Bifunctional chorismate synthase and flavin reductase; catalyzes the conversion of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) to form chorismate, which is a precursor to aromatic amino acids; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YHR123W EPT1 bifunctional diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase/ethanolaminephosphotransferase sn-1,2-diacylglycerol ethanolamine- and cholinephosphotranferase; not essential for viability; EPT1 has a paralog, CPT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR284C DPP1 bifunctional diacylglycerol diphosphate phosphatase/phosphatidate phosphatase | ZRG1 Diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) phosphatase; zinc-regulated vacuolar membrane-associated lipid phosphatase, dephosphorylates DGPP to phosphatidate (PA) and Pi, then PA to diacylglycerol; involved in lipid signaling and cell metabolism
YBR252W DUT1 bifunctional dITP/dUTP diphosphatase Deoxyuridine triphosphate diphosphatase (dUTPase); catalyzes hydrolysis of dUTP to dUMP and PPi, thereby preventing incorporation of uracil into DNA during replication; critical for the maintenance of genetic stability; also has diphosphatase activity on deoxyinosine triphosphate; human homolog DUT allows growth of yeast haploid dut1 null mutant after sporulation of heterozygous diploid
YOL066C RIB2 bifunctional DRAP deaminase/tRNA pseudouridine synthase RIB2 | PUS8 Bifunctional DRAP deaminase tRNA:pseudouridine synthase; the deaminase catalyzes the third step in riboflavin biosynthesis and the synthase catalyzes formation of pseudouridine at position 32 in cytoplasmic tRNAs; RIB2 has a paralog, PUS9, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR079C IRE1 bifunctional endoribonuclease/protein kinase IRE1 | ERN1 Serine-threonine kinase and endoribonuclease; transmembrane protein that mediates the unfolded protein response (UPR) by regulating Hac1p synthesis through HAC1 mRNA splicing; role in homeostatic adaptation to ER stress; Kar2p binds inactive Ire1p and releases from it upon ER stress
YHR190W ERG9 bifunctional farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase/squalene synthase Farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyl transferase (squalene synthase); joins two farnesyl pyrophosphate moieties to form squalene in the sterol biosynthesis pathway
YLR345W bifunctional fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 2-phosphatase/6-phosphofructo-2-kinase Similar to 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase enzymes; mRNA expression is repressed by the Rfx1p-Tup1p-Ssn6p repressor complex; YLR345W is not an essential gene
YIR038C GTT1 bifunctional glutathione transferase/peroxidase ER associated glutathione S-transferase; capable of homodimerization; glutathione transferase for Yvc1p vacuolar cation channel; expression induced during the diauxic shift and throughout stationary phase; functional overlap with Gtt2p, Grx1p, and Grx2p
YKR067W GPT2 bifunctional glycerol-3-phosphate/glycerone-phosphate O-acyltransferase GPT2 | GAT1 Glycerol-3-phosphate/dihydroxyacetone phosphate sn-1 acyltransferase; located in lipid particles and the ER; involved in the stepwise acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone in lipid biosynthesis; the most conserved motifs and functionally relevant residues are oriented towards the ER lumen
YBL011W SCT1 bifunctional glycerol-3-phosphate/glycerone-phosphate O-acyltransferase SCT1 | GAT2 Glycerol 3-phosphate/dihydroxyacetone phosphate sn-1 acyltransferase; dual substrate-specific acyltransferase of the glycerolipid biosynthesis pathway; prefers 16-carbon fatty acids; similar to Gpt2p; gene is constitutively transcribed
YPL214C THI6 bifunctional hydroxyethylthiazole kinase/thiamine-phosphate diphosphorylase Thiamine-phosphate diphosphorylase and hydroxyethylthiazole kinase; required for thiamine biosynthesis; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern
YDR456W NHX1 bifunctional K:H/Na:H antiporter NHX1 | NHA2 | VPL27 | VPS44 Na+/H+ and K+/H+ exchanger; required for intracellular sequestration of Na+ and K+; located in the vacuole and late endosome compartments; required for osmotolerance to acute hypertonic shock and for vacuolar fusion; ortholog of human NHE9, which is linked to autism
YAL015C NTG1 bifunctional N-glycosylase/AP lyase NTG1 | FUN33 | ogg2 | SCR1 DNA N-glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase; involved in base excision repair; acts in both nucleus and mitochondrion; creates a double-strand break at mtDNA origins that stimulates replication in response to oxidative stress; required for maintaining mitochondrial genome integrity; NTG1 has a paralog, NTG2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL043C NTG2 bifunctional N-glycosylase/AP lyase NTG2 | SCR2 DNA N-glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase; involved in base excision repair, localizes to the nucleus; sumoylated; NTG2 has a paralog, NTG1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER037W PHM8 bifunctional nucleotidase/lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) phosphatase, nucleotidase; principle and physiological nucleotidase working on GMP, UMP and CMP; involved in LPA hydrolysis in response to phosphate starvation and ribose salvage pathway; phosphatase activity is soluble and Mg2+ dependent; expression is induced by low phosphate levels and by inactivation of Pho85p; repressed by Gcn4p under normal conditions; PHM8 has a paralog, SDT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR073C OPI3 bifunctional phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine N-methyltransferase/phosphatidyl-N-dimethylethanolamine N-methyltransferase | PEM2 Methylene-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase; catalyzes the last two steps in phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis; also known as phospholipid methyltransferase
YLR028C ADE16 bifunctional phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase ADE16 Enzyme of 'de novo' purine biosynthesis; contains both 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase and inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase activities; ADE16 has a paralog, ADE17, that arose from the whole genome duplication; ade16 ade17 mutants require adenine and histidine
YMR120C ADE17 bifunctional phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase ADE17 Enzyme of 'de novo' purine biosynthesis; contains both 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase and inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase activities; ADE17 has a paralog, ADE16, that arose from the whole genome duplication; ade16 ade17 mutants require adenine and histidine
YPL274W SAM3 bifunctional polyamine/amino acid permease SAM3 High-affinity S-adenosylmethionine permease; required for utilization of S-adenosylmethionine as a sulfur source; has similarity to S-methylmethionine permease Mmp1p
YKL019W RAM2 bifunctional protein farnesyltransferase/protein geranylgeranyltransferase Alpha subunit of farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase-I; farnesyltransferase (Ram2p-Ram1p heterodimer) catalyzes the addition of 15-carbon isoprenoid farnesyl to substrate proteins containing a CAAX consensus motif; type I geranylgeranyltransferase (Ram2p-Cdc43p heterodimer) catalyzes the addition of the 20-carbon isoprenoid geranylgeranyl to substrate proteins containing a CaaL consensus motif; required for membrane localization of Ras proteins and a-factor
YJR057W CDC8 bifunctional thymidylate/uridylate kinase Nucleoside monophosphate and nucleoside diphosphate kinase; functions in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides; thymidylate/uridylate kinase that converts nucleoside monophosphates, dTMP and dUMP to nucleoside diphosphates, dTDP and dUDP; nucleoside diphosphate kinase that converts nucleoside diphosphates, dTDP and dUDP to dTTP and dUTP; essential for mitotic and meiotic DNA replication; homologous to S. pombe tmp1; human homolog DTYMK can complement the cdc8 null mutant
YMR313C TGL3 bifunctional triglyceride lipase/lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase Bifunctional triacylglycerol lipase and LPE acyltransferase; major lipid particle-localized triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase; catalyzes acylation of lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), a function which is essential for sporulation; protein level and stability of Tgl3p are markedly reduced in the absence of lipid droplets; required with Tgl4p for timely bud formation
YBR208C DUR1,2 bifunctional urea carboxylase/allophanate hydrolase | DUR80 Urea amidolyase; contains both urea carboxylase and allophanate hydrolase activities, degrades urea to CO2 and NH3; expression sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression and induced by allophanate, an intermediate in allantoin degradation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL024C URA6 bifunctional uridylate/adenylate kinase | SOC8 Uridylate kinase; catalyzes the seventh enzymatic step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines, converting uridine monophosphate (UMP) into uridine-5'-diphosphate (UDP)
YGR286C BIO2 biotin synthase Biotin synthase; catalyzes the conversion of dethiobiotin to biotin, which is the last step of the biotin biosynthesis pathway; complements E. coli bioB mutant
YJL034W KAR2 BIP | GRP78 | Hsp70 family ATPase KAR2 ATPase involved in protein import into the ER; also acts as a chaperone to mediate protein folding in the ER and may play a role in ER export of soluble proteins; regulates the unfolded protein response via interaction with Ire1p
YGL068W MNP1 bL12m | mitochondrial nucleoid protein MNP1 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit; has similarity to E. coli L7/L12 and human MRPL7 ribosomal proteins; associates with the mitochondrial nucleoid; required for normal respiratory growth
YJL063C MRPL8 bL17m | HRD238 | mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein YmL8 | YmL8 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit
YCR046C IMG1 bL19m | mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein IMG1 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit; required for respiration and for maintenance of the mitochondrial genome
YJL096W MRPL49 bL21m | mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein YmL49 | YmL49 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit
YNL005C MRP7 bL27m | mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein YmL2 | MRPL2 | YmL2 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit
YMR193W MRPL24 bL28m | mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein YmL24/YmL14 | MRPL14 | YmL14 | YmL24 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit; two mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, YmL14 and YmL24, have been assigned to the same gene
YBR122C MRPL36 bL31m | mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein YmL36 | YmL36 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit; overproduction suppresses mutations in the COX2 leader peptide-encoding region
YCR003W MRPL32 bL32m | mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein YmL32 | YmL32 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YML009C MRPL39 bL33m | mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein YmL39 | YmL39 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit
YDR115W MRX14 bL34m | putative mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein Putative mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit; similar to E. coli L34 ribosomal protein; required for respiratory growth, as are most mitochondrial ribosomal proteins; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes to the plasma membrane upon DNA replication stress
YNL122C bL35m Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit; homologous to bacterial L35 and human MRPL35 ribosomal proteins
YPL183W-A RTC6 bL36m | GON5 | putative mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein RTC6 | TAE4 Protein involved in translation; mutants have defects in biogenesis of nuclear ribosomes; sequence similar to prokaryotic ribosomal protein L36, may be a mitochondrial ribosomal protein; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNR022C MRPL50 bL9m | mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein MRPL50 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit; not essential for mitochondrial translation
YLR408C BLS1 BLB1 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the endosome; YLR408C is not an essential gene
YDR357C CNL1 BLC1 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; interacts with Msb3p; null mutant is sensitive to drug inducing secretion of vacuolar cargo; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YNL239W LAP3 bleomycin hydrolase | BLH1 | GAL6 | YCP1 Cysteine aminopeptidase with homocysteine-thiolactonase activity; protects cells against homocysteine toxicity; has bleomycin hydrolase activity in vitro; transcription is regulated by galactose via Gal4p; orthologous to human BLMH
YER151C UBP3 BLM3 | mRNA-binding ubiquitin-specific protease UBP3 Ubiquitin-specific protease involved in transport and osmotic response; negatively regulates Ras/PKA signaling; interacts with Bre5p to coregulate anterograde, retrograde transport between ER and Golgi; involved in transcription elongation in response to osmostress through phosphorylation at Ser695 by Hog1p; inhibitor of gene silencing; role in ribophagy; cleaves ubiquitin fusions but not polyubiquitin; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL086W SNN1 BLS1 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; interacts with Msb3p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to endosomes
YBL085W BOI1 BOB1 | GIN7 Protein implicated in polar growth; functionally redundant with Boi2p; interacts with bud-emergence protein Bem1p; contains an SH3 (src homology 3) domain and a PH (pleckstrin homology) domain; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; BOI1 has a paralog, BOI2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL221W FLC1 BOP1 | flavin adenine dinucleotide transporter | HUF1 Flavin adenine dinucleotide transporter; required for uptake of FAD into endoplasmic reticulum; involved in cell wall maintenance; FLC1 has a paralog, FLC3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML116W ATR1 borate transporter | SNQ1 Multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily; required for resistance to aminotriazole and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide; ATR1 has a paralog, YMR279C, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL117C IDI1 BOT2 | isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase IDI1 | LPH10 Isopentenyl diphosphate:dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase; catalyzes an essential activation step in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway; required for viability; isopentenyl diphosphate:dimethylallyl diphosphate isomerase is also known as IPP isomerase
YDR454C GUK1 BRA3 | guanylate kinase | PUR5 Guanylate kinase; converts GMP to GDP; required for growth and mannose outer chain elongation of cell wall N-linked glycoproteins
YDR399W HPT1 BRA6 | HGPRTase | HPRT | hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase Dimeric hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase; catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoribosyl portion of 5-phosphoribosyl-alpha-1-pyrophosphate to a purine base (either guanine or hypoxanthine) to form pyrophosphate and a purine nucleotide (either guanosine monophosphate or inosine monophosphate); mutations in the human homolog HPRT1 can cause Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome
YER056C FCY2 BRA7 | purine-cytosine permease Purine-cytosine permease; mediates purine (adenine, guanine, and hypoxanthine) and cytosine accumulation; relative distribution to the vacuole increases upon DNA replication stress
YDL080C THI3 branched-chain-2-oxoacid decarboxylase THI3 | KID1 Regulatory protein that binds Pdc2p and Thi2p transcription factors; activates thiamine biosynthesis transcription factors Pdc2p and Thi2p by binding to them, but releases and de-activates them upon binding to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the end product of the pathway; has similarity to decarboxylases but enzymatic activity is not detected
YBR068C BAP2 branched-chain amino acid permease BAP2 High-affinity leucine permease; functions as a branched-chain amino acid permease involved in uptake of leucine, isoleucine and valine; contains 12 predicted transmembrane domains; BAP2 has a paralog, BAP3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR148W BAT2 branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase BAT2 | ECA40 | TWT2 Cytosolic branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase; preferentially involved in BCAA catabolism; homolog of murine ECA39; highly expressed during stationary phase and repressed during logarithmic phase; BAT2 has a paralog, BAT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL323W LEM3 BRE3 | ROS3 Membrane protein of the plasma membrane and ER; interacts specifically in vivo with the phospholipid translocase (flippase) Dnf1p; involved in translocation of phospholipids and alkylphosphocholine drugs across the plasma membrane; null mutant requires tryptophan due to mislocalization of tryptophan permease Tat2p
YDL207W GLE1 BRR3 | NLE2 | nucleoporin GLE1 | RSS1 Cytoplasmic nucleoporin required for polyadenylated mRNA export; contains a nuclear export signal; when bound to inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), functions as an activator for the Dbp5p ATPase activity at the nuclear pore complex during mRNA export; mediates translation initiation; required for efficient translation termination
YLR277C YSH1 BRR5 | cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit YSH1 Endoribonuclease; subunit of the mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation specificity complex; required for 3' processing, splicing, and transcriptional termination of mRNAs and snoRNAs; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; YSH1 has a paralog, SYC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR206W SKN7 BRY1 | kinase-regulated stress-responsive transcription factor SKN7 | POS9 Nuclear response regulator and transcription factor; physically interacts with the Tup1-Cyc8 complex and recruits Tup1p to its targets; part of a branched two-component signaling system; required for optimal induction of heat-shock genes in response to oxidative stress; involved in osmoregulation; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; SKN7 has a paralog, HMS2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL013C MRPS16 bS16m | mitochondrial 37S ribosomal protein MRPS16 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the small subunit
YPL118W MRP51 bS1m | mitochondrial 37S ribosomal protein MRP51 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the small subunit; MRP51 exhibits genetic interactions with mutations in the COX2 and COX3 mRNA 5'-untranslated leader sequences
YBL090W MRP21 bS21m | mitochondrial 37S ribosomal protein MRP21 | MRP50 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the small subunit; MRP21 exhibits genetic interactions with mutations in the COX2 and COX3 mRNA 5'-untranslated leader sequences
YKL003C MRP17 bS6m | mitochondrial 37S ribosomal protein YmS16 Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the small subunit; MRP17 exhibits genetic interactions with PET122, encoding a COX3-specific translational activator
YGL167C PMR1 BSD1 | Ca(2+)/Mn(2+)-transporting P-type ATPase PMR1 | LDB1 | SSC1 High affinity Ca2+/Mn2+ P-type ATPase; required for Ca2+ and Mn2+ transport into Golgi; involved in Ca2+ dependent protein sorting, processing; D53A mutant (Mn2+ transporting) is rapamycin sensitive, Q783A mutant (Ca2+ transporting) is rapamycin resistant; Mn2+ transport into Golgi lumen required for rapamycin sensitivity; mutations in human homolog ATP2C1 cause acantholytic skin condition Hailey-Hailey disease; human ATP2C1 can complement yeast null mutant
YGR202C PCT1 BSR2 | CCT1 | choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase Cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase; a rate-determining enzyme of the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine synthesis, inhibited by Sec14p, activated upon lipid-binding; contains an element within the regulatory domain involved in both silencing and activation of enzymatic activity
YPL145C KES1 BSR3 | LPI3 | OSH4 | oxysterol-binding protein KES1 One of seven members of the yeast oxysterol binding protein family; involved in negative regulation of Sec14p-dependent Golgi complex secretory functions, peripheral membrane protein that localizes to the Golgi complex; KES1 has a paralog, HES1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR294C DPL1 BST1 | sphinganine-1-phosphate aldolase DPL1 Dihydrosphingosine phosphate lyase; regulates intracellular levels of sphingolipid long-chain base phosphates (LCBPs), degrades phosphorylated long chain bases, prefers C16 dihydrosphingosine-l-phosphate as a substrate
YGL200C EMP24 BST2 Component of the p24 complex; role in misfolded protein quality control; binds to GPI anchor proteins and mediates their efficient transport from the ER to the Golgi; integral membrane protein that associates with endoplasmic reticulum-derived COPII-coated vesicles
YPL082C MOT1 BTAF1 | BUR3 | DNA-binding ATPase | END10 | LPF4 Essential protein involved in regulation of transcription; removes Spt15p (TBP) from DNA via its C-terminal ATPase activity; may have a role in ensuring that soluble TBP is available to bind TATA-less promoters; forms a complex with TBP that binds TATA DNA with high affinity but with altered specificity; the Mot1p-Spt15p-DNA ternary complex contains unbent DNA; coregulates transcription with Spt16p through assembly of preinitiation complex and organization of nucleosomes
YER148W SPT15 BTF1 | TATA-binding protein | TBP | TBP1 TATA-binding protein (TBP); general transcription factor that interacts with other factors to form the preinitiation complex at promoters; essential for viability, highly conserved; yeast gene can complement mutations in human homolog TBP
YHR009C TDA3 BTN3 Putative oxidoreductase involved in late endosome to Golgi transport; physical and genetical interactions with Btn2p; null mutant is viable, has extended S phase, and sensitive to expression of top1-T722A allele; similar to human FOXRED1
YGR108W CLB1 B-type cyclin CLB1 | SCB1 B-type cyclin involved in cell cycle progression; activates Cdc28p to promote the transition from G2 to M phase; accumulates during G2 and M, then targeted via a destruction box motif for ubiquitin-mediated degradation by the proteasome; CLB1 has a paralog, CLB2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR119W CLB2 B-type cyclin CLB2 B-type cyclin involved in cell cycle progression; activates Cdc28p to promote the transition from G2 to M phase; accumulates during G2 and M, then targeted via a destruction box motif for ubiquitin-mediated degradation by the proteasome; CLB2 has a paralog, CLB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL155W CLB3 B-type cyclin CLB3 B-type cyclin involved in cell cycle progression; activates Cdc28p to promote the G2/M transition; may be involved in DNA replication and spindle assembly; accumulates during S phase and G2, then targeted for ubiquitin-mediated degradation; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; CLB3 has a paralog, CLB4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR210W CLB4 B-type cyclin CLB4 B-type cyclin involved in cell cycle progression; activates Cdc28p to promote the G2/M transition; may be involved in DNA replication and spindle assembly; accumulates during S phase and G2, then targeted for ubiquitin-mediated degradation; CLB4 has a paralog, CLB3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR152C RSR1 BUD1 | Ras family GTPase RSR1 GTP-binding protein of the Ras superfamily; required for bud site selection, morphological changes in response to mating pheromone, and efficient cell fusion; localized to the plasma membrane; significantly similar to mammalian Rap GTPases
YIL140W AXL2 BUD10 | SRO4 Integral plasma membrane protein; required for axial budding in haploid cells; localizes to the incipient bud site and bud neck; glycosylated by Pmt4p; potential Cdc28p substrate
YBL047C EDE1 BUD15 Scaffold protein involved in the formation of early endocytic sites; putative regulator of cytokinesis; homo-oligomerization is required for localization to and organization of endocytic sites; has a network of interactions with other endocytic proteins; binds membranes in a ubiquitin-dependent manner; may also bind ubiquitinated membrane-associated proteins; interacts with Cmk2 and functions upstream of CMK2 in regulating non-apoptotic cell death; homolog of mammalian Eps15
YER044C ERG28 BUD18 Endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein; may facilitate protein-protein interactions between the Erg26p dehydrogenase and the Erg27p 3-ketoreductase and/or tether these enzymes to the ER, also interacts with Erg6p
YOL072W THP1 BUD29 Nuclear pore-associated protein; component of TREX-2 complex (Sac3p-Thp1p-Sus1p-Cdc31p) involved in transcription elongation and mRNA export from the nucleus; involved in post-transcriptional tethering of active genes to the nuclear periphery and to non-nascent mRNP; contains a PAM domain implicated in protein-protein binding
YNL312W RFA2 BUF1 | RPA2 | RPA32 Subunit of heterotrimeric Replication Protein A (RPA); RPA is a highly conserved single-stranded DNA binding protein involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination; RPA protects against inappropriate telomere recombination, and upon telomere uncapping, prevents cell proliferation by a checkpoint-independent pathway; in concert with Sgs1p-Top2p-Rmi1p, stimulates DNA catenation/decatenation activity of Top3p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication s
YAR007C RFA1 BUF2 | FUN3 | replication factor A subunit protein RFA1 | RPA1 | RPA70 Subunit of heterotrimeric Replication Protein A (RPA); RPA is a highly conserved single-stranded DNA binding protein involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination; RPA protects against inappropriate telomere recombination, and upon telomere uncapping, prevents cell proliferation by a checkpoint-independent pathway; role in DNA catenation/decatenation pathway of chromosome disentangling; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YPR161C SGV1 BUR1 | cyclin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase SGV1 Cyclin (Bur2p)-dependent protein kinase; part of the BUR kinase complex which functions in transcriptional regulation; phosphorylates the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpo21p and the C-terminal repeat domain of Spt5p; recruits Spt6p to the CTD at the onset of transcription; regulated by Cak1p; similar to metazoan CDK9 proteins
YBR010W HHT1 BUR5 | histone H3 | SIN2 Histone H3; core histone protein required for chromatin assembly, part of heterochromatin-mediated telomeric and HM silencing; one of two identical histone H3 proteins (see HHT2); regulated by acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation; H3K14 acetylation plays an important role in the unfolding of strongly positioned nucleosomes during repair of UV damage
YLR079W SIC1 BYC1 | cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibiting protein SIC1 | SDB25 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI); inhibitor of Cdc28-Clb kinase complexes that controls G1/S phase transition, preventing premature S phase and ensuring genomic integrity; phosphorylated by Clb5/6-Cdk1 and Cln1/2-Cdk1 kinase which regulate timing of Sic1p degradation; phosphorylation targets Sic1p for SCF(CDC4)-dependent turnover; functional homolog of mammalian Kip1
YHR030C SLT2 BYC2 | LYT2 | mitogen-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase SLT2 | MPK1 | SLK2 Serine/threonine MAP kinase; coordinates expression of all 19S regulatory particle assembly-chaperones (RACs) to control proteasome abundance; involved in regulating maintenance of cell wall integrity, cell cycle progression, nuclear mRNA retention in heat shock, septum assembly; required for mitophagy, pexophagy; affects recruitment of mitochondria to phagophore assembly site; plays role in adaptive response of cells to cold; regulated by the PKC1-mediated signaling pathway
YOR207C RET1 C128 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III core subunit RET1 | PDS2 | RPC128 | RPC2 Second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase III; RNA polymerase III is responsible for the transcription of tRNA and 5S RNA genes, and other low molecular weight RNAs
YOR116C RPO31 C160 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III core subunit RPO31 | RPC1 | RPC160 RNA polymerase III largest subunit C160; part of core enzyme; similar to bacterial beta-prime subunit and to RPA190 and RPO21
YJL011C RPC17 C17 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC17 RNA polymerase III subunit C17; physically interacts with C31, C11, and TFIIIB70; may be involved in the recruitment of pol III by the preinitiation complex; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YMR015C ERG5 C-22 sterol desaturase | CYP61 C-22 sterol desaturase; a cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the C-22(23) double bond in the sterol side chain in ergosterol biosynthesis; may be a target of azole antifungal drugs
YKR025W RPC37 C37 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit C37 RNA polymerase III subunit C37
YDL150W RPC53 C53 | DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit C53 | RPC4 RNA polymerase III subunit C53
YLR056W ERG3 C-5 sterol desaturase | PSO6 | SYR1 C-5 sterol desaturase; glycoprotein that catalyzes the introduction of a C-5(6) double bond into episterol, a precursor in ergosterol biosynthesis; transcriptionally down-regulated when ergosterol is in excess; mutants are viable, but cannot grow on non-fermentable carbon sources; substrate of HRD ubiquitin ligase; mutation is functionally complemented by human SC5D
YMR202W ERG2 C-8 sterol isomerase ERG2 | END11 C-8 sterol isomerase; catalyzes isomerization of delta-8 double bond to delta-7 position at an intermediate step in ergosterol biosynthesis; transcriptionally down-regulated when ergosterol is in excess; mutation is functionally complemented by human EBP
YNL083W SAL1 Ca(2+)-binding ATP:ADP antiporter SAL1 ADP/ATP transporter; member of the Ca2+-binding subfamily of mitochondrial carriers, with two EF-hand motifs; transport activity of either Sal1p or Pet9p is critical for viability; polymorphic in different S. cerevisiae strains
YOR197W MCA1 Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease MCA1 | YCA1 Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease; may cleave specific substrates during the stress response; regulates apoptosis upon H2O2 treatment; required for clearance of insoluble protein aggregates during normal growth; implicated in cell cycle dynamics and lifespan extension; undergoes autocatalytic processing; similar to mammalian metacaspases, but exists as a monomer due to an extra pair of anti-parallel beta-strands that block potential dimerization
YBR195C MSI1 CAC3 Subunit of chromatin assembly factor I (CAF-1); chromatin assembly by CAF-1 affects multiple processes including silencing at telomeres, mating type loci, and rDNA; maintenance of kinetochore structure; deactivation of DNA damage checkpoint after DNA repair; chromatin dynamics during transcription; and repression of divergent noncoding transcription; Msi1p localizes to nucleus and cytoplasm and independently regulates the RAS/cAMP pathway via sequestration of Npr1p kinase
YNR052C POP2 CAF1 | CCR4-NOT core DEDD family RNase subunit POP2 RNase of the DEDD superfamily; subunit of the Ccr4-Not complex that mediates 3' to 5' mRNA deadenylation
YJR122W IBA57 CAF17 Protein involved in incorporating iron-sulfur clusters into proteins; mitochondrial matrix protein; involved in the incorporation of iron-sulfur clusters into mitochondrial aconitase-type proteins; activates the radical-SAM family members Bio2p and Lip5p; interacts with Ccr4p in the two-hybrid system
YOR276W CAF20 CAF2 | CAP20 | p20 Phosphoprotein of the mRNA cap-binding complex; involved in translational control; repressor of cap-dependent translation initiation; competes with eIF4G for binding to eIF4E
YBR023C CHS3 CAL1 | chitin synthase CHS3 | CSD2 | DIT101 | KTI2 Chitin synthase III; catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to chitin; required for synthesis of the majority of cell wall chitin, the chitin ring during bud emergence, and spore wall chitosan; contains overlapping di-leucine and di-acidic signals that mediate, respectively, intracellular trafficking by AP-1 and trafficking to plasma membrane by exomer complex; requires AP-3 complex for its intracellular retention
YGL155W CDC43 CAL1 | protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I subunit CDC43 Beta subunit of geranylgeranyltransferase type I; subunit of the Ram2p-Cdc43p heterodimer that catalyzes the geranylgeranylation of the cysteine residue in proteins containing a C-terminal CaaX sequence ending in Leu or Phe; has substrates important for morphogenesis
YBL061C SKT5 CAL2 | CHS4 | CSD4 Activator of Chs3p (chitin synthase III) during vegetative growth; recruits Chs3p to the bud neck via interaction with Bni4p; SKT5 has a paralog, SHC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR330W CHS5 CAL3 Component of the exomer complex; the exomer which also contains Csh6p, Bch1p, Bch2p, and Bud7, is involved in the export of select proteins, such as chitin synthase Chs3p, from the Golgi to the plasma membrane; interacts selectively with the activated, GTP-bound form of Arf1p; Chs5p is the only protein with a BRCT domain that is not localized to the nucleus
YLR433C CNA1 calcineurin catalytic subunit A | CMP1 Calcineurin A; one isoform (the other is Cmp2p) of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin, a Ca++/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase which regulates Crz1p (a stress-response transcription factor), the other calcineurin subunit is CNB1; regulates the function of Aly1p alpha-arrestin; CNA1 has a paralog, CMP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML057W CMP2 calcineurin catalytic subunit A | CNA2 Calcineurin A; one isoform (the other is Cna1p) of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin, a Ca++/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase which regulates Crz1p (a stress-response transcription factor), the other calcineurin subunit is CNB1; regulates the function of Aly1p alpha-arrestin; CMP2 has a paralog, CNA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL190W CNB1 calcineurin regulatory subunit B | CRV1 | YCN2 Calcineurin B; regulatory subunit of calcineurin, a Ca++/calmodulin-regulated type 2B protein phosphatase which regulates Crz1p (stress-response transcription factor); other calcineurin subunit encoded by CNA1 and/or CMP1; regulates function of Aly1p alpha-arrestin; myristoylation by Nmt1p reduces calcineurin activity in response to submaximal Ca signals, is needed to prevent constitutive phosphatase activity; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGL006W PMC1 calcium-transporting ATPase PMC1 Vacuolar Ca2+ ATPase involved in depleting cytosol of Ca2+ ions; prevents growth inhibition by activation of calcineurin in the presence of elevated concentrations of calcium; similar to mammalian PMCA1a
YBR109C CMD1 calmodulin | CaM Calmodulin; Ca2+ binding protein that regulates Ca2+ independent processes (mitosis, bud growth, actin organization, endocytosis, etc.) and Ca2+ dependent processes (stress-activated pathways), targets include Nuf1p, Myo2p and calcineurin; binds to the Hog1p MAPK in response to hyperosmotic stress; potentiates membrane tubulation and constriction mediated by the Rvs161p-Rvs167p complex; human CALM1 or CALM2 functionally complement repression induced inviability
YFR014C CMK1 calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CMK1 Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; may play a role in stress response, many Ca++/calmodulin dependent phosphorylation substrates demonstrated in vitro, amino acid sequence similar to mammalian Cam Kinase II; CMK1 has a paralog, CMK2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL016C CMK2 calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CMK2 Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; may play a role in stress response, many CA++/calmodulan dependent phosphorylation substrates demonstrated in vitro, amino acid sequence similar to mammalian Cam Kinase II; CMK2 has a paralog, CMK1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YAL058W CNE1 calnexin | FUN48 Calnexin; integral membrane ER chaperone involved in folding and quality control of glycoproteins; chaperone activity is inhibited by Mpd1p, with which Cne1p interacts; 24% identical to mammalian calnexin; Ca+ binding not yet shown in yeast
YJL164C TPK1 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit TPK1 | PKA1 | SRA3 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit; promotes vegetative growth in response to nutrients via the Ras-cAMP signaling pathway; inhibited by regulatory subunit Bcy1p in the absence of cAMP; phosphorylates and inhibits Whi3p to promote G1/S phase passage; partially redundant with Tpk2p and Tpk3p; phosphorylates pre-Tom40p, which impairs its import into mitochondria under non-respiratory conditions; TPK1 has a paralog, TPK3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL203W TPK2 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit TPK2 | PKA2 | PKA3 | YKR1 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit; promotes vegetative growth in response to nutrients via the Ras-cAMP signaling pathway; partially redundant with Tpk1p and Tpk3p; localizes to P-bodies during stationary phase; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YKL166C TPK3 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit TPK3 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit; promotes vegetative growth in response to nutrients via the Ras-cAMP signaling pathway; partially redundant with Tpk1p and Tpk2p; localizes to P-bodies during stationary phase; TPK3 has a paralog, TPK1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL033C BCY1 cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit BCY1 | SRA1 Regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA); PKA is a component of a signaling pathway that controls a variety of cellular processes, including metabolism, cell cycle, stress response, stationary phase, and sporulation
YDR207C UME6 CAR80 | DNA-binding transcriptional regulator UME6 | NIM2 | RIM16 Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex subunit; key transcriptional regulator of early meiotic genes; involved in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional repression via DNA looping; binds URS1 upstream regulatory sequence, represses transcription by recruiting conserved histone deacetylase Rpd3p (through co-repressor Sin3p) and chromatin-remodeling factor Isw2p; couples metabolic responses to nutritional cues with initiation and progression of meiosis
YOR303W CPA1 carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) CPA1 Small subunit of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase; carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes a step in the synthesis of citrulline, an arginine precursor; translationally regulated by an attenuator peptide encoded by YOR302W within the CPA1 mRNA 5'-leader
YJR109C CPA2 carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) CPA2 Large subunit of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase; carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes a step in the synthesis of citrulline, an arginine precursor
YNL036W NCE103 carbonate dehydratase NCE103 | NCE3 Carbonic anhydrase; metalloenzyme that catalyzes CO2 hydration to bicarbonate, which is an important metabolic substrate, and protons; not expressed under conditions of high CO2, such as inside a growing colony, but transcription is induced in response to low CO2 levels, such as on the colony surface in ambient air; poorly transcribed under aerobic conditions and at an undetectable level under anaerobic conditions; abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGL039W carbonyl reductase (NADPH-dependent) Aldehyde reductase; reduces aliphatic aldehyde substrates using NADH as cofactor; shown to reduce carbonyl compounds to chiral alcohols
YGL157W ARI1 carbonyl reductase (NADPH-dependent) ARI1 NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase; utilizes aromatic and alophatic aldehyde substrates; member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily
YBR139W ATG42 carboxypeptidase C Vacuolar serine-type carboxypeptidase; involved, along with functional homolog Prc1p, in vacuolar zymogen activation, breakdown of the autophagic body, and autophagosome-dependent protein synthesis; role in phytochelatin synthesis; localizes to the vacuole lumen; expression induced by nitrogen limitation in a GLN3, GAT1-independent manner; N-glycosylated
YMR297W PRC1 carboxypeptidase C PRC1 | CPY | CPY1 | LBC1 Vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y (proteinase C, CPY); broad-specificity C-terminal exopeptidase involved in non-specific protein degradation in the vacuole; involved, along with functional homolog Prc1p, in vacuolar zymogen activation, breakdown of the autophagic body, and autophagosome-dependent protein synthesis; role in phytochelatin synthesis; localizes to the vacuole lumen; member of the serine carboxypeptidase family; N-glycosylated
YDL142C CRD1 cardiolipin synthase | CLS1 Cardiolipin synthase; produces cardiolipin, which is a phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane that is required for normal mitochondrial membrane potential and function and for correct integration of membrane-multispanning proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane; required to maintain tubular mitochondrial morphology and functions in mitochondrial fusion; also required for normal vacuolar ion homeostasis
YLR438W CAR2 cargB | ornithine-oxo-acid transaminase L-ornithine transaminase (OTAse); catalyzes the second step of arginine degradation, expression is dually-regulated by allophanate induction and a specific arginine induction process; not nitrogen catabolite repression sensitive; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human homolog OAT complements yeast null mutant
YER024W YAT2 carnitine O-acetyltransferase YAT2 Carnitine acetyltransferase; has similarity to Yat1p, which is a carnitine acetyltransferase associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane
YIL035C CKA1 casein kinase 2 catalytic subunit CKA1 Alpha catalytic subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2); a Ser/Thr protein kinase with roles in cell growth and proliferation; CK2, comprised of CKA1, CKA2, CKB1 and CKB2, has many substrates including transcription factors and all RNA polymerases; regulates Fkh1p-mediated donor preference during mating-type switching
YOR061W CKA2 casein kinase 2 catalytic subunit CKA2 | YOR29-12 Alpha' catalytic subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2); CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase with roles in cell growth and proliferation; CK2, comprised of CKA1, CKA2, CKB1 and CKB2, has many substrates including transcription factors and all RNA polymerases; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; regulates Fkh1p-mediated donor preference during mating-type switching
YGL019W CKB1 casein kinase 2 regulatory subunit CKB1 Beta regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2); a Ser/Thr protein kinase with roles in cell growth and proliferation; CK2, comprised of CKA1, CKA2, CKB1 and CKB2, has many substrates including transcription factors and all RNA polymerases
YOR039W CKB2 casein kinase 2 regulatory subunit CKB2 Beta' regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2); a Ser/Thr protein kinase with roles in cell growth and proliferation; CK2, comprised of CKA1, CKA2, CKB1 and CKB2, has many substrates including transcription factors and all RNA polymerase
YER123W YCK3 casein kinase YCK3 | CKI3 Palmitoylated vacuolar membrane-localized casein kinase I isoform; negatively regulates vacuole fusion during hypertonic stress via phosphorylation of Vps41p; shares essential functions with Hrr25p; regulates vesicle fusion in AP-3 pathway
YGL035C MIG1 CAT4 | SSN1 | TDS22 | transcription factor MIG1 Transcription factor involved in glucose repression; sequence specific DNA binding protein containing two Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs; regulated by the SNF1 kinase and the GLC7 phosphatase; regulates filamentous growth along with Mig2p in response to glucose depletion; activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization, shuttling between cytosol and nucleus depending on external glucose levels and its phosphorylation state
YGR088W CTT1 catalase T | SPS101 Cytosolic catalase T; has a role in protection from oxidative damage by hydrogen peroxide
YOL092W YPQ1 cationic amino acid transporter Putative vacuolar membrane transporter for cationic amino acids; likely contributes to amino acid homeostasis by exporting cationic amino acids from the vacuole; member of the PQ-loop family, with seven transmembrane domains; similar to mammalian PQLC2 vacuolar transporter; YPQ1 has a paralog, RTC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL121W QDR2 cation transporter Plasma membrane transporter of the major facilitator superfamily; member of the 12-spanner drug:H(+) antiporter DHA1 family; exports copper; has broad substrate specificity and can transport many mono- and divalent cations; transports a variety of drugs and is required for resistance to quinidine, barban, cisplatin, and bleomycin; contributes to potassium homeostasis; expression is regulated by copper
YMR125W STO1 CBC1 | CBP80 | GCR3 | SUT1 Large subunit of the nuclear mRNA cap-binding protein complex; interacts with Npl3p to carry nuclear poly(A)+ mRNA to cytoplasm; also involved in nuclear mRNA degradation and telomere maintenance; orthologous to mammalian CBP80
YMR168C CEP3 CBF3 | CBF3B | CSL1 Essential kinetochore protein; component of the CBF3 complex that binds the CDEIII region of the centromere; contains an N-terminal Zn2Cys6 type zinc finger domain, a C-terminal acidic domain, and a putative coiled coil dimerization domain
YGR140W CBF2 CBF3A | CEP2 | CSL5 | CTF14 | NDC10 Essential kinetochore protein; component of the CBF3 multisubunit complex that binds to the CDEIII region of the centromere; Cbf2p also binds to the CDEII region possibly forming a different multimeric complex, ubiquitinated in vivo; sumoylated in an Mms21p-dependent manner; relative distribution to the spindle pole body decreases upon DNA replication stress
YDR328C SKP1 CBF3D | MGO1 | SCF ubiquitin ligase subunit SKP1 Evolutionarily conserved kinetochore protein; part of multiple protein complexes, including the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, the CBF3 complex that binds centromeric DNA, and the RAVE complex that regulates assembly of the V-ATPase; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL178W CBC2 CBP20 | MUD13 | SAE1 Small subunit of the heterodimeric cap binding complex with Sto1p; interacts with Npl3p, possibly to package mRNA for export from the nucleus; may have a role in telomere maintenance; contains an RNA-binding motif
YDR197W CBS2 CBP7 Mitochondrial translational activator of the COB mRNA; interacts with translating ribosomes, acts on the COB mRNA 5'-untranslated leader
YIL043C CBR1 CBR5 Cytochrome b reductase; not essential for viability; also detected in mitochondria; mutation in conserved NADH binding domain of the human ortholog results in type I methemoglobinemia
YLR424W SPP382 CCF8 | mRNA splicing protein SPP382 | NTR1 Essential protein that forms a dimer with Ntr2p; also forms a trimer, with Ntr2p and Prp43p, that is involved in spliceosome disassembly; found also in a multisubunit complex with the splicing factor Clf1p; suppressor of prp38-1 mutation
YAL039C CYC3 CCHL | holocytochrome c synthase CYC3 Cytochrome c heme lyase (holocytochrome c synthase); attaches heme to apo-cytochrome c (Cyc1p or Cyc7p) in mitochondrial intermembrane space; human homolog HCCS implicated in microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS), and can complement yeast null mutant
YAL021C CCR4 CCR4-NOT core exoribonuclease subunit CCR4 | FUN27 | NUT21 Component of the CCR4-NOT transcriptional complex; CCR4-NOT is involved in regulation of gene expression; component of the major cytoplasmic deadenylase, which is involved in mRNA poly(A) tail shortening
YDR252W BTT1 CCR4-NOT core subunit BTT1 Heterotrimeric nascent polypeptide-associated complex beta3 subunit; complex binds ribosomes via its beta-subunits in close proximity to nascent polypeptides; interacts with Caf130p of the CCR4-NOT complex; similar to human BTF3; BTT1 has a paralog, EGD1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR134W CAF130 CCR4-NOT core subunit CAF130 Subunit of the CCR4-NOT transcriptional regulatory complex; CCR4-NOT complex is evolutionarily-conserved and involved in controlling mRNA initiation, elongation, and degradation
YNL288W CAF40 CCR4-NOT core subunit CAF40 Component of the CCR4-NOT transcriptional complex; evolutionarily conserved; involved in controlling mRNA initiation, elongation, and degradation; binds Cdc39p
YDL165W CDC36 CCR4-NOT core subunit CDC36 | DNA19 | NOT2 Component of the CCR4-NOT core complex, involved in mRNA decapping; this complex has multiple roles in regulating mRNA levels including regulation of transcription and destabilizing mRNAs through deadenylation; basal transcription factor
YCR093W CDC39 CCR4-NOT core subunit CDC39 | NOT1 | ROS1 | SMD6 Subunit of the CCR4-NOT1 core complex; this complex has multiple roles in the regulation of mRNA levels including regulation of transcription and destabilization of mRNA by deadenylation; basal transcription factor that increases initiation and elongation; activates the ATPase activity of Dhh1p, resulting in processing body disassembly
YIL038C NOT3 CCR4-NOT core subunit NOT3 Component of the CCR4-NOT core complex, involved in mRNA decapping; involved in transcription initiation and elongation and in mRNA degradation; conserved lysine in human homolog of Not3p and Not5p is mutated in cancers
YPR072W NOT5 CCR4-NOT core subunit NOT5 Component of the CCR4-NOT core complex, involved in mRNA decapping; involved intranscription initiation and elongation and in mRNA degradation; conserved lysine in human homolog of Not5p and Not3p is mutated in cancers
YER068W MOT2 CCR4-NOT core ubiquitin-protein ligase subunit MOT2 | NOT4 | SIG1 Ubiquitin-protein ligase subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex; with Ubc4p, ubiquitinates nascent polypeptide-associated complex subunits and histone demethyase Jhd2p; CCR4-NOT has roles in transcription regulation, mRNA degradation, and post-transcriptional modifications; regulates levels of DNA Polymerase-{alpha} to promote efficient and accurate DNA replication
YMR038C CCS1 CCS | copper chaperone CCS1 | LYS7 Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase Sod1p; involved in oxidative stress protection; Met-X-Cys-X2-Cys motif within N-terminus is involved in insertion of copper into Sod1p under conditions of copper deprivation; required for regulation of yeast copper genes in response to DNA-damaging agents; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human homolog CCS can complement yeast ccs1 null mutant
YOL081W IRA2 CCS1 | GLC4 | Ras GTPase activating protein IRA2 GTPase-activating protein; negatively regulates RAS by converting it from the GTP- to the GDP-bound inactive form, required for reducing cAMP levels under nutrient limiting conditions; IRA2 has a paralog, IRA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; defects in human homolog NF1 are associated with neurofibromatosis
YJL158C CIS3 CCW11 | CCW5 | PIR4 | SCW8 Mannose-containing glycoprotein constituent of the cell wall; member of the PIR (proteins with internal repeats) family
YNL102W POL1 CDC17 | CRT5 | DNA-directed DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit POL1 | HPR3 Catalytic subunit of the DNA polymerase I alpha-primase complex; required for the initiation of DNA replication during mitotic DNA synthesis and premeiotic DNA synthesis
YDL102W POL3 CDC2 | DNA-directed DNA polymerase delta POL3 | HPR6 | TEX1 Catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta; required for chromosomal DNA replication during mitosis and meiosis, intragenic recombination, repair of double strand DNA breaks, and DNA replication during nucleotide excision repair (NER)
YLR310C CDC25 CDC25' | CTN1 | Ras family guanine nucleotide exchange factor CDC25 Membrane bound guanine nucleotide exchange factor; also known as a GEF or GDP-release factor; indirectly regulates adenylate cyclase through activation of Ras1p and Ras2p by stimulating the exchange of GDP for GTP; required for progression through G1; thermosensitivity of the cdc25-5 mutant is functionally complemented by human RASGRF1 or by a fragment of human SOS1 comprising the CDC25-related catalytic domain
YBR196C PGI1 CDC30 | glucose-6-phosphate isomerase Glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase; catalyzes the interconversion of glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate; required for cell cycle progression and completion of the gluconeogenic events of sporulation
YOR217W RFC1 CDC44 | replication factor C subunit 1 Subunit of heteropentameric Replication factor C (RF-C); RF-C is a DNA binding protein and ATPase that acts as a clamp loader of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) processivity factor for DNA polymerases delta and epsilon
YBR202W MCM7 CDC47 | mini-chromosome maintenance complex protein 7 Component of the Mcm2-7 hexameric helicase complex; MCM2-7 primes origins of DNA replication in G1 and becomes an active ATP-dependent helicase that promotes DNA melting and elongation in S-phase; forms an Mcm4p-6p-7p subcomplex
YPR019W MCM4 CDC54 | HCD21 | MCM DNA helicase complex subunit MCM4 Essential helicase component of heterohexameric MCM2-7 complexes; MCM2-7 complexes bind pre-replication complexes on DNA and melt DNA prior to replication; forms an Mcm4p-6p-7p subcomplex; shows nuclear accumulation in G1; homolog of S. pombe Cdc21p
YOR361C PRT1 CDC63 | DNA26 | translation initiation factor eIF3 core subunit b eIF3b subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3); subunit of the core complex of eIF3; essential for translation; part of a subcomplex (Prt1p-Rpg1p-Nip1p) that stimulates binding of mRNA and tRNA(i)Met to ribosomes; eIF3 is also involved in programmed stop codon readthrough
YOR326W MYO2 CDC66 | myosin 2 Type V myosin motor involved in actin-based transport of cargos; required for the polarized delivery of secretory vesicles, the vacuole, late Golgi elements, peroxisomes, and the mitotic spindle; MYO2 has a paralog, MYO4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL207W SPT16 CDC68 | chromatin-remodeling protein SPT16 | SSF1 Subunit of the heterodimeric FACT complex (Spt16p-Pob3p); FACT associates with chromatin via interaction with Nhp6Ap and Nhp6Bp, and reorganizes nucleosomes to facilitate access to DNA by RNA and DNA polymerases; specifically required for diauxic shift-induced H2B deposition onto rDNA genes; mutations cause reduced nucleosome occupancy over highly transcribed regions; coregulates transcription with Mot1p through preinitiation complex assembly and nucleosome organization
YHR005C GPA1 CDC70 | DAC1 | guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit alpha | SCG1 Subunit of the G protein involved in pheromone response; GTP-binding alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein; negatively regulates the mating pathway by sequestering G(beta)gamma and by triggering an adaptive response; activates Vps34p at the endosome; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR195C NMT1 CDC72 | glycylpeptide N-tetradecanoyltransferase NMT1 N-myristoyl transferase; catalyzes the cotranslational, covalent attachment of myristic acid to the N-terminal glycine residue of several proteins involved in cellular growth and signal transduction
YPR016C TIF6 CDC95 | translation initiation factor 6 Constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; has similarity to human translation initiation factor 6 (eIF6); may be involved in the biogenesis and or stability of 60S ribosomal subunits
YBR160W CDC28 CDK1 | cyclin-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase CDC28 | HSL5 | SRM5 Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) catalytic subunit; master regulator of mitotic and meiotic cell cycles; alternately associates with G1, S, G2/M phase cyclins, which provide substrate specificity; regulates metabolism, basal transcription, chromosome dynamics, growth and morphogenesis; transcript induction in osmostress involves antisense RNA; human homologs CDK1, CDK2, CDK3 can complement yeast conditional cdc28 mutants; human CDK1, CDK2 can complement yeast cdc28 null mutant
YOL145C CTR9 CDP1 Component of the Paf1p complex involved in transcription elongation; binds to and modulates the activity of RNA polymerases I and II; required for expression of a subset of genes, including cyclin genes; involved in SER3 repression by helping to maintain SRG1 transcription-dependent nucleosome occupancy; contains TPR repeats
YPR113W PIS1 CDP-diacylglycerol--inositol 3-phosphatidyltransferase Phosphatidylinositol synthase; required for biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol, which is a precursor for polyphosphoinositides, sphingolipids, and glycolipid anchors for some of the plasma membrane proteins
YJR046W TAH11 CDT1 | SID2 DNA replication licensing factor; required for pre-replication complex assembly
YLR215C CDC123 cell proliferation protein CDC123 Assembly factor for the eIF2 translation initiation factor complex; regulates translational initiation; conserved residues of this ATP-Grasp protein that bind to ATP-Mg2+ in the pombe ortholog are required for complex assembly in budding yeast; interaction with eIF2 subunit Gcd11p facilitates complex assembly and activity; required for the START transition and timely progression through G2; regulated by nutrient availability; human ortholog complements the yeast mutant
YFR046C CNN1 centromere-binding protein CNN1 Kinetochore protein; associated with the essential kinetochore proteins Nnf1p and Spc24p; phosphorylated by Clb5-Cdk1, Mps1p, Ipl1p and to a lesser extent by Clb2-Cdk1; localizes to the lower region of the Ndc80 complex during anaphase and regulates KMN activity by inhibiting the Mtw1 and Spc105 complexes from binding to the Ndc80 complex; similar to metazoan CENP-T
YKL049C CSE4 centromeric DNA-binding histone H3-like protein CSE4 | CSL2 Centromeric histone H3-like protein; associates with promoters, accessible chromatin, and RNAPII-bound regions; phosphorylated Cse4p associates with centromeres; required for kinetochore function; Ipl1p-dependent phosphorylation destabilizes defective kinetochores promoting bi-orientation; increases association of Sgo1p with centromeric chromatin; proteolysis regulated by multiple E3 ligases, resulting in faithful chromosome segregation; CSE4 complements mutations in the human homolog CENPA
YJR060W CBF1 CEP1 | CP1 | CPF1 | GFII Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein; forms homodimer to bind E-box consensus sequence CACGTG present at MET gene promoters and centromere DNA element I (CDEI); affects nucleosome positioning at this motif; associates with other transcription factors such as Met4p and Isw1p to mediate transcriptional activation or repression; associates with kinetochore proteins, required for chromosome segregation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YIL148W RPL40A CEP52A | eL40 | L40A | L40e | UB11 | UBI1 | ubiquitin-ribosomal 60S subunit protein L40A fusion protein Ubiquitin-ribosomal 60S subunit protein L40A fusion protein; cleaved to yield ubiquitin and ribosomal protein L40A; ubiquitin may facilitate assembly of the ribosomal protein into ribosomes; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L40, no bacterial homolog; RPL40A has a paralog, RPL40B, that arose from the whole genome duplication; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YKR094C RPL40B CEP52B | eL40 | L40B | L40e | UB12 | UBI2 | ubiquitin-ribosomal 60S subunit protein L40B fusion protein Ubiquitin-ribosomal 60S subunit protein L40B fusion protein; cleaved to yield ubiquitin and ribosomal protein L40B; ubiquitin may facilitate assembly of the ribosomal protein into ribosomes; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L40, no bacterial homolog; RPL40B has a paralog, RPL40A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL073W LHS1 CER1 | Hsp70 family chaperone LHS1 | SSI1 Molecular chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum lumen; involved in polypeptide translocation and folding; nucleotide exchange factor for the ER lumenal Hsp70 chaperone Kar2p; regulated by the unfolded protein response pathway
YMR273C ZDS1 CES1 | CKM1 | NRC1 | OSS1 Protein with a role in regulating Swe1p-dependent polarized growth; involved in maintaining Cdc55p in the cytoplasm where it promotes mitotic entry; involved in mitotic exit through Cdc14p regulation; interacts with silencing proteins at telomeres; has a role in Bcy1p localization; implicated in mRNA nuclear export; ZDS1 has a paralog, ZDS2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML109W ZDS2 CES4 Protein with a role in regulating Swe1p-dependent polarized growth; involved in maintenance of Cdc55p in the cytoplasm where it promotes mitotic entry; interacts with silencing proteins at the telomere; implicated in the mitotic exit network through regulation of Cdc14p localization; ZDS2 has a paralog, ZDS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL228W CET1 CES5 | polynucleotide 5'-phosphatase RNA 5'-triphosphatase involved in mRNA 5' capping; subunit of mRNA capping enzyme, which is a heterotetramer composed of a Cet1p homodimer and two molecules of guanylyltransferase Ceg1p; Cet1p also has a role in regulation of RNAPII pausing at promoter-proximal sites; interaction between Cet1p and Ceg1p is required for Ceg1p nuclear import; mammalian enzyme is single bifunctional polypeptide; human homolog RNGTT can complement yeast cet1 null mutant
YHR060W VMA22 CEV1 | VPH6 Protein that is required for vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) function; peripheral membrane protein; not an actual component of the V-ATPase complex; functions in the assembly of the V-ATPase; localized to the yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
YJL076W NET1 CFI1 | ESC5 | SRM8 Core subunit of the RENT complex; involved in nucleolar silencing and telophase exit; stimulates transcription by RNA polymerase I and regulates nucleolar structure; NET1 has a paralog, TOF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR027C VPS54 CGP1 | LUV1 | TCS3 Component of the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein) complex; GARP is required for the recycling of proteins from endosomes to the late Golgi, and for mitosis after DNA damage induced checkpoint arrest; potentially phosphorylated by Cdc28p; members of the GARP complex are Vps51p-Vps52p-Vps53p-Vps54p
YLL026W HSP104 chaperone ATPase HSP104 Disaggregase; heat shock protein that cooperates with Ydj1p (Hsp40) and Ssa1p (Hsp70) to refold and reactivate previously denatured, aggregated proteins; responsive to stresses including: heat, ethanol, and sodium arsenite; involved in [PSI+] propagation; protein becomes more abundant and forms cytoplasmic foci in response to DNA replication stress; potentiated Hsp104p variants decrease TDP-43 proteotoxicity by eliminating its cytoplasmic aggregation
YLR259C HSP60 chaperone ATPase HSP60 | CPN60 | MIF4 | MNA2 Tetradecameric mitochondrial chaperonin; required for ATP-dependent folding of precursor polypeptides and complex assembly; prevents aggregation and mediates protein refolding after heat shock; role in mtDNA transmission; phosphorylated
YDR258C HSP78 chaperone ATPase HSP78 Oligomeric mitochondrial matrix chaperone; cooperates with Ssc1p in mitochondrial thermotolerance after heat shock; able to prevent the aggregation of misfolded proteins as well as resolubilize protein aggregates
YGL231C EMC4 chaperone EMC4 Member of conserved ER transmembrane complex; required for efficient folding of proteins in the ER; null mutant displays induction of the unfolded protein response; homologous to worm ZK616.6/EMC-4 and fly CG11137; mutation is functionally complemented by human EMC4
YBR072W HSP26 chaperone protein HSP26 Small heat shock protein (sHSP) with chaperone activity; forms hollow, sphere-shaped oligomers that suppress unfolded proteins aggregation; long-lived protein that is preferentially retained in mother cells and forms cytoplasmic foci; oligomer activation requires heat-induced conformational change; also has mRNA binding activity
YHR115C DMA1 CHF1 | ubiquitin-conjugating protein DMA1 Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3); controls septin dynamics, spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) with ligase Dma2p by regulating recruitment of Elm1p to bud neck; regulates levels of eIF2 subunit Gcd11p, as well as abundance, localization, and ubiquitination of Cdk inhibitory kinase Swe1p; ubiquitinates cyclin Pcl1p; ortholog of human RNF8, similar to human Chfr; contains FHA, RING fingers; DMA1 has a paralog, DMA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL116W DMA2 CHF2 | ubiquitin-conjugating protein DMA2 Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3); controls septin dynamics and spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) with ligase Dma1p by regulating recruitment of Elm1p to bud neck; regulates levels of eIF2 subunit Gcd11p, as well as abundance, localization, and ubiquitination of Cdk inhibitory kinase Swe1p; ortholog of human RNF8, similar to human Chfr; contains FHA and RING finger domains; DMA2 has a paralog, DMA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR110W ALG1 chitobiosyldiphosphodolichol beta-1,4 mannosyltransferase Mannosyltransferase; involved in asparagine-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); essential for viability; human homolog ALG1 complements yeast null mutant
YFL008W SMC1 CHL10 | cohesin subunit SMC1 Subunit of the multiprotein cohesin complex; essential protein involved in chromosome segregation and in double-strand DNA break repair; SMC chromosomal ATPase family member, binds DNA with a preference for DNA with secondary structure
YMR078C CTF18 CHL12 Subunit of a complex with Ctf8p; shares some subunits with Replication Factor C and is required for sister chromatid cohesion; may have overlapping functions with Rad24p in the DNA damage replication checkpoint
YPR135W CTF4 CHL15 | chromatin-binding protein CTF4 | POB1 Chromatin-associated protein; required for sister chromatid cohesion; interacts with DNA polymerase alpha (Pol1p) and may link DNA synthesis to sister chromatid cohesion
YLR381W CTF3 CHL3 Outer kinetochore protein that forms a complex with Mcm16p and Mcm22p; may bind the kinetochore to spindle microtubules; required for the spindle assembly checkpoint; orthologous to human centromere constitutive-associated network (CCAN) subunit CENP-I and fission yeast mis6
YKR035W-A DID2 CHM1 | FTI1 | VPL30 | VPS46 Class E protein of the vacuolar protein-sorting (Vps) pathway; binds Vps4p and directs it to dissociate ESCRT-III complexes; forms a functional and physical complex with Ist1p; human ortholog may be altered in breast tumors
YKL002W DID4 CHM2 | ESCRT-III subunit protein DID4 | GRD7 | REN1 | VPL2 | VPS14 | VPS2 | VPT14 Class E Vps protein of the ESCRT-III complex; required for sorting of integral membrane proteins into lumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies, and for delivery of newly synthesized vacuolar enzymes to the vacuole, involved in endocytosis
YDR486C VPS60 CHM5 | MOS10 Protein involved in late endosome to vacuole transport; cytoplasmic and vacuolar membrane protein; required for normal filament maturation during pseudohyphal growth; may function in targeting cargo proteins for degradation; interacts with Vta1p
YMR077C VPS20 CHM6 | ESCRT-III subunit protein VPS20 | VPL10 | VPT20 Myristoylated subunit of the ESCRT-III complex; the endosomal sorting complex required for transport of transmembrane proteins into the multivesicular body pathway to the lysosomal/vacuolar lumen; cytoplasmic protein recruited to endosomal membranes
YPR060C ARO7 chorismate mutase ARO7 | HGS1 | OSM2 | TYR7 Chorismate mutase; catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to prephenate to initiate the tyrosine/phenylalanine-specific branch of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis
YGL173C XRN1 chromatin-binding exonuclease XRN1 | DST2 | KEM1 | RAR5 | SEP1 | SKI1 Evolutionarily-conserved 5'-3' exonuclease; component of cytoplasmic processing (P) bodies involved in mRNA decay; enters the nucleus and positively regulates transcription initiation and elongation; involved in microtubule-mediated processes, filamentous growth, ribosomal RNA maturation, and telomere maintenance; negative regulator of autophagy; activated by the scavenger decapping enzyme Dcs1p; expression regulated by Ash1p in rich conditions
YLR399C BDF1 chromatin-binding protein BDF1 Protein involved in transcription initiation; functions at TATA-containing promoters; associates with the basal transcription factor TFIID; contains two bromodomains; corresponds to the C-terminal region of mammalian TAF1; redundant with Bdf2p; BDF1 has a paralog, BDF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR217C RAD9 chromatin-binding protein RAD9 DNA damage-dependent checkpoint protein; required for cell-cycle arrest in G1/S, intra-S, and G2/M, plays a role in postreplication repair (PRR) pathway; transmits checkpoint signal by activating Rad53p and Chk1p; hyperphosphorylated by Mec1p and Tel1p; multiple cyclin dependent kinase consensus sites and the C-terminal BRCT domain contribute to DNA damage checkpoint activation; Rad9p Chk1 Activating Domain (CAD) is phosphorylated at multiple sites by Cdc28p/Clb2p
YMR039C SUB1 chromatin-binding transcription coactivator SUB1 | TSP1 Transcriptional regulator; facilitates elongation through factors that modify RNAP II; role in peroxide resistance involving Rad2p; role in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) of ds breaks in plasmid DNA, but not chromosomal DNA; role in the hyperosmotic stress response through polymerase recruitment at RNAP II and RNAP III genes; negatively regulates sporulation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; functionally complemented by human SUB1 (PC4)
YDR448W ADA2 chromatin-binding transcription regulator ADA2 | SWI8 Transcription coactivator; component of the ADA and SAGA transcriptional adaptor/HAT (histone acetyltransferase) complexes
YMR236W TAF9 chromatin modification protein | TAF17 | TafII17 Subunit (17 kDa) of TFIID and SAGA complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification, similar to histone H3
YBR198C TAF5 chromatin modification protein | TAF90 | TafII90 Subunit (90 kDa) of TFIID and SAGA complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification
YCL061C MRC1 chromatin-modulating protein MRC1 | YCL060C S-phase checkpoint protein required for DNA replication; couples DNA helicase and polymerase; interacts with and stabilizes Pol2p at stalled replication forks during stress, where it forms a pausing complex with Tof1p and is phosphorylated by Mec1p; defines a novel S-phase checkpoint with Hog1p that coordinates DNA replication and transcription upon osmostress; protects uncapped telomeres; Dia2p-dependent degradation mediates checkpoint recovery; mammalian claspin homolog
YER164W CHD1 chromatin-remodeling ATPase CHD1 Chromatin remodeler that regulates various aspects of transcription; acts in in conjunction with Isw1b to regulate chromatin structure and maintain chromatin integrity during transcription elongation by RNAP II by preventing trans-histone exchange over coding regions; contains a chromo domain, a helicase domain and a DNA-binding domain; component of both the SAGA and SLIK complexes
YGL150C INO80 chromatin-remodeling ATPase INO80 ATPase and nucleosome spacing factor; subunit of complex containing actin and actin-related proteins that has chromatin remodeling activity and 3' to 5' DNA helicase activity in vitro; promotes nucleosome shifts in the 3 prime direction; has a role in modulating stress gene transcription
YBR245C ISW1 chromatin-remodeling ATPase ISW1 | SGN2 ATPase subunit of imitation-switch (ISWI) class chromatin remodelers; with Ioc3p forms Isw1a complex involved in repression of transcription initiation; with Ioc2p and Ioc4p forms Isw1b complex involved in regulation of transcription elongation; Isw1b recruited to ORFs by H3K36 methylation and acts with Chd1p to prevent trans-histone exchange over coding regions; Isw1p import into nucleus depends on C-terminal bipartite nuclear targeting signal KRIR X19 KKAK
YGR116W SPT6 chromatin-remodeling histone chaperone SPT6 | CRE2 | SSN20 Nucleosome remodeling protein; functions in various aspects of transcription, chromatin maintenance, and RNA processing; required for the maintenance of chromatin structure during transcription in order to inhibit transcription from promoters within the coding region; required for H3K36 trimethylation but not dimethylation by Set2p
YDR334W SWR1 chromatin-remodeling protein SWR1 Swi2/Snf2-related ATPase; structural component of the SWR1 complex, which exchanges histone variant H2AZ (Htz1p) for chromatin-bound histone H2A; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; chronological aging factor that mediates lifespan extension by dietary restriction
YLR442C SIR3 chromatin-silencing protein SIR3 | CMT1 | MAR2 | STE8 Silencing protein; interacts with Sir2p, Sir4p, and histone H3/H4 tails to establish transcriptionally silent chromatin; required for spreading of silenced chromatin; recruited to chromatin through interaction with Rap1p; C-terminus assumes variant winged helix-turn-helix (wH) fold that mediates homodimerization, which is critical for holo-SIR complex loading; required for telomere hypercluster formation in quiescent yeast cells; has paralog ORC1 from whole genome duplication
YJL115W ASF1 CIA1 | nucleosome assembly factor ASF1 Nucleosome assembly factor; involved in chromatin assembly, disassembly; required for recovery after DSB repair; role in H3K56 acetylation required for expression homeostasis, buffering mRNA synthesis rate against gene dosage changes in S phase; anti-silencing protein, derepresses silent loci when overexpressed; role in regulating Ty1 transposition; relocalizes to cytosol under hypoxia; growth defect of asf1 null is functionally complemented by either human ASF1A or ASF1B
YER133W GLC7 CID1 | DIS2 | DIS2S1 | PP1 | type 1 serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit GLC7 Type 1 S/T protein phosphatase (PP1) catalytic subunit; involved in glycogen metabolism, sporulation and mitotic progression; interacts with multiple regulatory subunits; regulates actomyosin ring formation; subunit of CPF; recruited to mating projections by Afr1p interaction; regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Hxk2p; import into the nucleus is inhibited during spindle assembly checkpoint arrest; involved in dephosphorylating Rps6a/b and Bnr1p
YLR430W SEN1 CIK3 | NRD2 | putative DNA/RNA helicase SEN1 ATP-dependent 5' to 3' RNA/DNA and DNA helicase; subunit of the exosome-associated Nrd1p complex that mediates 3' end formation of snRNAs, snoRNAs, CUTs and some mRNAs; helicase-independent role in transcription-coupled repair; coordinates replication with transcription, associating with moving forks and preventing errors that occur when forks encounter transcribed regions; homolog of Senataxin, implicated in Ataxia-Oculomotor Apraxia 2 and a dominant form of juvenile ALS
YGL048C RPT6 CIM3 | CRL3 | proteasome regulatory particle base subunit RPT6 | SCB68 | SUG1 ATPase of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome; one of six ATPases of the regulatory particle; involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated substrates; bound by ubiquitin-protein ligases Ubr1p and Ufd4p; localized mainly to the nucleus throughout the cell cycle; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL145W RPT1 CIM5 | proteasome regulatory particle base subunit RPT1 | YTA3 ATPase of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome; one of six ATPases of the regulatory particle; involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated substrates; required for optimal CDC20 transcription; interacts with Rpn12p and Ubr1p; mutant has aneuploidy tolerance
YBL063W KIP1 CIN9 Kinesin-related motor protein; required for mitotic spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and 2 micron plasmid partitioning; functionally redundant with Cin8p for chromosomal but not plasmid functions
YDR022C ATG31 CIS1 Autophagy-specific protein required for autophagosome formation; forms a complex with Atg17p and Atg29p that localizes other proteins to the pre-autophagosomal structure; constitutively phosphorylated, and phosphorylation of residue S174 is required for function; high-copy suppressor of CIK1 deletion
YLR299W ECM38 CIS2 | gamma-glutamyltransferase Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase; major glutathione-degrading enzyme; involved in detoxification of electrophilic xenobiotics; expression induced mainly by nitrogen starvation
YNR001C CIT1 citrate (Si)-synthase CIT1 | CS1 | LYS6 Citrate synthase; catalyzes the condensation of acetyl coenzyme A and oxaloacetate to form citrate; the rate-limiting enzyme of the TCA cycle; nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein; CIT1 has a paralog, CIT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR005C CIT2 citrate (Si)-synthase CIT2 Citrate synthase, peroxisomal isozyme involved in glyoxylate cycle; catalyzes condensation of acetyl coenzyme A and oxaloacetate to form citrate; expression is controlled by Rtg1p and Rtg2p transcription factors; SCF-Ucc1 regulates level of Cit2p to maintain citrate homeostasis; oxaloacetate-dependent positive feedback loop inhibits Cit2p ubiquitination; CIT2 has a paralog, CIT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR001W CIT3 citrate (Si)-synthase CIT3 Dual specificity mitochondrial citrate and methylcitrate synthase; catalyzes the condensation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to form citrate and that of propionyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to form 2-methylcitrate
YFL029C CAK1 CIV1 | cyclin-dependent protein kinase-activating kinase CAK1 Cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase; required for passage through the cell cycle; phosphorylates and activates Cdc28p; nucleotide-binding pocket differs significantly from those of most other protein kinases
YHR135C YCK1 CKI2 | serine/threonine protein kinase YCK1 Palmitoylated plasma membrane-bound casein kinase I (CK1) isoform; shares redundant functions with Yck2p in morphogenesis, proper septin assembly, endocytic trafficking, and glucose sensing; stabilized by Sod1p binding in the presence of glucose and oxygen, causing glucose repression of respiratory metabolism; involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of glucose sensor Rgt2p; YCK1 has a paralog, YCK2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR293C SSD1 CLA1 | MCS1 | mRNA-binding translational repressor SSD1 | RLT1 | SRK1 Translational repressor with a role in polar growth and wall integrity; regulated by Cbk1p phosphorylation to effect bud-specific translational control and localization of specific mRNAs; interacts with TOR pathway components; contains a functional N-terminal nuclear localization sequence and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling appears to be critical to Ssd1p function
YHR107C CDC12 CLA10 | PSL7 | septin CDC12 Component of the septin ring that is required for cytokinesis; septins are GTP-binding proteins that assemble into rod-like hetero-oligomers that can associate with other rods to form filaments; septin rings at the mother-bud neck act as scaffolds for recruiting cell division factors and as barriers to prevent diffusion of specific proteins between mother and daughter cells
YKL092C BUD2 CLA2 | ERC25 GTPase activating factor for Rsr1p/Bud1p; plays a role in spindle position checkpoint distinct from its role in bud site selection; required for both axial and bipolar budding patterns; mutants exhibit random budding in all cell types; contains two PH-like domains
YGL206C CHC1 clathrin heavy chain | SWA5 Clathrin heavy chain; subunit of the major coat protein involved in intracellular protein transport and endocytosis; the clathrin triskelion is a trimeric molecule composed of three heavy chains that radiate from a vertex and three light chains which bind noncovalently near the vertex of the triskelion; the light chain (CLC1) is thought to regulate function
YPR107C YTH1 cleavage polyadenylation factor RNA-binding subunit YTH1 Essential RNA-binding component of cleavage and polyadenylation factor; contains five zinc fingers; required for pre-mRNA 3'-end processing and polyadenylation; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YLR115W CFT2 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit CFT2 | YDH1 Subunit of the mRNA cleavage and polyadenlylation factor (CPF); required for pre-mRNA cleavage, polyadenylation and poly(A) site recognition, 43% similarity with the mammalian CPSF-100 protein.
YKL059C MPE1 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit MPE1 Essential conserved subunit of CPF cleavage and polyadenylation factor; plays a role in 3' end formation of mRNA via the specific cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNA; contains a ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain, a RNA-binding zinc knuckle motif and a RING finger domain; both the zinc knuckle and RING finger are required for pre-mRNA binding; possible role in ubiquitination of Pap1p; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YNL317W PFS2 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit PFS2 Integral subunit of the pre-mRNA CPF complex; the cleavage and polyadenylation factor (CPF) complex plays an essential role in mRNA 3'-end formation by bridging different processing factors and thereby promoting the assembly of the processing complex
YGR156W PTI1 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit PTI1 Essential component of CPF (cleavage and polyadenylation factor); involved in 3' end formation of snoRNA and mRNA; interacts directly with Pta1p; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; similar to mammalian Cleavage-Stimulation Factor CstF-64
YMR061W RNA14 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit RNA14 Component of the cleavage and polyadenylation factor I (CF I); CF 1, composed of the CF 1A complex (Rna14p, Rna15p, Clp1p, Pcf11p) and Hrp1, is involved in cleavage and polyadenylation of mRNA 3' ends; bridges interaction between Rna15p and Hrp1p in the CF I complex; mutant displays reduced transcription elongation in the G-less-based run-on (GLRO) assay; required for gene looping and maintenance of genome stability; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YOR179C SYC1 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit SYC1 Subunit of the APT subcomplex of cleavage and polyadenylation factor; may have a role in 3' end formation of both polyadenylated and non-polyadenylated RNAs; SYC1 has a paralog, YSH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR248W RCK2 CLK1 | CMK3 | serine/threonine protein kinase RCK2 Protein kinase involved in response to oxidative and osmotic stress; identified as suppressor of S. pombe cell cycle checkpoint mutations; similar to CaM (calmodulin) kinases; RCK2 has a paralog, RCK1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL119C VPH2 CLS10 | VMA12 Integral membrane protein required for V-ATPase function; not an actual component of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) complex; functions in the assembly of the V-ATPase; localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); involved in methionine restriction extension of chronological lifespan in an autophagy-dependent manner
YPR036W VMA13 CLS11 | H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit H Subunit H of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; serves as an activator or a structural stabilizer of the V-ATPase; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits
YLR396C VPS33 CLS14 | MET27 | PEP14 | SLP1 | tethering complex ATP-binding subunit VPS33 | VAM5 | VPL25 | VPT33 ATP-binding protein that is a subunit of the HOPS and CORVET complexes; essential for protein sorting, vesicle docking, and fusion at the vacuole; binds to SNARE domains
YBR036C CSG2 CLS2 | mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide synthase regulatory subunit Endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein; required for mannosylation of inositolphosphorylceramide and for growth at high calcium concentrations; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YAL041W CDC24 CLS4 | Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor CDC24 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42p; required for polarity establishment and maintenance, and mutants have morphological defects in bud formation and shmooing; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; thermosensitivity of the cdc24-4 mutant in the presence of sorbitol is functionally complemented by human CDC42
YOR122C PFY1 CLS5 | PRF1 | profilin Profilin; binds actin, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and polyproline regions; involved in cytoskeleton organization; required for normal timing of actin polymerization in response to thermal stress; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; highly conserved protein; human PFN1 (profilin 1) complements temperature sensitive pfy1 mutants, PFN1 mutations are a rare cause of ALS
YEL027W VMA3 CLS7 | CUP5 | GEF2 | H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit c Proteolipid subunit c of the V0 domain of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase; dicyclohexylcarbodiimide binding subunit; required for vacuolar acidification and important for copper and iron metal ion homeostasis
YDL185W VMA1 CLS8 | H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit A | TFP1 Subunit A of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; protein precursor undergoes self-catalyzed splicing to yield the extein Tfp1p and the intein Vde (PI-SceI), which is a site-specific endonuclease; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits; involved in methionine restriction extension of chronological lifespan in an autophagy-dependent manner
YPL234C VMA11 CLS9 | H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit c' | TFP3 Vacuolar ATPase V0 domain subunit c'; involved in proton transport activity; hydrophobic integral membrane protein (proteolipid) containing four transmembrane segments; N and C termini are in the vacuolar lumen
YBL105C PKC1 CLY15 | CLY5 | CLY7 | HPO2 | protein kinase C | STT1 Protein serine/threonine kinase; essential for cell wall remodeling during growth; localized to sites of polarized growth and the mother-daughter bud neck; homolog of the alpha, beta, and gamma isoforms of mammalian protein kinase C (PKC)
YLR218C COA4 CMC3 Twin Cx(9)C protein involved in cytochrome c oxidase organization; organization includes assembly or stability; localizes to the mitochondrial intermembrane space via the Mia40p-Erv1p system; interacts genetically with CYC1 and with cytochrome c oxidase assembly factors
YNL307C MCK1 CMS1 | serine/threonine/tyrosine protein kinase MCK1 | YPK1 Dual-specificity ser/thr and tyrosine protein kinase; roles in chromosome segregation, meiotic entry, genome stability, phosphorylation-dependent protein degradation (Rcn1p and Cdc6p), inhibition of protein kinase A, transcriptional regulation, inhibition of RNA pol III, calcium stress and inhibition of Clb2p-Cdc28p after nuclear division; MCK1 has a paralog, YGK3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL025C SSN8 CNC1 | CycC | cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator SSN8 | GIG3 | NUT9 | RYE2 | SRB11 | UME3 Cyclin-like component of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; involved in phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain; forms a kinase-cyclin pair in the RNAPII holoenzyme with Ssn3p; required for both entry into and execution of the meiotic program; involved in glucose repression and telomere maintenance; cyclin homolog 35% identical to human cyclin C
YOR185C GSP2 CNR2 | Ran GTPase GSP2 GTP binding protein (mammalian Ranp homolog); involved in the maintenance of nuclear organization, RNA processing and transport; interacts with Kap121p, Kap123p and Pdr6p (karyophilin betas); not required for viability; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; GSP2 has a paralog, GSP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL145C COP1 coatomer subunit alpha | RET1 | SEC33 | SOO1 Alpha subunit of COPI vesicle coatomer complex; complex surrounds transport vesicles in the early secretory pathway
YDR238C SEC26 coatomer subunit beta Essential beta-coat protein of the COPI coatomer; involved in ER-to-Golgi protein trafficking and maintenance of normal ER morphology; shares 43% sequence identity with mammalian beta-coat protein (beta-COP)
YGL137W SEC27 coatomer subunit beta' Essential beta'-coat protein of the COPI coatomer; involved in ER-to-Golgi and Golgi-to-ER transport; contains WD40 domains that mediate cargo selective interactions; 45% sequence identity to mammalian beta'-COP
YFR051C RET2 coatomer subunit delta Delta subunit of the coatomer complex (COPI); COPI coats Golgi-derived transport vesicles; involved in retrograde transport between Golgi and ER
YNL287W SEC21 coatomer subunit gamma Gamma subunit of coatomer; coatomer is a heptameric protein complex that together with Arf1p forms the COPI coat; involved in ER to Golgi transport of selective cargo
YPL010W RET3 coatomer subunit zeta Zeta subunit of the coatomer complex (COPI); COPI coats Golgi-derived transport vesicles; involved in retrograde transport between Golgi and ER
YOR057W SGT1 co-chaperone SGT1 | YOR29-08 Cochaperone protein; regulates activity of adenylyl cyclase Cyr1p; involved in kinetochore complex assembly; associates with the SCF (Skp1p/Cdc53p/F box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex; acts as a linker between Skp1p and HSP90 complexes; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPR105C COG4 COD1 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG4 | SEC38 | SGF1 Essential component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YEL031W SPF1 COD1 | ion-transporting P-type ATPase SPF1 | PER9 | PIO1 P-type ATPase, ion transporter of the ER membrane; required to maintain normal lipid composition of intracellular compartments and proper targeting of mitochondrial outer membrane tail-anchored proteins; involved in ER function and Ca2+ homeostasis; required for regulating Hmg2p degradation; confers sensitivity to a killer toxin (SMKT) produced by Pichia farinosa KK1
YNL041C COG6 COD2 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG6 | SEC37 Component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YGL223C COG1 COD3 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG1 | LDB11 | SEC36 Essential component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YGL005C COG7 COD5 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG7 Component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YDR180W SCC2 cohesin-loading factor complex subunit SCC2 Subunit of cohesin loading factor (Scc2p-Scc4p); a complex required for loading of cohesin complexes onto chromosomes; involved in establishing sister chromatid cohesion during DSB repair via histone H2AX; promotes gene expression program that supports translational fidelity; evolutionarily-conserved adherin; relocalizes to cytosol in response to hypoxia; human disorder Cornelia de Lange syndrome is caused by mutations in NIPBL, the human ortholog of SCC2
YER147C SCC4 cohesin-loading factor complex subunit SCC4 Subunit of cohesin loading factor (Scc2p-Scc4p); complex is required for the loading of cohesin complexes onto chromosomes; involved in establishing sister chromatid cohesion during double-strand break repair via phosphorylated histone H2AX
YJL074C SMC3 cohesin subunit SMC3 Subunit of the multiprotein cohesin complex; required for sister chromatid cohesion in mitotic cells; also required, with Rec8p, for cohesion and recombination during meiosis; phylogenetically conserved SMC chromosomal ATPase family member
YGL086W MAD1 coiled-coil domain-containing protein MAD1 Coiled-coil protein involved in spindle-assembly checkpoint; required for inhibition of karyopherin/importin Pse1p (aka Kap121p) upon spindle assembly checkpoint arrest; phosphorylated by Mps1p upon checkpoint activation which leads to inhibition of anaphase promoting complex activity; forms a complex with Mad2p; gene dosage imbalance between MAD1 and MAD2 leads to chromosome instability
YGL175C SAE2 COM1 | ssDNA endodeoxyribonuclease SAE2 Endonuclease required for telomere elongation; required for telomeric 5' C-rich strand resection; involved in ds-break repair and processing hairpin DNA structures with the MRX complex; function requires sumoylation and phosphorylation; exists as inactive oligomers that are transiently released into smaller active units by phosphorylation; DNA damage triggers Sae2p removal, so active Sae2p is present only transiently; sequence and functional similarity with human CtIP/RBBP8
YAR003W SWD1 COMPASS subunit protein SWD1 | CPS50 | FUN16 | SAF49 Subunit of the COMPASS (Set1C) complex; COMPASS methylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and is required in transcriptional silencing near telomeres; WD40 beta propeller superfamily member with similarity to mammalian Rbbp7
YBL097W BRN1 condensin subunit BRN1 Subunit of the condensin complex; required for chromosome condensation and for clustering of tRNA genes at the nucleolus; may influence multiple aspects of chromosome transmission
YFR031C SMC2 condensin subunit SMC2 Subunit of the condensin complex; condensin reorganizes chromosomes during both mitosis and meiosis; essential SMC chromosomal ATPase family member that forms a subcomplex with Smc2p that has ATP-hydrolyzing and DNA-binding activity, but other condensin subunits are required for chromatin binding; required for clustering of tRNA genes at the nucleolus
YLR086W SMC4 condensin subunit SMC4 Subunit of the condensin complex; condensin reorganizes chromosomes during both mitosis and meiosis; forms a subcomplex with Smc2p that has ATP-hydrolyzing and DNA-binding activity, but other condensin subunits are required for chromatin binding; required for tRNA gene clustering at the nucleolus; potential Cdc28p substrate
YDR325W YCG1 condensin subunit YCG1 | TIE1 | YCS5 Subunit of the condensin complex; required for establishment and maintenance of chromosome condensation, chromosome segregation and chromatin binding by the complex; required for tRNA genes clustering at the nucleolus; required for replication slow zone breakage following Mec1p inactivation; transcription is cell cycle regulated, peaking in mitosis and declining in G1; protein is constitutively degraded by the proteasome; rate limiting for condensin recruitment to chromatin
YLR272C YCS4 condensin subunit YCS4 | LOC7 Subunit of the condensin complex; required for establishment and maintenance of chromosome condensation, chromosome segregation, chromatin binding of condensin, tRNA gene clustering at the nucleolus, and silencing at the mating type locus; required for replication slow zone (RSZ) breakage following Mec1p inactivation
YDL216C RRI1 COP9 signalosome catalytic subunit RRI1 | CSN5 | JAB1 Catalytic subunit of the COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex; acts as an isopeptidase in cleaving the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 from SCF ubiquitin ligases; metalloendopeptidase involved in the adaptation to pheromone signaling; involved in modulation of genes controlling amino acid and lipid metabolism, and ergosterol biosynthesis
YNL049C SFB2 COPII subunit SFB2 | ISS1 Component of the Sec23p-Sfb2p heterodimer of the COPII vesicle coat; required for cargo selection during vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport; homologous to Sfb3p; SFB2 has a paralog, SEC24, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL259C ATX1 copper metallochaperone ATX1 Cytosolic copper metallochaperone; transports copper to the secretory vesicle copper transporter Ccc2p for eventual insertion into Fet3p, which is a multicopper oxidase required for high-affinity iron uptake; human homolog ATOX1 can complement yeast atx1 mutant; overexpression of human ATOX1 suppresses lysine auxotrophy of the yeast sod1 null mutant, as does overexpression of yeast ATX1
YLL009C COX17 copper metallochaperone COX17 Copper metallochaperone that transfers copper to Sco1p and Cox11p; eventual delivery to cytochrome c oxidase; contains twin cysteine-x9-cysteine motifs; interacts with the MICOS complex, and interaction is promoted by copper ions; human homolog COX17 partially complements yeast null mutant
YDR044W HEM13 coproporphyrinogen oxidase Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; oxygen-requiring enzyme that catalyzes sixth step in heme biosynthetic pathway; transcription is repressed by oxygen and heme (via Rox1p and Hap1p); human homolog CPOX can complement yeast mutant and allow growth of haploid null after sporulation of a heterozygous diploid
YPR191W QCR2 COR2 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase subunit 2 | UCR2 Subunit 2 of ubiquinol cytochrome-c reductase (Complex III); Complex III is a component of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; phosphorylated; transcription is regulated by Hap1p, Hap2p/Hap3p, and heme
YFR033C QCR6 COR3 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase subunit 6 | UCR6 Subunit 6 of the ubiquinol cytochrome-c reductase complex; the complex, also known as the cytochrome bc(1) complex or Complex III, is a component of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; highly acidic protein; required for maturation of cytochrome c1; may be loosely associated with the complex since it is easily released into the intermembrane space
YDR529C QCR7 COR4 | CRO1 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase subunit 7 | UCR7 Subunit 7 of ubiquinol cytochrome-c reductase (Complex III); Complex III is a component of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; oriented facing the mitochondrial matrix; N-terminus appears to play a role in complex assembly
YJL166W QCR8 COR5 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase subunit 8 Subunit 8 of ubiquinol cytochrome-c reductase (Complex III); Complex III is a component of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; oriented facing the intermembrane space; expression is regulated by Abf1p and Cpf1p
YGL054C ERV14 cornichon family protein COPII-coated vesicle protein; involved in vesicle formation and incorporation of specific secretory cargo; required for the delivery of bud-site selection protein Axl2p and Nha1p antiporter to cell surface; related to Drosophila cornichon; ERV14 has a paralog, ERV15, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YAL002W VPS8 CORVET complex membrane-binding subunit VPS8 | FUN15 | VPL8 | VPT8 Membrane-binding component of the CORVET complex; involved in endosomal vesicle tethering and fusion in the endosome to vacuole protein targeting pathway; interacts with Vps21p; contains RING finger motif
YDR495C VPS3 CORVET complex subunit VPS3 | PEP6 | VPL3 | VPT17 Component of CORVET membrane tethering complex; cytoplasmic protein required for the sorting and processing of soluble vacuolar proteins, acidification of the vacuolar lumen, and assembly of the vacuolar H+-ATPase
YCR044C PER1 COS16 Protein of the endoplasmic reticulum; required for GPI-phospholipase A2 activity that remodels the GPI anchor as a prerequisite for association of GPI-anchored proteins with lipid rafts; functionally complemented by human ortholog PERLD1
YLR204W QRI5 COX24 | mS38 Mitochondrial inner membrane protein; required for accumulation of spliced COX1 mRNA; may have an additional role in translation of COX1 mRNA
YJL062W-A COA3 COX25 | RRG10 Mitochondrial protein required for cytochrome c oxidase assembly; also involved in translational regulation of Cox1p and prevention of Cox1p aggregation before assembly; located in the mitochondrial inner membrane
YPL048W CAM1 CPBP | TEF3 | translation elongation factor EF1B gamma One of two isoforms of the gamma subunit of eEF1B; stimulates the release of GDP from eEF1A (Tef1p/Tef2p) post association with the ribosomal complex with eEF1Balpha subunit; nuclear protein required for transcription of MXR1; binds the MXR1 promoter in the presence of other nuclear factors; binds calcium and phospholipids
YOL004W SIN3 CPE1 | GAM2 | RPD1 | SDI1 | SDS16 | transcriptional regulator SIN3 | UME4 Component of both the Rpd3S and Rpd3L histone deacetylase complexes; involved in transcriptional repression and activation of diverse processes, including mating-type switching and meiosis; involved in the maintenance of chromosomal integrity
YDR155C CPR1 CPH1 | CYP1 | peptidylprolyl isomerase CPR1 Cytoplasmic peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; binds the drug cyclosporin A; N-terminally propionylated in vivo; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YHR042W NCP1 CPR1 NADP-cytochrome P450 reductase; involved in ergosterol biosynthesis; associated and coordinately regulated with Erg11p
YBR258C SHG1 CPS15 Subunit of the COMPASS (Set1C) complex; COMPASS methylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and is required in transcriptional silencing near telomeres
YDR469W SDC1 CPS25 | SAF19 Subunit of the COMPASS (Set1C) complex; COMPASS methylates lysine 4 of histone H3 and is required in chromatin silencing at telomeres; contains a Dpy-30 domain that mediates interaction with Bre2p; similar to C. elegans and human DPY-30
YBR175W SWD3 CPS30 | SAF35 Essential subunit of the COMPASS (Set1C) complex; COMPASS methylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and is required in transcriptional silencing near telomeres; WD40 beta propeller superfamily member and ortholog of mammalian WDR5
YPL138C SPP1 CPS40 | SAF41 Subunit of COMPASS (Set1C); a complex which methylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and is required in telomeric transcriptional silencing; promotes meiotic DSB formation by interacting with H3K4me3 and Rec107p, a protein required for Spo11p-catalyzed DSB formation located on chromosome axes; interacts with Orc2p; PHD finger domain protein similar to human CGBP, an unmethylated CpG binding protein; relocalizes to cytosol in response to hypoxia
YLR015W BRE2 CPS60 Subunit of COMPASS (Set1C) complex; COMPASS methylates Lys4 of histone H3 and functions in silencing at telomeres; has a C-terminal Sdc1 Dpy-30 Interaction (SDI) domain that mediates binding to Sdc1p; similar to trithorax-group protein ASH2L
YJL127C SPT10 CRE1 | SUD1 Histone H3 acetylase with a role in transcriptional regulation; sequence-specific activator of histone genes, binds specifically and cooperatively to pairs of UAS elements in core histone promoters, functions at or near TATA box; involved in S phase-specific acetylation of H3K56 at histone promoters, which is required for recruitment of SWI/SNF nucleosome remodeling complex and subsequent transcription
YNR048W CRF1 | putative aminophospholipid translocase regulatory protein Potential noncatalytic subunit for phospholipid translocase Dnf3p; YNR048W has a paralog, CDC50, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL040W UTR2 CRH2 Chitin transglycosylase; functions in the transfer of chitin to beta(1-6) and beta(1-3) glucans in the cell wall; similar to and functionally redundant with Crh1; glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein localized to bud neck
YOR259C RPT4 CRL13 | PCS1 | proteasome regulatory particle base subunit RPT4 | SUG2 ATPase of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome; one of six ATPases of the regulatory particle; involved in degradation of ubiquitinated substrates; contributes preferentially to ERAD; required for spindle pole body duplication; mainly nuclear localization
YJL001W PRE3 CRL21 | proteasome core particle subunit beta 1 Beta 1 subunit of the 20S proteasome; responsible for cleavage after acidic residues in peptides
YJR104C SOD1 CRS4 | superoxide dismutase SOD1 Cytosolic copper-zinc superoxide dismutase; detoxifies superoxide; stabilizes Yck1p and Yck2p kinases in glucose to repress respiration; phosphorylated by Dun1p, enters nucleus under oxidative stress to promote transcription of stress response genes; human ortholog SOD1 implicated in ALS complements a null allele; abundance increases under DNA replication stress and during exposure to boric acid; localization to mitochondrial intermembrane space is modulated by MICOS complex
YLR176C RFX1 CRT1 Major transcriptional repressor of DNA-damage-regulated genes; recruits repressors Tup1p and Cyc8p to their promoters; involved in DNA damage and replication checkpoint pathway; similar to a family of mammalian DNA binding RFX1-4 proteins
YJL210W PEX2 CRT1 | PAS5 | ubiquitin-protein ligase peroxin 2 RING-finger peroxin and E3 ubiquitin ligase; peroxisomal membrane protein with a C-terminal zinc-binding RING domain, forms translocation subcomplex with Pex10p and Pex12p which functions in peroxisomal matrix protein import
YGR180C RNR4 CRT3 | PSO3 | ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase subunit RNR4 Ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase (RNR) small subunit; the RNR complex catalyzes the rate-limiting step in dNTP synthesis and is regulated by DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint pathways via localization of the small subunits; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; RNR4 has a paralog, RNR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL026W RNR2 CRT6 | ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase subunit RNR2 Ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase (RNR), small subunit; the RNR complex catalyzes the rate-limiting step in dNTP synthesis and is regulated by DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint pathways via localization of the small subunits; RNR2 has a paralog, RNR4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER070W RNR1 CRT7 | ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase subunit RNR1 | RIR1 | SDS12 Major isoform of large subunit of ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase; the RNR complex catalyzes rate-limiting step in dNTP synthesis, regulated by DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint pathways via localization of small subunits; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; RNR1 has a paralog, RNR3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR112C CYC8 CRT8 | [OCT] | [OCT1+] | SSN6 | transcription regulator CYC8 General transcriptional co-repressor; acts together with Tup1p; also acts as part of a transcriptional co-activator complex that recruits the SWI/SNF and SAGA complexes to promoters; can form the prion [OCT+]
YOR074C CDC21 CRT9 | thymidylate synthase | TMP1 | YOR29-25 Thymidylate synthase; required for de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides; expression is induced at G1/S; human homolog TYMSOS can complement yeast cdc21 temperature-sensitive mutant at restrictive temperature
YKL011C CCE1 cruciform cutting endonuclease | MGT1 Mitochondrial cruciform cutting endonuclease; cleaves Holliday junctions formed during recombination of mitochondrial DNA; CCE1 has a paralog, MRS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL191W RPS14B CRY2 | ribosomal 40S subunit protein S14B | rp59B | S11 | S14B | uS11 Protein component of the small (40S) ribosomal subunit; required for ribosome assembly and 20S pre-rRNA processing; mutations confer cryptopleurine resistance; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein S14 and bacterial S11; RPS14B has a paralog, RPS14A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL099W CHS6 CSD3 Member of the ChAPs (Chs5p-Arf1p-binding proteins) family; part of the exomer complex that mediates export of specific cargo proteins, including Chs3p, from the Golgi to the plasma membrane; primary component of the Chs5/6 complex that binds directly to membranes; CHS6 has a paralog, BCH2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL244W RTF1 CSL3 Subunit of RNAPII-associated chromatin remodeling Paf1 complex; regulates gene expression by directing cotranscriptional histone modification, influences transcription and chromatin structure through several independent functional domains; directly or indirectly regulates DNA-binding properties of Spt15p and relative activities of different TATA elements; involved in transcription elongation as demonstrated by the G-less-based run-on (GLRO) assay
YKL080W VMA5 CSL5 | H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit C | VAT3 Subunit C of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; required for the V1 domain to assemble onto the vacuolar membrane; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits
YOL117W RRI2 CSN10 Subunit of the COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex; this complex cleaves the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 from SCF ubiquitin ligases; plays a role in the mating pheromone response
YIL071C PCI8 CSN11 | YIH1 | YIL071W Possible shared subunit of Cop9 signalosome (CSN) and eIF3; binds eIF3b subunit Prt1p, has possible dual functions in transcriptional and translational control, contains a PCI (Proteasome-COP9 signalosome (CSN)-eIF3) domain
YJR084W CSN12 Protein that forms a complex with Thp3p; may have a role in transcription elongation and/or mRNA splicing; identified as a COP9 signalosome component but phenotype and interactions suggest it may not be involved with the signalosome
YGR044C RME1 CSP1 Zinc finger protein involved in control of meiosis; prevents meiosis by repressing IME1 expression and promotes mitosis by activating CLN2 expression; directly repressed by a1-alpha2 regulator; mediates cell type control of sporulation; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YBR158W AMN1 CST13 | ICS4 Modulator of cell separation and mitotic exit; inhibits separation through Ub-dependent Ace2p proteolysis; part of a daughter-specific switch induced by the mitotic exit network that inhibits exit and resets the cell cycle after the execution of MEN function, blocking Tem1p and Cdc15 association; required for chromosome stability and multiple mitotic checkpoints; regulated by SCF; haploid transcription regulated by Ste12p; contains 12 degenerate leucine-rich repeat motifs and an atypical F-box
YOR272W YTM1 CST14 Ribosomal assembly factor and 66S pre-ribosomal particle constituent; subunit of the Nop7-subcomplex (PeBoW complex), required for an early nucleolar step in pre-60S ribosomal particle maturation; interaction of its ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain with the MIDAS domain in the Rea1p tail triggers release of the subcomplex and possibly other biogenesis factors via cycles of ATP hydrolysis; involved in the processing of 27S pre-rRNA; contains an N-terminal UBL domain and seven C-terminal WD repeats
YKL117W SBA1 CST18 | Hsp90 cochaperone SBA1 Co-chaperone that binds and regulates Hsp90 family chaperones; plays a role in determining prion variants; important for pp60v-src activity in yeast; homologous to the mammalian p23 proteins, and like p23 can regulate telomerase activity; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR226W BUR2 CST4 Cyclin for the Sgv1p (Bur1p) protein kinase; Sgv1p and Bur2p comprise the CDK-cyclin BUR kinase complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation through its phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Rpo21p); BUR kinase is also involved in the recruitment of Spt6p to the CTD at the onset of transcription
YOR065W CYT1 CTC1 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase catalytic subunit CYT1 | YOR29-16 Cytochrome c1; component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; expression is regulated by the heme-activated, glucose-repressed Hap2p/3p/4p/5p CCAAT-binding complex
YPL008W CHL1 CTF1 | LPA9 | MCM12 Probable DNA helicase; involved in sister-chromatid cohesion and genome integrity and interstrand cross-link repair; interacts with ECO1 and CTF18; mutants are defective in silencing, rDNA recombination, aging and the heat shock response; FANCJ-like helicase family member; mutations in the human homolog, DDX11/ChLR1, cause Warsaw breakage syndrome
YDR254W CHL4 CTF17 | MCM17 Outer kinetochore protein required for chromosome stability; involved in new kinetochore assembly and sister chromatid cohesion; forms a stable complex with Iml3p; peripheral component of the Ctf19 kinetochore complex that interacts with Ctf19p, Ctf3p, and Mif2p; required for the spindle assembly checkpoint; orthologous to human centromere constitutive-associated network (CCAN) subunit CENP-N and fission yeast mis15
YDR318W MCM21 CTF5 Component of the kinetochore sub-complex COMA; COMA (Ctf19p, Okp1p, Mcm21p, Ame1p) bridges kinetochore subunits in contact with centromeric DNA with subunits bound to microtubules during kinetochore assembly; involved in minichromosome maintenance; modified by sumoylation; orthologous to human centromere constitutive-associated network (CCAN) subunit CENP-O and fission yeast mal2
YFR027W ECO1 CTF7 Acetyltransferase; required for establishment of sister chromatid cohesion; acetylates Mps3p to regulate nuclear organization; modifies Smc3p at replication forks and Mcd1p in response to dsDNA breaks; phosphorylated by three kinases (Cdc28p, Cdc7p, Mck1p) to generate pair of phosphates spaced precisely for recognition by ubiquitin ligase SCF-Cdc4; mutations in human homolog ESCO2 cause Roberts syndrome; relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YLR136C TIS11 CTH2 mRNA-binding protein expressed during iron starvation; binds to a sequence element in the 3'-untranslated regions of specific mRNAs to mediate their degradation; involved in iron homeostasis; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; TIS11 has a paralog, CTH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL098C RAS2 CTN5 | CYR3 | GLC5 | Ras family GTPase RAS2 | TSL7 GTP-binding protein; regulates nitrogen starvation response, sporulation, and filamentous growth; farnesylation and palmitoylation required for activity and localization to plasma membrane; homolog of mammalian Ras proto-oncogenes; RAS2 has a paralog, RAS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL039C URA7 CTP synthase URA7 Major CTP synthase isozyme (see also URA8); catalyzes the ATP-dependent transfer of the amide nitrogen from glutamine to UTP, forming CTP, the final step in de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines; involved in phospholipid biosynthesis; capable of forming cytoplasmic filaments termed cytoophidium, especially during conditions of glucose depletion; URA7 has a paralog, URA8, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR103W URA8 CTP synthase URA8 Minor CTP synthase isozyme (see also URA7); catalyzes the ATP-dependent transfer of the amide nitrogen from glutamine to UTP, forming CTP, the final step in de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines; involved in phospholipid biosynthesis; capable of forming cytoplasmic filaments termed cytoophidium, especially during conditions of glucose depletion; URA8 has a paralog, URA7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML028W TSA1 cTPxI | thioredoxin peroxidase TSA1 | TPX1 | ZRG14 Thioredoxin peroxidase; acts as both ribosome-associated and free cytoplasmic antioxidant; self-associates to form high-molecular weight chaperone complex under oxidative stress; chaperone activity essential for growth in zinc deficiency; required for telomere length maintenance; binds and modulates Cdc19p activity; protein abundance increases, forms cytoplasmic foci during DNA replication stress; TSA1 has a paralog, TSA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR453C TSA2 cTPxII | thioredoxin peroxidase TSA2 Stress inducible cytoplasmic thioredoxin peroxidase; cooperates with Tsa1p in the removal of reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species using thioredoxin as hydrogen donor; deletion enhances the mutator phenotype of tsa1 mutants; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TSA2 has a paralog, TSA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR109W AHP1 cTPxIII | thioredoxin peroxidase AHP1 Thiol-specific peroxiredoxin; reduces hydroperoxides to protect against oxidative damage; function in vivo requires covalent conjugation to Urm1p
YGL077C HNM1 CTR1 Plasma membrane transporter for choline, ethanolamine, and carnitine; involved in the uptake of nitrogen mustard and the uptake of glycine betaine during hypersaline stress; co-regulated with phospholipid biosynthetic genes and negatively regulated by choline and myo-inositol
YER167W BCK2 CTR7 Serine/threonine-rich protein involved in PKC1 signaling pathway; protein kinase C (PKC1) signaling pathway controls cell integrity; overproduction suppresses pkc1 mutations
YDR270W CCC2 Cu(2+)-transporting P-type ATPase CCC2 Cu(+2)-transporting P-type ATPase; required for export of copper from the cytosol into an extracytosolic compartment; similar to human proteins involved in Menkes and Wilsons diseases; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; affects TBSV model (+)RNA virus replication by regulating copper metabolism; human homologs ATP7A and ATP7B both complement yeast null mutant
YMR021C MAC1 CUA1 Copper-sensing transcription factor; involved in regulation of genes required for high affinity copper transport; required for regulation of yeast copper genes in response to DNA-damaging agents; undergoes changes in redox state in response to changing levels of copper or MMS
YBR037C SCO1 Cu-binding protein SCO1 | PET161 Copper-binding protein of mitochondrial inner membrane; required for cytochrome c oxidase activity and respiration; may function to deliver copper to cytochrome c oxidase; similar to thioredoxins; SCO1 has a paralog, SCO2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR067C UBX4 CUI1 UBX domain-containing protein that interacts with Cdc48p; involved in degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins via the ERAD (ER-associated degradation) pathway; modulates the Cdc48p-Nplp-Ufd1p AAA ATPase complex during its role in delivery of misfolded proteins to the proteasome; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YJL048C UBX6 CUI2 UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X) domain-containing protein; interacts with Cdc48p, transcription is repressed when cells are grown in media containing inositol and choline; UBX6 has a paralog, UBX7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR273C UBX7 CUI3 UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X) domain-containing protein; interacts with Cdc48p; UBX7 has a paralog, UBX6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL047C RTT101 CUL8 | CULC | cullin RTT101 Cullin subunit of a Roc1p-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase complex; role in anaphase progression; required for recovery after DSB repair; implicated in Mms22-dependent DNA repair; involved with Mms1p in nonfunctional rRNA decay; modified by the ubiquitin-like protein, Rub1p
YGR003W CUL3 CULB | CULLIN B | cullin CUL3 Ubiquitin-protein ligase; forms a complex with Elc1p that polyubiquitylates monoubiquitylated RNA polymerase II to trigger its proteolysis; cullin family member with similarity to Cdc53p and human CUL3
YDL132W CDC53 cullin CDC53 Cullin; structural protein of SCF complexes (which also contain Skp1p, Cdc34p, Hrt1p and an F-box protein) involved in ubiquitination; SCF promotes the G1-S transition by targeting G1 cyclins and the Cln-CDK inhibitor Sic1p for degradation; human homolog CUL1 can complement yeast cdc53 null mutant
YHR055C CUP1-2 CUP1 | metallothionein CUP1 Metallothionein; binds copper and mediates resistance to high concentrations of copper and cadmium; locus is variably amplified in different strains, with two copies, CUP1-1 and CUP1-2, in the genomic sequence reference strain S288C; CUP1-2 has a paralog, CUP1-1, that arose from a segmental duplication
YHR053C CUP1-1 CUP1 | metallothionein CUP1 Metallothionein; binds copper and mediates resistance to high concentrations of copper and cadmium; locus is variably amplified in different strains, with two copies, CUP1-1 and CUP1-2, in the genomic sequence reference strain S288C; CUP1-1 has a paralog, CUP1-2, that arose from a segmental duplication
YER053C PIC2 Cu/Pi carrier Mitochondrial copper and phosphate carrier; imports copper and inorganic phosphate into mitochondria; functionally redundant with Mir1p but less abundant than Mir1p under normal conditions; expression is induced at high temperature
YEL060C PRB1 CVT1 | proteinase B Vacuolar proteinase B (yscB) with H3 N-terminal endopeptidase activity; serine protease of the subtilisin family; involved in protein degradation in the vacuole and required for full protein degradation during sporulation; activity inhibited by Pbi2p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; PRB1 has a paralog, YSP3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL045W VPS16 CVT15 | SVL6 | tethering complex subunit VPS16 | VAM9 | VPT16 Subunit of the HOPS and the CORVET complexes; part of the Class C Vps complex essential for membrane docking and fusion at Golgi-to-endosome and endosome-to-vacuole protein transport stages
YBR131W CCZ1 CVT16 Subunit of a heterodimeric guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF); subunit of the Mon1-Ccz1 GEF complex, which stimulates nucleotide exchange and activation of Ypt7p, a Rab family GTPase involved in membrane tethering and fusion events at the late endosome and vacuole; GEF activity is stimulated by membrane association and anionic phospholipids; involved in localizing Ypt7p to the vacuolar membrane; required for macroautophagy, the CVT pathway and mitophagy
YOL082W ATG19 CVT19 Receptor protein for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway; delivers cargo proteins aminopeptidase I (Ape1p) and alpha-mannosidase (Ams1p) to the phagophore assembly site for packaging into Cvt vesicles; interaction with Atg19p during the Cvt pathway requires phosphorylation by Hrr25p
YDL113C ATG20 CVT20 | SNX42 Sorting nexin family member; required for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway and for endosomal sorting; has a Phox homology domain that binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; interacts with Snx4p; potential Cdc28p substrate
YDL077C VAM6 CVT4 | VPL18 | VPL22 | VPS39 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the GTPase Gtr1p; subunit of the HOPS endocytic tethering complex; vacuole membrane protein; functions as a Rab GTPase effector, interacting with both GTP- and GDP-bound conformations of Ypt7p; facilitates tethering and promotes membrane fusion events at the late endosome and vacuole; required for both membrane and protein trafficking; component of vacuole-mitochondrion contacts (vCLAMPs) important for lipid transfer between organelles
YDR080W VPS41 CVT8 | FET2 | SVL2 | VAM2 | VPL20 Subunit of the HOPS endocytic tethering complex; vacuole membrane protein that functions as a Rab GTPase effector, interacting specifically with the GTP-bound conformation of Ypt7p, facilitating tethering, docking and promoting membrane fusion events at the late endosome and vacuole; required for both membrane and protein trafficking; Yck3p-mediated phosphorylation regulates the organization of vacuolar fusion sites
YCR063W BUD31 CWC14 | U2 snRNP complex subunit BUD31 Component of the SF3b subcomplex of the U2 snRNP; increases efficiency of first and second step pre-mRNA splicing; diploid mutants display a random budding pattern instead of the wild-type bipolar pattern; facilitates passage through G1/S Start, but is not required for G2/M transition or exit from mitosis
YKL095W YJU2 CWC16 | mRNA splicing protein YJU2 Essential protein required for pre-mRNA splicing; associates transiently with the spliceosomal NTC ("nineteen complex") and acts after Prp2p to promote the first catalytic reaction of splicing
YGL174W BUD13 CWC26 Subunit of the RES complex; RES complex is required for nuclear pre-mRNA retention and splicing; involved in bud-site selection; diploid mutants display a unipolar budding pattern instead of the wild-type bipolar pattern due to a specific defect in MATa1 pre-mRNA splicing which leads to haploid gene expression in diploids
YPL175W SPT14 CWH6 | GPI3 | phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase SPT14 UDP-glycosyltransferase subunit of the GPI-GnT complex; UDP-GlcNAc-binding and catalytic subunit of the enzyme that mediates the first step in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis, mutations cause defects in transcription and in biogenesis of cell wall proteins
YGR036C CAX4 CWH8 Dolichyl pyrophosphate (Dol-P-P) phosphatase; has a luminally oriented active site in the ER; cleaves the anhydride linkage in Dol-P-P; required for Dol-P-P-linked oligosaccharide intermediate synthesis and protein N-glycosylation
YMR199W CLN1 cyclin CLN1 G1 cyclin involved in regulation of the cell cycle; activates Cdc28p kinase to promote the G1 to S phase transition; late G1 specific expression depends on transcription factor complexes, MBF (Swi6p-Mbp1p) and SBF (Swi6p-Swi4p); CLN1 has a paralog, CLN2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; cell cycle arrest phenotype of the cln1 cln2 cln3 triple null mutant is complemented by any of human cyclins CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNC, CCND1, or CCNE1
YPL256C CLN2 cyclin CLN2 G1 cyclin involved in regulation of the cell cycle; activates Cdc28p kinase to promote the G1 to S phase transition; late G1 specific expression depends on transcription factor complexes, MBF (Swi6p-Mbp1p) and SBF (Swi6p-Swi4p); CLN2 has a paralog, CLN1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; cell cycle arrest phenotype of the cln1 cln2 cln3 triple null mutant is complemented by any of human cyclins CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNC, CCND1, or CCNE1
YBR135W CKS1 cyclin-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit CKS1 Cyclin-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit and adaptor; interacts with Cdc28p (aka Cdk1p); required for G1/S and G2/M phase transitions and budding; mediates phosphorylation and degradation of Sic1p; modulates proteolysis of M-phase targets through interactions with the proteasome; role in transcriptional regulation, recruiting proteasomal subunits to target gene promoters; human homologs CKS1B and CKS2 can each complement yeast cks1 null mutant
YJL157C FAR1 cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibiting protein FAR1 CDK inhibitor and nuclear anchor; during the cell cycle Far1p sequesters the GEF Cdc24p in the nucleus; phosphorylation by Cdc28p-Cln results in SCFCdc4 complex-mediated ubiquitin-dependent degradation, releasing Cdc24p for export and activation of GTPase Cdc42p; in response to pheromone, phosphorylation of Far1p by MAPK Fus3p results in association with, and inhibition of Cdc28p-Cln, as well as Msn5p mediated nuclear export of Far1p-Cdc24p, targeting Cdc24p to polarity sites
YKL139W CTK1 cyclin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase CTK1 Catalytic (alpha) subunit of C-terminal domain kinase I (CTDK-I); phosphorylates both RNA pol II subunit Rpo21p to affect transcription and pre-mRNA 3' end processing, and ribosomal protein Rps2p to increase translational fidelity; required for H3K36 trimethylation but not dimethylation by Set2p; suggested stimulatory role in 80S formation during translation initiation; similar to the Drosophila dCDK12 and human CDK12 and probably CDK13
YPL031C PHO85 cyclin-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase PHO85 | LDB15 | phoU Cyclin-dependent kinase; has ten cyclin partners; involved in regulating the cellular response to nutrient levels and environmental conditions and progression through the cell cycle; human lissencephaly-associated homolog CDK5 functionally complements null mutation
YAL012W CYS3 CYI1 | cystathionine gamma-lyase CYS3 | FUN35 | STR1 Cystathionine gamma-lyase; catalyzes one of the two reactions involved in the transsulfuration pathway that yields cysteine from homocysteine with the intermediary formation of cystathionine; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL242C IQG1 CYK1 Essential protein required for determination of budding pattern; promotes localization of axial markers Bud4p and Cdc12p and functionally interacts with Sec3p, localizes to the contractile ring during anaphase, member of the IQGAP family; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YMR032W HOF1 CYK2 | formin-binding protein HOF1 Protein that regulates actin cytoskeleton organization; required for cytokinesis, actin cable organization, and secretory vesicle trafficking; localized to bud neck; phosphorylated by Dbf2p; regulates actomyosin ring dynamics and septin localization; contains an SH3 domain; N terminus controls cell size and levels of actin cables, while C terminus controls actin cable organization via direct regulation of the formin Bnr1p
YHR057C CPR2 CYP2 | peptidylprolyl isomerase CPR2 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; potential role in the secretory pathway; seamless-GFP and mCherry fusion proteins localize to the vacuole, while SWAT-GFP fusion localizes to both the endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole; suppresses toxicity of slow-folding human Z-type alpha1-antitrypsin variant associated with liver cirrhosis and emphysema
YML078W CPR3 CYP3 | peptidylprolyl isomerase CPR3 Mitochondrial peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; involved in protein refolding after import into mitochondria
YCR069W CPR4 CYP4 | peptidylprolyl isomerase family protein CPR4 | SCC3 | YCR070W Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; has a potential role in the secretory pathway; CPR4 has a paralog, CPR8, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR216C CPR6 CYP40 | peptidylprolyl isomerase CPR6 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; plays a role in determining prion variants; binds to Hsp82p and contributes to chaperone activity; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR304C CPR5 CYP5 | peptidylprolyl isomerase family protein CPR5 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin) of the ER; catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; transcriptionally induced in response to unfolded proteins in the ER; CPR5 has a paralog, CPR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR007C ERG11 CYP51 | sterol 14-demethylase Lanosterol 14-alpha-demethylase; catalyzes C-14 demethylation of lanosterol to form 4,4''-dimethyl cholesta-8,14,24-triene-3-beta-ol in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway; transcriptionally down-regulated when ergosterol is in excess; member of cytochrome P450 family; associated and coordinately regulated with the P450 reductase Ncp1p; human CYP51A1 functionally complements the lethality of the erg11 null mutation
YGL184C STR3 cystathionine beta-lyase STR3 Peroxisomal cystathionine beta-lyase; converts cystathionine into homocysteine; may be redox regulated by Gto1p; involved in the release of the aromatic thiol 3-mercaptohexanol during wine fermentation
YGR155W CYS4 cystathionine beta-synthase CYS4 | NHS5 | STR4 | VMA41 Cystathionine beta-synthase; catalyzes synthesis of cystathionine from serine and homocysteine, the first committed step in cysteine biosynthesis; responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation; advances passage through START by promoting cell growth which requires catalytic activity, and reducing critical cell size independent of catalytic activity; mutations in human ortholog CBS cause homocystinuria; human CBS can complement yeast null mutant
YJR130C STR2 cystathionine gamma-synthase Cystathionine gamma-synthase, converts cysteine into cystathionine; STR2 has a paralog, YML082W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL247W cysteine--tRNA ligase Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; human gene CARS allows growth of the yeast haploid null mutant after sporulation of a heterozygous diploid
YLR245C CDD1 cytidine deaminase Cytidine deaminase; catalyzes the modification of cytidine to uridine in vitro but native RNA substrates have not been identified, localizes to both the nucleus and cytoplasm
YKL150W MCR1 cytochrome-b5 reductase Mitochondrial NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase; involved in ergosterol biosynthesis
YML125C PGA3 cytochrome-b5 reductase | NQR1 Putative cytochrome b5 reductase, localized to the plasma membrane; may be involved in regulation of lifespan; required for maturation of Gas1p and Pho8p, proposed to be involved in protein trafficking; PGA3 has a paralog, AIM33, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR048W CYC1 cytochrome c isoform 1 Cytochrome c, isoform 1; also known as iso-1-cytochrome c; electron carrier of mitochondrial intermembrane space that transfers electrons from ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase to cytochrome c oxidase during cellular respiration; CYC1 has a paralog, CYC7, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human homolog CYC1 can complement yeast null mutant; mutations in human CYC1 cause insulin-responsive hyperglycemia
YEL039C CYC7 cytochrome c isoform 2 Cytochrome c isoform 2, expressed under hypoxic conditions; also known as iso-2-cytochrome c; electron carrier of the mitochondrial intermembrane space that transfers electrons from ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase to cytochrome c oxidase during cellular respiration; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; CYC7 has a paralog, CYC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL187C COX4 cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV Subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase; the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; precursor N-terminal 25 residues are cleaved during mitochondrial import; phosphorylated; spermidine enhances translation
YNL052W COX5A cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va Subunit Va of cytochrome c oxidase; cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; Cox5Ap is predominantly expressed during aerobic growth while its isoform Vb (Cox5Bp) is expressed during anaerobic growth; COX5A has a paralog, COX5B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL111W COX5B cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb Subunit Vb of cytochrome c oxidase; cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; Cox5Bp is predominantly expressed during anaerobic growth while its isoform Va (Cox5Ap) is expressed during aerobic growth; COX5B has a paralog, COX5A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR051W COX6 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VI Subunit VI of cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV); Complex IV is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; expression is regulated by oxygen levels
YLR038C COX12 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb Subunit VIb of cytochrome c oxidase; cytochrome c oxidase is also known as respiratory Complex IV and is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; required for assembly of cytochrome c oxidase but not required for activity after assembly; phosphorylated; easily released from the intermembrane space, suggesting a loose association with Complex IV
YMR256C COX7 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VII Subunit VII of cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV); Complex IV is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain
YDL067C COX9 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa Subunit VIIa of cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV); Complex IV is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain
YLR395C COX8 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIII Subunit VIII of cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV); Complex IV is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain
YKR066C CCP1 cytochrome-c peroxidase Mitochondrial cytochrome-c peroxidase; degrades reactive oxygen species in mitochondria, involved in the response to oxidative stress
YPR062W FCY1 cytosine deaminase | yCD Cytosine deaminase; zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine to uracil; of biomedical interest because it also catalyzes the deamination of 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) to form anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU)
YBL007C SLA1 cytoskeletal protein-binding protein SLA1 Cytoskeletal protein binding protein; required for assembly of the cortical actin cytoskeleton; interacts with proteins regulating actin dynamics and proteins required for endocytosis; found in the nucleus and cell cortex; has 3 SH3 domains
YBL016W FUS3 DAC2 | mitogen-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase FUS3 Mitogen-activated serine/threonine protein kinase involved in mating; phosphoactivated by Ste7p; substrates include Ste12p, Far1p, Bni1p, Sst2p; inhibits invasive growth during mating by phosphorylating Tec1p, promoting its; inhibits recruitment of Ste5p, Cdc42p-mediated asymmetry and mating morphogenesis
YMR275C BUL1 DAG1 | RDS1 | SMM2 | ubiquitin-ubiquitin ligase BUL1 Ubiquitin-binding component of the Rsp5p E3-ubiquitin ligase complex; disruption causes temperature-sensitive growth, overexpression causes missorting of amino acid permeases; BUL1 has a paralog, BUL2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL066W HPA3 D-amino-acid N-acetyltransferase D-Amino acid N-acetyltransferase that detoxifies D-amino acids; catalyzes N-acetylation of D-amino acids through ordered bi-bi mechanism in which acetyl-CoA is first substrate bound and CoA is last product liberated; acetylates histones and polyamines, also autoacetylates
YDL022W GPD1 DAR1 | glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD(+)) GPD1 | HOR1 | OSG1 | OSR5 NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; key enzyme of glycerol synthesis, essential for growth under osmotic stress; expression regulated by high-osmolarity glycerol response pathway; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; constitutively inactivated via phosphorylation by the protein kinases Ypk1p and Ypk2p, dephosphorylation increases catalytic activity; forms a heterodimer with Pnc1p to facilitate its peroxisomal import
YML086C ALO1 D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase D-Arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase; catalyzes the final step in biosynthesis of dehydro-D-arabinono-1,4-lactone, which is protective against oxidative stress
YBR149W ARA1 D-arabinose 1-dehydrogenase (NAD(P)(+)) ARA1 NADP+ dependent arabinose dehydrogenase; involved in carbohydrate metabolism; purified as homodimer; naturally occurs with a N-terminus degradation product
YHR165C PRP8 DBF3 | DNA39 | RNA8 | SLT21 | U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex subunit PRP8 | USA2 Component of U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex; involved in second catalytic step of splicing; participates in spliceosomal assembly through its interaction with U1 snRNA; largest and most evolutionarily conserved protein of the spliceosome; mutations in human ortholog, PRPF8, cause Retinitis pigmentosa and missplicing in Myelodysplastic syndrome; mouse ortholog interacts with androgen receptor and may have a role in prostate cancer
YIR011C STS1 DBF8 | SSM5 Protein required for localizing proteasomes to the nucleus; involved in cotranslational protein degradation; mediates interaction between nuclear import factor Srp1p and the proteasome; Sts1p and Srp1p couple proteasomes to nascent polypeptides emerging from the ribosome for cotranslational degradation; involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
YDR419W RAD30 DBH1 | DNA-directed DNA polymerase eta DNA polymerase eta; involved in translesion synthesis during post-replication repair; catalyzes the synthesis of DNA opposite cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and other lesions; involved in formation of post-replicative damage-induced genome-wide cohesion; may also have a role in protection against mitochondrial mutagenesis; mutations in human pol eta are responsible for XPV
YOR127W RGA1 DBM1 | THE1 GTPase-activating protein for polarity-establishment protein Cdc42p; implicated in control of septin organization, pheromone response, and haploid invasive growth; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; RGA1 has a paralog, RGA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL033W HCA4 DBP4 | ECM24 | RNA-dependent ATPase HCA4 DEAD box RNA helicase; component of the SSU; interacts with Bfr2p and Enp2p; high-copy number suppression of a U14 snoRNA processing mutant suggests an involvement in 18S rRNA synthesis
YEL015W EDC3 DCP3 | LSM16 Non-essential conserved protein with a role in mRNA decapping; specifically affects the function of the decapping enzyme Dcp1p; mediates decay of the RPS28B mRNA via binding to both Rps28Bp (or Rps28Ap) and the RPS28B mRNA; mediates decay of the YRA1 mRNA by a different, translation-independent mechanism; localizes to cytoplasmic mRNA processing bodies; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YMR135C GID8 DCR1 | glucose-induced degradation complex subunit GID8 Subunit of GID Complex, binds strongly to central component Vid30p; GID Complex is involved in proteasome-dependent catabolite inactivation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase; recruits Rmd5p, Fyv10 and Vid28p to GID Complex; contains LisH, CTLH, and CRA domains that mediate binding to Vid30p (LisH) and Rmd5p and Vid28p (CTLH and CRA); dosage-dependent regulator of START
YDR499W LCD1 DDC2 | PIE1 Essential protein required for the DNA integrity checkpoint pathways; interacts physically with Mec1p; putative homolog of S. pombe Rad26 and human ATRIP; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YOL052C-A DDR2 DDRA2 | YOL053C-A Multi-stress response protein; expression is activated by a variety of xenobiotic agents and environmental or physiological stresses; DDR2 has a paralog, HOR7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL112W DBP2 DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP2 ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DEAD-box protein family; has strong preference for dsRNA; interacts with YRA1; required for assembly of Yra1p, Nab2p and Mex67p onto mRNA and formation of nuclear mRNP; involved in mRNA decay and rRNA processing; may be involved in suppression of transcription from cryptic initiation sites
YBR237W PRP5 DEAD-box RNA helicase PRP5 | RNA5 RNA helicase in the DEAD-box family; necessary for prespliceosome formation, bridges U1 and U2 snRNPs and enables stable U2 snRNP association with intron RNA
YER013W PRP22 DEAH-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase PRP22 DEAH-box RNA-dependent ATPase/ATP-dependent RNA helicase; associates with lariat intermediates before the second catalytic step of splicing; mediates ATP-dependent mRNA release from the spliceosome and unwinds RNA duplexes; required for proofreading the exon ligation reaction
YGL120C PRP43 DEAH-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase PRP43 | JA1 RNA helicase in the DEAH-box family; functions in both RNA polymerase I and polymerase II transcript metabolism; catalyzes removal of U2, U5, and U6 snRNPs from the postsplicing lariat-intron ribonucleoprotein complex; required for efficient biogenesis of both small- and large-subunit rRNAs; acts with Sqs1p to promote 20S to 18S rRNA processing catalyzed by endonuclease Nob1p
YNR011C PRP2 DEAH-box RNA-dependent ATPase PRP2 | RNA2 RNA-dependent DExD/H-box ATPase; required for activation of spliceosome before first transesterification step in RNA splicing; implicated in rearranging and proofreading snRNA structure in catalytic activation of spliceosome; ortholog of human protein DHX16
YKR086W PRP16 DEAH-box RNA helicase PRP16 | PRP23 | RNA16 DEAH-box RNA helicase involved in second catalytic step of splicing and in exon ligation; exhibits ATP-dependent RNA unwinding activity; mediates the release of Yju2p and Cwc25p in the second step; in the absence of ATP, stabilizes the binding of Cwc25p to the spliceosome in the first catalytic step; missense mutation in human ortholog DHX38 associated with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa
YOL076W MDM20 DEC1 | NAA25 Non-catalytic subunit of the NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase; NatB catalyzes N-acetylation of proteins with specific N-terminal sequences; involved in mitochondrial inheritance and actin assembly
YNL118C DCP2 decapping enzyme complex catalytic subunit | PSU1 Catalytic subunit of Dcp1p-Dcp2p decapping enzyme complex; removes 5' cap structure from mRNAs prior to their degradation; also enters nucleus and positively regulates transcription initiation; nudix hydrolase family member; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress; human homolog DCP2 complements yeast dcp2 thermosensitive mutant
YGL246C RAI1 decapping nuclease Nuclear protein with decapping endonuclease activity; targets mRNAs with unmethylated 7-methylguanosine cap structures and 5'-triphosphates; binds to and stabilizes the exoribonuclease Rat1p; required for pre-rRNA processing; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; homologous to human DOM3Z
YJL110C GZF3 DEH1 | NIL2 GATA zinc finger protein; negatively regulates nitrogen catabolic gene expression by competing with Gat1p for GATA site binding; function requires a repressive carbon source; dimerizes with Dal80p and binds to Tor1p; GZF3 has a paralog, DAL80, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL280C ERG24 delta(14)-sterol reductase C-14 sterol reductase; acts in ergosterol biosynthesis; mutants accumulate the abnormal sterol ignosterol (ergosta-8,14 dienol), and are viable under anaerobic growth conditions but inviable on rich medium under aerobic conditions
YGL012W ERG4 delta(24(24(1)))-sterol reductase C-24(28) sterol reductase; catalyzes the final step in ergosterol biosynthesis; mutants are viable, but lack ergosterol
YBR163W EXO5 DEM1 Mitochondrial 5'-3' exonuclease and sliding exonuclease; required for mitochondrial genome maintenance; distantly related to the RecB nuclease domain of bacterial RecBCD recombinases; may be regulated by the transcription factor Ace2
YHR144C DCD1 deoxycytidine monophosphate deaminase Deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP) deaminase; involved in dUMP and dTMP biosynthesis; expression is NOT cell cycle regulated
YOR346W REV1 deoxycytidyl transferase Deoxycytidyl transferase; involved in repair of abasic sites and adducted guanines in damaged DNA by translesion synthesis (TLS); forms a complex with the subunits of DNA polymerase zeta, Rev3p and Rev7p; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YHR068W DYS1 deoxyhypusine synthase Deoxyhypusine synthase; catalyzes formation of deoxyhypusine, the first step in hypusine biosynthesis; triggers posttranslational hypusination of translation elongation factor eIF-5A and regulates its intracellular levels; tetrameric; human homolog DHPS allows growth of yeast haploid dys1 null mutant after sporulation of heterozygous diploid
YOR386W PHR1 deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase PHR1 DNA photolyase involved in photoreactivation; repairs pyrimidine dimers in the presence of visible light; induced by DNA damage; regulated by transcriptional repressor Rph1p
YMR022W UBC7 DER2 | E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC7 | QRI8 Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme; involved in the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway and in the inner nuclear membrane-associated degradation (INMAD) pathway; requires Cue1p for recruitment to the ER membrane; proposed to be involved in chromatin assembly
YOL013C HRD1 DER3 | E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HRD1 Ubiquitin-protein ligase involved in ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of misfolded proteins; upon autoubiquitination triggers retrotranslocation of misfolded proteins to cytosol for degradation; genetically linked to the unfolded protein response (UPR); regulated through association with Hrd3p; contains an H2 ring finger; likely plays a general role in targeting proteins that persistently associate with and potentially obstruct the ER-localized translocon
YGL066W SGF73 deubiquitination module subunit SGF73 | SCA7 Subunit of DUBm module of SAGA and SLIK; has roles in anchoring deubiquitination module (DUBm) into SAGA and SLIK complexes, maintaining organization and ubiquitin-binding conformation of Ubp8p, thereby contributing to overall DUBm activity; involved in preinitiation complex assembly at promoters; relocalizes to cytosol under hypoxia; human homolog ATXN7 implicated in spinocerebellar ataxia, and can complement yeast null mutant
YDL160C DHH1 DExD/H-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase DHH1 Cytoplasmic DEAD-box helicase, stimulates mRNA decapping; coordinates distinct steps in mRNA function and decay, interacting with both decapping and deadenylase complexes; role in translational repression, mRNA decay, and possibly mRNA export; interacts and cooperates with Ngr1p to promote specific mRNA decay; ATP- and RNA-bound form promotes processing body (PB) assembly, while ATPase stimulation by Not1p promotes PB disassembly; forms cytoplasmic foci on replication stress
YER149C PEA2 DFG9 | PPF2 Coiled-coil 12S polarisome subunit; required for polarity establishment, apical bud growth, shmoo formation, filamentous differentiation; involved in Bni1p localization at sites of polarized growth, controlling polarized assembly of actin cables; role in apical growth affects diploid-specific bipolar bud site selection; retains Slt2p at bud tip to regulate ER inheritance; role in Ca2+ influx, cell fusion; S288C allele encoding Leu409 rather than Met linked with non-invasion
YKL008C LAC1 DGT1 | sphingosine N-acyltransferase LAC1 Ceramide synthase component; involved in synthesis of ceramide from C26(acyl)-coenzyme A and dihydrosphingosine or phytosphingosine, functionally equivalent to Lag1p; LAC1 has a paralog, LAG1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR054C DYN1 DHC1 | dynein heavy chain | PAC6 Cytoplasmic heavy chain dynein; microtubule motor protein; member of the AAA+ protein family, required for anaphase spindle elongation; involved in spindle assembly, chromosome movement, and spindle orientation during cell division, targeted to microtubule tips by Pac1p; motility along microtubules inhibited by She1p
YOR375C GDH1 DHE4 | GDHA | GDH-A | glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) GDH1 | URE1 NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase; synthesizes glutamate from ammonia and alpha-ketoglutarate; rate of alpha-ketoglutarate utilization differs from Gdh3p; expression regulated by nitrogen and carbon sources; GDH1 has a paralog, GDH3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR251W NOP19 DHI1 Ribosome biogenesis factor; nucleolar protein associated with pre-rRNA components of the 90S preribosome, required for cleavage of pre-rRNA at A0, A1 and A2 sites; interacts with RNA helicase Dhr2p and RNA helicase-like protein Utp25p; required for incorporation of Utp25p into preribosomes
YOR033C EXO1 DHS1 | Rad2 family nuclease EXO1 5'-3' exonuclease and flap-endonuclease; involved in recombination, double-strand break repair, MMS2 error-free branch of the post replication (PRR) pathway and DNA mismatch repair; role in telomere maintenance; member of the Rad2p nuclease family, with conserved N and I nuclease domains; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; EXO1 has a paralog, DIN7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL130C CPT1 diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase Cholinephosphotransferase; required for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and for inositol-dependent regulation of EPT1 transcription; CPT1 has a paralog, EPT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR311C DGK1 diacylglycerol kinase | HSD1 Diacylglycerol kinase; localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); overproduction induces enlargement of ER-like membrane structures and suppresses a temperature-sensitive sly1 mutation; contains a CTP transferase domain
YOR245C DGA1 diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase Diacylglycerol acyltransferase; catalyzes the terminal step of triacylglycerol (TAG) formation, acylates diacylglycerol using acyl-CoA as an acyl donor; Lro1p and Dga1p can O-acylate ceramides; localized to lipid particles
YLR025W SNF7 DID1 | ESCRT-III subunit protein SNF7 | RNS4 | VPL5 | VPS32 One of four subunits of the ESCRT-III complex; involved in the sorting of transmembrane proteins into the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway; recruited from the cytoplasm to endosomal membranes; ESCRT-III stands for endosomal sorting complex required for transport III
YKL041W VPS24 DID3 | ESCRT-III subunit protein VPS24 | VPL26 One of four subunits of the ESCRT-III complex; forms an endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) subcomplex with Did4p; involved in the sorting of transmembrane proteins into the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway
YNR006W VPS27 DID7 | ESCRT-0 subunit protein VPS27 | GRD11 | SSV17 | VPL23 | VPT27 Endosomal protein that forms a complex with Hse1p; required for recycling Golgi proteins, forming lumenal membranes and sorting ubiquitinated proteins destined for degradation; has Ubiquitin Interaction Motifs which bind ubiquitin (Ubi4p)
YDR123C INO2 DIE1 | SCS1 Transcription factor; component of the heteromeric Ino2p/Ino4p basic helix-loop-helix transcription activator that binds inositol/choline-responsive elements (ICREs), required for derepression of phospholipid biosynthetic genes in response to inositol depletion; involved in diauxic shift
YOR236W DFR1 dihydrofolate reductase Dihydrofolate reductase involved in tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis; required for respiratory metabolism; mutation is functionally complemented by human DHFR
YMR113W FOL3 dihydrofolate synthase Dihydrofolate synthetase, involved in folic acid biosynthesis; catalyzes conversion of dihydropteroate to dihydrofolate in folate coenzyme biosynthesis; FOL3 has a paralog, RMA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFL018C LPD1 dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase | HPD1 Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase; the lipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complexes; PDH complex is concentrated in spots within the mitochondrial matrix, often near the ERMES complex and near peroxisomes; LPD1 has a paralog, IRC15, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL071W LAT1 dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase | ODP2 | PDA2 Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component (E2) of the PDC; the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
YLR420W URA4 dihydroorotase Dihydroorotase; catalyzes the third enzymatic step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines, converting carbamoyl-L-aspartate into dihydroorotate
YKL216W URA1 dihydroorotate dehydrogenase Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase; catalyzes the fourth enzymatic step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines, converting dihydroorotic acid into orotic acid
YML070W DAK1 dihydroxyacetone kinase Dihydroxyacetone kinase; required for detoxification of dihydroxyacetone (DHA); involved in stress adaptation
YJR016C ILV3 dihydroxy-acid dehydratase ILV3 Dihydroxyacid dehydratase; catalyzes third step in the common pathway leading to biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids
YMR280C CAT8 DIL1 | DNA-binding transcription factor CAT8 | MSP8 Zinc cluster transcriptional activator; necessary for derepression of a variety of genes under non-fermentative growth conditions, active after diauxic shift, binds carbon source responsive elements; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YOR035C SHE4 DIM1 Protein containing a UCS (UNC-45/CRO1/SHE4) domain; binds to myosin motor domains to regulate myosin function; involved in endocytosis, polarization of the actin cytoskeleton, and asymmetric mRNA localization
YIR006C PAN1 DIM2 | MDP3 | MIP3 Part of actin cytoskeleton-regulatory complex Pan1p-Sla1p-End3p; associates with actin patches on cell cortex; promotes protein-protein interactions essential for endocytosis; binds to and activates Arp2/3 complex in vitro; phosphorylation of Thr-1225 is regulated by MAPK Hog1p in response to osmotic stress; previously thought to be a subunit of poly(A) ribonuclease
YIL066C RNR3 DIN1 | ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase subunit RNR3 | RIR3 Minor isoform of large subunit of ribonucleotide-diphosphate reductase; the RNR complex catalyzes rate-limiting step in dNTP synthesis, regulated by DNA replication and DNA damage checkpoint pathways via localization of small subunits; RNR3 has a paralog, RNR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL057W dipeptidyl-peptidase III Dipeptidyl-peptidase III; cleaves dipeptides from the amino terminus of target proteins; highly active on synthetic substrate Arg-Arg-2-naphthylamide; mammalian ortholog may be a biomarker for some cancers
YNR043W MVD1 diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase MVD1 | ERG19 Mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase; essential enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and sterols, including ergosterol; acts as a homodimer
YLR143W DPH6 diphthine--ammonia ligase Diphthamide synthetase; catalyzes the last amidation step of diphthamide biosynthesis using ammonium and ATP; evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes; dph6 mutants exhibit diphthine accumulation and resistance to sordarin, which is indicative of defects in diphthamide formation on EF2; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged protein localizes to the cytoplasm; DPH6/YLR143W is not an essential gene
YLR172C DPH5 diphthine synthase Methyltransferase required for synthesis of diphthamide; diphthamide is a modified histidine residue of translation elongation factor 2 (Eft1p or Eft2p); not essential for viability; GFP-Dph5p fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YOR191W ULS1 DIS1 | RIS1 | TID4 | translocase ULS1 Swi2/Snf2-related translocase, SUMO-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL); required for maintenance of NHEJ inhibition at telomeres; functions at telomeres to translocate and ubiquitinylate poly-sumoylated Rap1p for proteosomal degradation; plays role in antagonizing silencing during mating-type switching; only known STUbL with a translocase activity; contains RING finger domain; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YCL035C GRX1 dithiol glutaredoxin GRX1 Glutathione-dependent disulfide oxidoreductase; hydroperoxide and superoxide-radical responsive, heat-stable, with active site cysteine pair; protects cells from oxidative damage; GRX1 has a paralog, GRX2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR513W GRX2 dithiol glutaredoxin GRX2 | TTR1 Cytoplasmic glutaredoxin; thioltransferase, glutathione-dependent disulfide oxidoreductase involved in maintaining redox state of target proteins, also exhibits glutathione peroxidase activity, expression induced in response to stress; GRX2 has two in-frame start codons resulting in a shorter isoform that is retained in the cytosol and a longer form translocated to the mitochondrial matrix; GRX2 has a paralog, GRX1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL193W NUS1 ditrans,polycis-polyprenyl diphosphate synthase Forms dehydrodolichyl diphosphate syntase complex with RER2 or SRT1; tet-repressible mutant shows accumulation of hypoglycosylated forms of CPY, suggesting that Nus1p may be involved in protein trafficking; mutations in human homolog NUS1 have been implicated in congenital scoliosis, neurological impairment, refractory epilepsy, hearing deficit, and visual impairment; human cis-prenyltransferase complex complements yeast null mutant
YBR002C RER2 ditrans,polycis-polyprenyl diphosphate synthase Forms the dehydrodolichyl diphosphate syntase (DDS) complex with NUS1; major enzyme of polyprenol synthesis in both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in lipid droplets; participates in ER protein sorting; human ortholog DHDDS functionally complements the heat sensitive growth defect of a ts allele, and is associated with retinitis pigmentosa
YLR178C TFS1 DKA1 Inhibitor of carboxypeptidase Y (Prc1p), and Ras GAP (Ira2p); phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family member and ortholog of hPEBP1/RKIP, a natural metastasis suppressor; targets to vacuolar membranes during stationary phase; acetylated by NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDL174C DLD1 D-lactate dehydrogenase Major mitochondrial D-lactate dehydrogenase; oxidizes D-lactate to pyruvate, transcription is heme-dependent, repressed by glucose, and derepressed in ethanol or lactate; located in the mitochondrial inner membrane
YEL071W DLD3 D-lactate dehydrogenase 2-hydroxyglutarate transhydrogenase, and minor D-lactate dehydrogenase; converts D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), an oncometabolite, to alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of FAD, with concomitant reduction of pyruvate to D-lactate; minor lactate dehydrogenase activity; component of the retrograde regulon that consists of genes whose expression are stimulated by damage to mitochondria and reduced in cells grown with glutamate as the sole nitrogen source; located in the cytoplasm
YPL144W POC4 DMP1 | PBA4 Component of a heterodimeric Poc4p-Irc25p chaperone; involved in assembly of alpha subunits into the 20S proteasome; may regulate formation of proteasome isoforms with alternative subunits under different conditions; upregulates proteasome assembly in response to the unfolded protein response activated by mistargeting of proteins (UPRam)
YGR150C CCM1 DMR1 | RRG2 Mitochondrial 15S rRNA-binding protein; required for intron removal of COB and COX1 pre-mRNAs; has separable roles in stabilizing mitochondrial 15S rRNA and in maturation of the COB and COX1 mRNAs; contains pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs; mutant is respiratory deficient and has defective plasma membrane electron transport
YIL150C MCM10 DNA43 Essential chromatin-associated protein; involved in initiation of DNA replication; required for association of MCM2-7 complex with replication origins; required to stabilize catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-alpha; self-associates through its N-terminal domain
YDR052C DBF4 DNA52 | LSD7 | protein serine/threonine kinase activating protein DBF4 Regulatory subunit of Cdc7p-Dbf4p kinase complex; required for Cdc7p kinase activity and initiation of DNA replication; phosphorylates the Mcm2-7 family of proteins; cell cycle regulated; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; co-expression of human CDC7 and DBF4 complements single cdc7 or dbf4 null mutations or the cdc7 dbf4 double null mutation
YOR258W HNT3 DNA 5'-adenosine monophosphate hydrolase DNA 5' AMP hydrolase involved in DNA repair; member of the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily of nucleotide-binding proteins; homolog of Aprataxin, a Hint related protein that is mutated in individuals with ataxia with oculomotor apraxia; relative distribution to nuclear foci decreases upon DNA replication stress
YDR054C CDC34 DNA6 | SCF E2 ubiquitin-protein ligase catalytic subunit CDC34 | UBC3 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2); catalytic subunit of SCF ubiquitin-protein ligase complex (together with Skp1p, Rbx1p, Cdc53p, and an F-box protein) that regulates cell cycle progression by targeting key substrates for degradation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human CDC34 functionally complements the thermosensitivity of the cdc34-2 mutant
YKL114C APN1 DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase APN1 Major apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease; 3'-repair diesterase; involved in repair of DNA damage by oxidation and alkylating agents; also functions as a 3'-5' exonuclease to repair 7,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine; genetically interacts with NTG1 to maintain mitochondrial genome integrity
YBL019W APN2 DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase APN2 | ETH1 Class II abasic (AP) endonuclease involved in repair of DNA damage; homolog of human HAP1 and E. coli exoIII
YGL131C SNT2 DNA-binding E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SNT2 Subunit of Snt2C complex, RING finger ubiquitin ligase (E3); physically associates with Ecm5p and Rpd3p; along with Ecm5p, recruits Rpd3p to small number of promoters; colocalizes with Ecm5p, independently of Rpd3p, to promoters of stress response genes upon oxidative stress; involved in ubiquitination, degradation of excess histones; interacts with Ubc4p; role in regulating genes encoding amine transporters; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YMR072W ABF2 DNA-binding protein ABF2 | HM | mtTFA | p19 Mitochondrial DNA-binding protein; involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and recombination, member of HMG1 DNA-binding protein family; activity may be regulated by protein kinase A phosphorylation; ABF2 has a paralog, IXR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human homolog TFAM can complement yeast abf2 mutant, rescuing the loss-of-mitochondrial DNA phenotype in a yeast abf2 strain
YBR049C REB1 DNA-binding protein REB1 | GRF2 RNA polymerase I enhancer binding protein; DNA binding protein that binds to genes transcribed by both RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase II; required for termination of RNA polymerase I transcription; Reb1p bound to DNA acts to block RNA polymerase II readthrough transcription
YBR275C RIF1 DNA-binding protein RIF1 Protein that binds to the Rap1p C-terminus; acts synergistically with Rif2p to help control telomere length and establish telomeric silencing; involved in control of DNA replication; contributes to resection of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs); deletion results in telomere elongation
YAL027W SAW1 DNA-binding protein SAW1 5'- and 3'-flap DNA binding protein; recruits Rad1p-Rad10p to single-strand annealing intermediates with 3' non-homologous tails for removal during double-strand break repair; complexes with Rad1p-Rad10p and stimulates its endonuclease activity; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus
YLR131C ACE2 DNA-binding transcription factor ACE2 Transcription factor required for septum destruction after cytokinesis; phosphorylation by Cbk1p blocks nuclear exit during M/G1 transition, causing localization to daughter cell nuclei, and also increases Ace2p activity; phosphorylation by Cdc28p and Pho85p prevents nuclear import during cell cycle phases other than cytokinesis; part of RAM network that regulates cellular polarity and morphogenesis; ACE2 has a paralog, SWI5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR216W ADR1 DNA-binding transcription factor ADR1 Carbon source-responsive zinc-finger transcription factor; required for transcription of the glucose-repressed gene ADH2, of peroxisomal protein genes, and of genes required for ethanol, glycerol, and fatty acid utilization
YGL071W AFT1 DNA-binding transcription factor AFT1 | RCS1 Transcription factor involved in iron utilization and homeostasis; binds consensus site PyPuCACCCPu and activates transcription in response to changes in iron availability; in iron-replete conditions localization is regulated by Grx3p, Grx4p, and Fra2p, and promoter binding is negatively regulated via Grx3p-Grx4p binding; AFT1 has a paralog, AFT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YNL027W CRZ1 DNA-binding transcription factor CRZ1 | HAL8 | TCN1 Transcription factor, activates transcription of stress response genes; nuclear localization is positively regulated by calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation; rapidly localizes to the nucleus under blue light stress; can be activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization in response to calcium
YNL216W RAP1 DNA-binding transcription factor RAP1 | GRF1 | TBA1 | TUF1 Essential DNA-binding transcription regulator that binds many loci; involved in transcription activation, repression, chromatin silencing, telomere length maintenance; relocalizes to cytosol under hypoxia; conserved protein with N-terminal BRCT domain, central region with homology to Myb DNA binding domain, and C-terminal Rap1-specific protein-interaction domain (RCT domain); recruits Sir complex to telomeric DNA; present in quiescent cell telomere hyperclusters
YDR146C SWI5 DNA-binding transcription factor SWI5 Transcription factor that recruits Mediator and Swi/Snf complexes; activates transcription of genes expressed at the M/G1 phase boundary and in G1 phase; required for expression of the HO gene controlling mating type switching; localization to nucleus occurs during G1 and appears to be regulated by phosphorylation by Cdc28p kinase; SWI5 has a paralog, ACE2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML007W YAP1 DNA-binding transcription factor YAP1 | PAR1 | PDR4 | SNQ3 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor; required for oxidative stress tolerance; activated by H2O2 through the multistep formation of disulfide bonds and transit from the cytoplasm to the nucleus; Yap1p is degraded in the nucleus after the oxidative stress has passed; mediates resistance to cadmium; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; YAP1 has a paralog, CAD1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL185W ASH1 DNA-binding transcription repressor ASH1 Component of the Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex; zinc-finger inhibitor of HO transcription; mRNA is localized and translated in the distal tip of anaphase cells, resulting in accumulation of Ash1p in daughter cell nuclei and inhibition of HO expression; potential Cdc28p substrate
YKL032C IXR1 DNA-binding transcription repressor IXR1 | ORD1 Transcriptional repressor that regulates hypoxic genes during normoxia; involved in the aerobic repression of genes such as COX5b, TIR1, and HEM13; binds DNA intrastrand cross-links formed by cisplatin; HMG (high mobility group box) domain containing protein which binds and bends cisplatin-modified DNA, blocking excision repair; IXR1 has a paralog, ABF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR173W DDR48 DNA damage-responsive protein 48 | FSP DNA damage-responsive protein; expression is increased in response to heat-shock stress or treatments that produce DNA lesions; contains multiple repeats of the amino acid sequence NNNDSYGS; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL054C DEF1 DNA damage-responsive RNA polymerase-degradation factor DEF1 | VID31 RNAPII degradation factor; forms a complex with Rad26p in chromatin, enables ubiquitination and proteolysis of RNAPII present in an elongation complex; mutant is deficient in Zip1p loading onto chromosomes during meiosis
YAL019W FUN30 DNA-dependent ATPase FUN30 Snf2p family member with ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity; has a role in silencing at the mating type locus, telomeres and centromeres; enriched at centromeres and is required for correct chromatin structure around centromeres, as well as at the boundary element of the silent HMR; recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) where it promotes 5' strand resection of DSBs; potential Cdc28p substrate
YJR035W RAD26 DNA-dependent ATPase RAD26 Protein involved in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair; repairs UV-induced DNA lesions; recruitment to DNA lesions is dependent on an elongating RNA polymerase II; homolog of human CSB protein
YGL163C RAD54 DNA-dependent ATPase RAD54 | XRS1 DNA-dependent ATPase that stimulates strand exchange; modifies the topology of double-stranded DNA; involved in the recombinational repair of double-strand breaks in DNA during vegetative growth and meiosis; member of the SWI/SNF family of DNA translocases; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YBR073W RDH54 DNA-dependent ATPase RDH54 | TID1 DNA-dependent ATPase; DNA recombination/repair translocase, supercoils DNA and promotes DNA strand opening; stimulates strand exchange by modifying dsDNA topology; involved in recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during mitosis and meiosis; phosphorylated in Mec1p-, Rad53p-dependent way in response to one DSB; contributes to remodelling of nucleosomes; proposed to be involved in crossover interference; interacts with Dmc1p; stimulates Dmc1p and Rad51p
YEL055C POL5 DNA-directed DNA polymerase DNA Polymerase phi; has sequence similarity to the human MybBP1A and weak sequence similarity to B-type DNA polymerases, not required for chromosomal DNA replication; required for the synthesis of rRNA
YBL035C POL12 DNA-directed DNA polymerase alpha subunit POL12 B subunit of DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex; required for initiation of DNA replication during mitotic and premeiotic DNA synthesis; also functions in telomere capping and length regulation
YJR006W POL31 DNA-directed DNA polymerase delta subunit POL31 | HUS2 | HYS2 | SDP5 Subunit of DNA polymerase delta (polymerase III); essential for cell viability; involved in DNA replication and DNA repair; forms a complex with Rev3p, Rev7p and Pol32p; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YOR330C MIP1 DNA-directed DNA polymerase gamma MIP1 Mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma; single subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase in yeast, in contrast to metazoan complex of catalytic and accessory subunits; polymorphic in yeast, petites occur more frequently in some lab strains; human ortholog POLG complements yeast mip1 mutant; mutations in human POLG associated with Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), parkinsonism, other mitochondrial diseases
YFL036W RPO41 DNA-directed RNA polymerase Mitochondrial RNA polymerase; single subunit enzyme similar to those of T3 and T7 bacteriophages; requires a specificity subunit encoded by MTF1 for promoter recognition; Mtf1p interacts with and stabilizes the Rpo41p-promoter complex, enhancing DNA bending and melting to facilitate pre-initiation open complex formation; Rpo41p also synthesizes RNA primers for mitochondrial DNA replication
YPR110C RPC40 DNA-directed RNA polymerase core subunit RPC40 | RPC5 RNA polymerase subunit AC40; common to RNA polymerase I and III; predominant determinant targeting Ty1 integration upstream of Pol III-transcribed genes
YPR190C RPC82 DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit C82 | RPC3 | RPC80 RNA polymerase III subunit C82
YLR032W RAD5 DNA helicase RAD5 | REV2 | SNM2 DNA helicase/Ubiquitin ligase; involved in error-free DNA damage tolerance (DDT), replication fork regression during postreplication repair by template switching, error-prone translesion synthesis; promotes synthesis of free and PCNA-bound polyubiquitin chains by Ubc13p-Mms2p; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress; associates with native telomeres, cooperates with homologous recombination in senescent cells; human homolog HLTF can complement yeast null mutant
YJL092W SRS2 DNA helicase SRS2 | HPR5 | RADH | RADH1 DNA helicase and DNA-dependent ATPase; role in DNA repair and checkpoint recovery, in the proper timing of commitment to meiotic recombination and the Meiosis I to II transition; blocks trinucleotide repeat expansion; affects genome stability; disassembles Rad51p nucleoprotein filaments during meiotic recombination; stimulates Mus81p-Mms4p endonuclease activity independent of catalytic activity; ATPase and ssDNA translocating motor activities inhibited by Dmc1p; functional homolog of human RTEL1
YDL164C CDC9 DNA ligase (ATP) CDC9 | MMS8 DNA ligase I found in nucleus and mitochondria; essential enzyme that joins Okazaki fragments during DNA replication; also acts in ribonucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and recombination; DNA ligase I mutants trigger ubiquitination of PCNA at K107, facilitating Rad59p-mediated bypass of unligated Okazaki fragments; human homolog LIG1 can complement yeast cdc9 temperature-sensitive mutant at restrictive temperature
YJR043C POL32 DNA polymerase delta subunit POL32 | REV5 Third subunit of DNA polymerase delta; involved in chromosomal DNA replication; required for error-prone DNA synthesis in the presence of DNA damage and processivity; forms a complex with Rev3p, Rev7p and Pol31p; interacts with Hys2p, PCNA (Pol30p), and Pol1p
YNL262W POL2 DNA polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit | DUN2 Catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase (II) epsilon; a chromosomal DNA replication polymerase that exhibits processivity and proofreading exonuclease activity; participates in leading-strand synthesis during DNA replication; also involved in DNA synthesis during DNA repair; interacts extensively with Mrc1p
YDR121W DPB4 DNA polymerase epsilon noncatalytic subunit Subunit of DNA pol epsilon and of ISW2 chromatin accessibility complex; involved in both chromosomal DNA replication and inheritance of telomeric silencing; stabilizes the interaction of Pol epsilon with primer-template DNA, positively affecting the processivity of the polymerase and exonuclease activities of Pol epsilon; interacts with extranucleosomal DNA and acts as anchor point for ISW2 complex that retains its position on DNA during nucleosome mobilization
YBR278W DPB3 DNA polymerase epsilon noncatalytic subunit Third-largest subunit of DNA polymerase II (DNA polymerase epsilon); required to maintain fidelity of chromosomal replication and also for inheritance of telomeric silencing; stabilizes the interaction of Pol epsilon with primer-template DNA, positively affecting the processivity of the polymerase and exonuclease activities of Pol epsilon; mRNA abundance peaks at the G1/S boundary of the cell cycle; DPB3 has a paralog, DLS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR175W DPB2 DNA polymerase epsilon noncatalytic subunit Second largest subunit of DNA polymerase II (DNA polymerase epsilon); required for maintenance of fidelity of chromosomal replication; essential motif in C-terminus is required for formation of the four-subunit Pol epsilon; expression peaks at the G1/S phase boundary; Cdc28p substrate
YOL034W SMC5 DNA repair ATPase SMC5 Subunit of the SMC5-SMC6 complex; the SMC5-SMC6 complex plays a key role in the removal of X-shaped DNA structures that arise between sister chromatids during DNA replication and repair; binds single-stranded DNA and has ATPase activity; supports nucleolar function; S. pombe homolog forms a heterodimer with S. pombe Rad18p that is involved in DNA repair
YBR114W RAD16 DNA repair protein RAD16 | PSO5 Nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein; binds damaged DNA during NER; binds DNA in an ATP-dependent manner (with Rad7p) during NER; required for NER of non-transcribed chromatin; subunit of Nucleotide Excision Repair Factor 4 (NEF4) and the Elongin-Cullin-Socs (ECS) ligase complex
YLR383W SMC6 DNA repair protein SMC6 | RHC18 Component of the SMC5-SMC6 complex; this complex plays a key role in the removal of X-shaped DNA structures that arise between sister chromatids during DNA replication and repair; homologous to S. pombe rad18
YLR103C CDC45 DNA replication initiation factor CDC45 | SLD4 DNA replication initiation factor; recruited to MCM pre-RC complexes at replication origins; promotes release of MCM from Mcm10p, recruits elongation machinery; binds tightly to ssDNA, which disrupts interaction with the MCM helicase and stalls it during replication stress; mutants in human homolog may cause velocardiofacial and DiGeorge syndromes
YOL006C TOP1 DNA topoisomerase 1 | MAK1 | MAK17 Topoisomerase I; nuclear enzyme that relieves torsional strain in DNA by cleaving and re-sealing the phosphodiester backbone; relaxes both positively and negatively supercoiled DNA; functions in replication, transcription, and recombination; role in processing ribonucleoside monophosphates in genomic DNA into irreversible single-strand breaks; enzymatic activity and interaction with Nsr1p are negatively regulated by polyphosphorylation
YNL088W TOP2 DNA topoisomerase 2 | TOR3 | TRF3 Topoisomerase II; relieves torsional strain in DNA by cleaving and re-sealing phosphodiester backbone of both positively and negatively supercoiled DNA; cleaves complementary strands; localizes to axial cores in meiosis; required for replication slow zone (RSZ) breakage following Mec1p inactivation; human homolog TOP2A implicated in cancers, and can complement yeast null mutant
YLR234W TOP3 DNA topoisomerase 3 | EDR1 DNA Topoisomerase III; conserved protein that functions in a complex with Sgs1p and Rmi1p to relax single-stranded negatively-supercoiled DNA preferentially; DNA catenation/decatenation activity is stimulated by RPA and Sgs1p-Top3p-Rmi1p; involved in telomere stability and regulation of mitotic recombination
YOR304W ISW2 DNA translocase ATP-dependent DNA translocase involved in chromatin remodeling; ATPase component that, with Itc1p, forms a complex required for repression of a-specific genes, INO1, and early meiotic genes during mitotic growth; the Isw2 complex exhibits basal levels of chromatin binding throughout the genome as well as target-specific chromatin interactions; targeted by Ume6p- and Sua7p-dependent DNA looping to many loci genome-wide
YIL030C SSM4 DOA10 | E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SSM4 | KIS3 Membrane-embedded ubiquitin-protein ligase; ER and inner nuclear membrane localized RING-CH domain E3 ligase involved in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD); targets misfolded cytosolic/nucleoplasmic domains of soluble and membrane embedded proteins (ERAD-C) and a transmembrane domain containing substrate (ERAD-M), Sbh2p; C-terminal element (CTE), conserved in human ortholog MARCH10/TEB4, determines substrate selectivity
YER100W UBC6 DOA2 | E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC6 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme involved in ERAD; located at the cytosolic side of the ER membrane; tail region contains a transmembrane segment at the C-terminus; substrate of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway; ER-associated protein degradation is also known as ERAD
YPR103W PRE2 DOA3 | PRG1 | proteasome core particle subunit beta 5 | SRR2 Beta 5 subunit of the 20S proteasome; responsible for the chymotryptic activity of the proteasome
YGR253C PUP2 DOA5 | proteasome core particle subunit alpha 5 Alpha 5 subunit of the 20S proteasome; involved in ubiquitin-dependent catabolism; human homolog is subunit zeta
YGL022W STT3 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycosyltransferase subunit STT3 Subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex of the ER lumen; complex catalyzes asparagine-linked glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins; forms a subcomplex with Ost3p and Ost4p and is directly involved in catalysis
YMR149W SWP1 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycotransferase Delta subunit of the oligosaccharyl transferase glycoprotein complex; complex is required for N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum
YEL002C WBP1 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycotransferase Beta subunit of the oligosaccharyl transferase glycoprotein complex; required for N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum; human homolog DDOST can complement yeast growth defect during down-regulation of yeast gene
YOR085W OST3 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycotransferase OST3 Gamma subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex of the ER lumen; complex catalyzes asparagine-linked glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins; Ost3p is important for N-glycosylation of a subset of proteins
YGL226C-A OST5 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycotransferase subunit Zeta subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex of the ER lumen; complex catalyzes asparagine-linked glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins
YJL002C OST1 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycotransferase subunit OST1 | NLT1 Alpha subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex of the ER lumen; complex catalyzes asparagine-linked glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins
YOR002W ALG6 dolichyl-P-Glc:Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol alpha-1,3-glucosyltransferase Alpha 1,3 glucosyltransferase; involved in transfer of oligosaccharides from dolichyl pyrophosphate to asparagine residues of proteins during N-linked protein glycosylation; C998T transition in human ortholog ALG6 causes carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type-Ic; wild-type human ortholog ALG6 can partially complement yeast alg6 mutant
YPR183W DPM1 dolichyl-phosphate beta-D-mannosyltransferase | SED3 Dolichol phosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man) synthase of ER membrane; catalyzes formation of Dol-P-Man from Dol-P and GDP-Man; required for biosynthesis of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor, as well as O-mannosylation and protein N- and O-linked glycosylation; human homolog DPM1 can complement yeast mutant strains
YPL227C ALG5 dolichyl-phosphate beta-glucosyltransferase UDP-glucose:dolichyl-phosphate glucosyltransferase; involved in asparagine-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum; human ortholog ALG5 can partially complement yeast alg5 mutant
YJR143C PMT4 dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferase Protein O-mannosyltransferase; transfers mannose residues from dolichyl phosphate-D-mannose to protein serine/threonine residues; appears to form homodimers in vivo and does not complex with other Pmt proteins; target for new antifungals
YDL095W PMT1 dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferase PMT1 Protein O-mannosyltransferase of the ER membrane; transfers mannose from dolichyl phosphate-D-mannose to protein serine and threonine residues; 1 of 7 related proteins involved in O-glycosylation which is essential for cell wall rigidity; involved in ER quality control; amino terminus faces cytoplasm, carboxyl terminus faces ER lumen
YAL023C PMT2 dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferase PMT2 | FUN25 Protein O-mannosyltransferase of the ER membrane; transfers mannose residues from dolichyl phosphate-D-mannose to protein serine/threonine residues; involved in ER quality control; acts in a complex with Pmt1p, can instead interact with Pmt5p; antifungal drug target; PMT2 has a paralog, PMT3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR321W PMT3 dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferase PMT3 Protein O-mannosyltransferase; transfers mannose residues from dolichyl phosphate-D-mannose to protein serine/threonine residues; acts in a complex with Pmt5p, can instead interact with Pmt1p in some conditions; antifungal drug target; PMT3 has a paralog, PMT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL082C ALG3 dolichyl-P-Man:Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol alpha-1,3-mannosyltransferase | RHK1 Dolichol-P-Man dependent alpha(1-3) mannosyltransferase; involved in synthesis of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide donor for N-linked glycosylation of proteins; G353A missense mutation in human ortholog ALG3 implicated in carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome type IV, which is characterized by microcephaly, severe epilepsy, minimal psychomotor development, partial deficiency of sialic acids in serum glycoproteins; wild-type human ALG3 can complement yeast alg3 mutant
YNL219C ALG9 dolichyl-P-Man:Man(6)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase Mannosyltransferase, involved in N-linked glycosylation; catalyzes the transfer of both the seventh mannose residue on B-arm and ninth mannose residue on the C-arm from Dol-P-Man to lipid-linked oligosaccharides; human homolog ALG9 can complement yeast null mutant; mutation of human homolog causes type 1 congenital disorders of glycosylation
YNR030W ALG12 dolichyl-P-Man:Man(7)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase | ECM39 Alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase localized to the ER; responsible for addition of alpha-1,6 mannose to dolichol-linked Man7GlcNAc2; acts in the dolichol pathway for N-glycosylation; human homolog ALG12 complements yeast null mutant
YML071C COG8 DOR1 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG8 Component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YDR069C DOA4 DOS1 | MUT4 | NPI2 | SSV7 | ubiquitin-specific protease DOA4 | UBP4 Ubiquitin hydrolase; deubiquitinates intralumenal vesicle (ILVs) cargo proteins; required for recycling ubiquitin from proteasome-bound ubiquitinated intermediates, acts at the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment to recover ubiquitin from ubiquitinated membrane proteins destined for the vacuole; DOA4 has a paralog, UBP5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL186W UBP10 DOT4 | ubiquitin-specific protease UBP10 Ubiquitin-specific protease, deubiquitinates Ub-protein moieties; interacts with proteins that function in rRNA production and ribosome biogenesis via its intrinsically disordered regions; stabilizes Rpa190p by deubiquitination; controls PCNA deubiquitylation; may regulate silencing by acting on Sir4p; involved in posttranscriptionally regulating Gap1p, possibly other transporters; localized to the nucleolus; null mutant phenotypes are functionally complemented by human USP36
YDR332W IRC3 double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase Double-stranded DNA-dependent helicase of the DExH/D-box family; required for maintenance of the mitochondrial (mt) genome; null mutant accumulates double-stranded breaks in mt DNA; localizes to the mt matrix
YBL071W-A KTI11 DPH3 Zn-ribbon protein that co-purifies with Dph1 and Dph2; in a complex required for synthesis of diphthamide on translation factor eEF2 and with Elongator subunits Iki3p, Elp2p, and Elp3p; involved in modification of wobble nucleosides in tRNAs; forms a stable heterodimer with Ats1p
YJR097W JJJ3 DPH4 Protein of unknown function; contains a CSL Zn finger and a DnaJ-domain; involved in diphthamide biosynthesis; ortholog human Dph4
YDL090C RAM1 DPR1 | FUS8 | protein farnesyltransferase | SCG2 | SGP2 | STE16 Beta subunit of the CAAX farnesyltransferase (FTase); this complex prenylates the a-factor mating pheromone and Ras proteins; required for the membrane localization of Ras proteins and a-factor; homolog of the mammalian FTase beta subunit
YKL108W SLD2 DRC1 Single-stranded DNA origin-binding and annealing protein; required for initiation of DNA replication; phosphorylated in S phase by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), promoting origin binding, DNA replication and Dpb11p complex formation; component of the preloading complex; binds the Mcm2-7p complex to prevent inappropriate Mcm2-7p interaction with the GINS complex in G1; required for S phase checkpoint; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YDR182W CDC1 DSC1 | DSR1 | ESP2 | putative lipid phosphatase CDC1 Putative mannose-ethanolamine phosphate phosphodiesterase; involved in GPI-anchor remodeling prior to the attachment of cell wall proteins to beta 1,3-glucan, removing ethanolamine phosphate from the first mannose of GPI anchors; mutants display elevated Ca2+-dependent signaling resulting in secondary actin polarization and Golgi inheritance defects; enzyme is Mn2+-dependent; mutants have cell division cycle defect and fragile cell walls
YLR440C SEC39 DSL3 Component of the Dsl1p tethering complex; this complex interacts with ER SNAREs Sec20p and Use1p; mediates Sey1p-independent homotypic ER fusion; proposed to be involved in protein secretion; localizes to the ER and nuclear envelope
YAL034W-A MTW1 DSN3 | MIND complex subunit MTW1 | NSL2 Essential component of the MIND kinetochore complex; joins kinetochore subunits contacting DNA to those contacting microtubules; critical to kinetochore assembly; complex consists of Mtw1p Including Nnf1p-Nsl1p-Dsn1p (MIND)
YDR363W-A SEM1 DSS1 | HOD1 | proteasome regulatory particle lid subunit SEM1 19S proteasome regulatory particle lid subcomplex component; role in Ub-dependent proteolysis and proteasome stability; involved in TREX-2 mediated mRNA export, and in the prevention of transcription-associated genome instability; ubiquitinated by Nedd4-like E3-ligase, Rsp5p; human ortholog DSS1, a BRCA1 binding protein implicated in cancer, complements the yeast null; drives trinucleotide repeat expansion; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDL219W DTD1 D-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase D-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase; functions in protein translation, may affect nonsense suppression via alteration of the protein synthesis machinery; ubiquitous among eukaryotes
YAR028W DUP240 family protein Putative integral membrane protein; member of DUP240 gene family; GFP-fusion protein is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YAR027W UIP3 DUP240 family protein UIP3 Putative integral membrane protein of unknown function; interacts with Ulp1p at the nuclear periphery; member of DUP240 gene family
YIR023W DAL81 DURL | UGA35 Positive regulator of genes in multiple nitrogen degradation pathways; contains DNA binding domain but does not appear to bind the dodecanucleotide sequence present in the promoter region of many genes involved in allantoin catabolism
YNR015W SMM1 DUS2 Dihydrouridine synthase; member of a family of dihydrouridine synthases including Dus1p, Smm1p, Dus3p, and Dus4p; modifies uridine residues at position 20 of cytoplasmic tRNAs
YOR165W SEY1 dynamin-like GTPase SEY1 Dynamin-like GTPase that mediates homotypic ER fusion; has a role in ER morphology; interacts physically and genetically with Yop1p and Rtn1p; functional ortholog of the human atlastin ATL1, defects in which cause a form of the human disease hereditary spastic paraplegia; homolog of Arabidopsis RHD3
YKR001C VPS1 dynamin-like GTPase VPS1 | GRD1 | LAM1 | SPO15 | VPL1 | VPT26 Dynamin-like GTPase required for vacuolar sorting; also involved in actin cytoskeleton organization, endocytosis, late Golgi-retention of some proteins, regulation of peroxisome biogenesis
YLL001W DNM1 dynamin-related GTPase DNM1 Dynamin-related GTPase involved in mitochondrial organization; required for mitochondrial fission and inheritance; self assembles on the cytoplasmic face of mitochondrial tubules at sites where division will occur; participates in endocytosis and regulates peroxisome fission along with Vps1p; mutants in the human ortholog DNM1L, which mediates mitochondrial fission, peroxisomal division, autophagy, and mitophagy, are associated with slowly progressive infantile encephalopathy
YDR424C DYN2 dynein light chain | SLC1 Cytoplasmic light chain dynein, microtubule motor protein; required for intracellular transport and cell division; involved in mitotic spindle positioning; forms complex with dynein intermediate chain Pac11p that promotes Dyn1p homodimerization, potentiates motor processivity; Dyn2p-Pac11p complex important for interaction of dynein motor complex with dynactin complex; acts as molecular glue to dimerize, stabilize Nup82-Nsp1-Nup159 complex module of cytoplasmic pore filaments
YMR299C DYN3 dynein light intermediate chain Dynein light intermediate chain (LIC); localizes with dynein, null mutant is defective in nuclear migration
YPR180W AOS1 E1 ubiquitin-activating protein AOS1 | RHC31 Subunit of heterodimeric nuclear SUMO activating enzyme E1 with Uba2p; activates Smt3p (SUMO) before its conjugation to proteins (sumoylation), which may play a role in protein targeting; essential for viability; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YKL210W UBA1 E1 ubiquitin-activating protein UBA1 Ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1); involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation and essential for viability; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR390C UBA2 E1 ubiquitin-activating protein UBA2 | UAL1 Subunit of heterodimeric nuclear SUMO activating enzyme E1 with Aos1p; activates Smt3p (SUMO) before its conjugation to proteins (sumoylation), which may play a role in protein targeting; essential for viability
YDL064W UBC9 E2 SUMO-conjugating protein UBC9 SUMO-conjugating enzyme involved in the Smt3p conjugation pathway; nuclear protein required for S- and M-phase cyclin degradation and mitotic control; involved in proteolysis mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex cyclosome (APCC)
YGL087C MMS2 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein MMS2 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant; involved in error-free postreplication repair; forms a heteromeric complex with Ubc13p, an active ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme; cooperates with chromatin-associated RING finger proteins, Rad18p and Rad5p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGL058W RAD6 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein RAD6 | PSO8 | UBC2 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2); involved in postreplication repair as a heterodimer with Rad18p, regulation of K63 polyubiquitination in response to oxidative stress, DSBR and checkpoint control as a heterodimer with Bre1p, ubiquitin-mediated N-end rule protein degradation as a heterodimer with Ubr1p, ERAD with Ubr1p in the absence of canonical ER membrane ligases, and Rpn4p turnover as part of proteasome homeostasis, in complex with Ubr2p and Mub1p
YDR177W UBC1 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC1 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme; key E2 partner with Ubc4p for the anaphase-promoting complex (APC); mediates selective degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins; plays a role in vesicle biogenesis and ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD); component of the cellular stress response; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress key E2 partner with Ubc4p for the anaphase-promoting complex (APC)
YDR092W UBC13 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC13 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme; involved in the error-free DNA postreplication repair pathway; interacts with Mms2p to assemble ubiquitin chains at the Ub Lys-63 residue; DNA damage triggers redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus
YBR082C UBC4 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC4 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2); key E2 partner with Ubc1p for the anaphase-promoting complex (APC); mediates degradation of abnormal or excess proteins, including calmodulin and histone H3; regulates levels of DNA Polymerase-{alpha} to promote efficient and accurate DNA replication; interacts with many SCF ubiquitin protein ligases; component of the cellular stress response; UBC4 has a paralog, UBC5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR059C UBC5 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC5 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme; mediates selective degradation of short-lived, abnormal, or excess proteins, including histone H3; central component of the cellular stress response; expression is heat inducible; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; UBC5 has a paralog, UBC4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL012W UBC8 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC8 | GID3 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that regulates gluconeogenesis; negatively regulates gluconeogenesis by mediating the glucose-induced ubiquitination of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase); cytoplasmic enzyme that catalyzes the ubiquitination of histones in vitro
YGR133W PEX4 E2 ubiquitin-protein ligase peroxin 4 | PAS2 | UBC10 Peroxisomal ubiquitin conjugating enzyme; required for peroxisomal matrix protein import and peroxisome biogenesis
YDL074C BRE1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase BRE1 E3 ubiquitin ligase; forms heterodimer with Rad6p to regulate K63 polyubiquitination in response to oxidative stress and to monoubiquinate histone H2B-K123, which is required for the subsequent methylation of histone H3-K4 and H3-K79; required for DSBR, transcription, silencing, and checkpoint control; interacts with RNA-binding protein Npl3p, linking histone ubiquitination to mRNA processing; Bre1p-dependent histone ubiquitination promotes pre-mRNA splicing
YDR266C HEL2 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HEL2 | RQT1 RING finger ubiquitin ligase (E3); involved in ubiquitination and degradation of excess histones; interacts with Ubc4p and Rad53p; null mutant sensitive to hydroxyurea (HU); green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; computational analysis suggests a role as a transcription factor
YLR247C IRC20 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase IRC20 E3 ubiquitin ligase and putative helicase; involved in synthesis-dependent strand annealing-mediated homologous recombination; ensures precise end-joining along with Srs2p in the Yku70p/Yku80p/Lig4p-dependent nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway; localizes to both the mitochondrion and the nucleus; contains a Snf2/Swi2 family ATPase/helicase and a RING finger domain; interacts with Cdc48p and Smt3p; null mutant displays increased levels of spontaneous Rad52p foci
YLL036C PRP19 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase PRP19 | PSO4 Splicing factor associated with the spliceosome; contains a U-box, a motif found in a class of ubiquitin ligases, and a WD40 domain; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YDR457W TOM1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TOM1 E3 ubiquitin ligase of the hect-domain class; has a role in mRNA export from the nucleus and may regulate transcriptional coactivators; involved in degradation of excess histones; interacts with Dia2p and is required for Dia2p degradation; required to target Cdc6p for ubiquitin-mediated destruction during G1 phase
YGR002C SWC4 EAF2 | GOD1 Component of the Swr1p complex that incorporates Htz1p into chromatin; component of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex
YHR090C YNG2 EAF4 | histone acetyltransferase YNG2 | NBN1 Subunit of NuA4, an essential histone acetyltransferase complex; positions Piccolo NuA4 for efficient acetylation of histone H4 or histone H2A; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; similar to human tumor suppressor ING1 and its isoforms ING4 and ING5
YER016W BIM1 EB1 | microtubule-binding protein BIM1 | YEB1 Microtubule plus end-tracking protein; together with Kar9p makes up the cortical microtubule capture site and delays the exit from mitosis when the spindle is oriented abnormally; homolog of human end binding protein 1 (EB1)
YJR137C MET5 ECM17 | sulfite reductase (NADPH) subunit beta Sulfite reductase beta subunit; involved in amino acid biosynthesis, transcription repressed by methionine
YGR195W SKI6 ECM20 | exosome non-catalytic core subunit SKI6 | RRP41 Exosome non-catalytic core component; involved in 3'-5' RNA processing and degradation in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm; has similarity to E. coli RNase PH and to human hRrp41p (EXOSC4)
YKL025C PAN3 ECM35 Essential subunit of the Pan2p-Pan3p poly(A)-ribonuclease complex; poly (A) mRNA binding subunit which recruits mRNA to the complex; the Pan2p-Pan3p complex controls poly(A) tail length and regulates the stoichiometry and activity of postreplication repair complexes
YMR062C ARG7 ECM40 | glutamate N-acetyltransferase Mitochondrial ornithine acetyltransferase; catalyzes the fifth step in arginine biosynthesis; also possesses acetylglutamate synthase activity, regenerates acetylglutamate while forming ornithine
YML048W GSF2 ECM6 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized integral membrane protein; may promote secretion of certain hexose transporters, including Gal2p; involved in glucose-dependent repression
YOR304C-A BIL1 EDO1 Protein that binds Bud6p and has a role in actin cable assembly; involved in the Bnr1p-dependent pathway of cable assembly; localizes to bud tip and bud neck
YPR080W TEF1 eEF1A | EF-1 alpha | translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha Translational elongation factor EF-1 alpha; GTP-bound active form, binds to and delivers aminoacylated tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes for elongation of nascent polypeptides; moonlighting function as an actin binding and bundling protein; association with GTPase Rho1p on the vacuolar membrane may facilitate F-actin remodeling; involved in tRNA re-export from the nucleus
YBR118W TEF2 eEF1A | EF-1 alpha | translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha Translational elongation factor EF-1 alpha; GTP-bound active form, binds to and delivers aminoacylated tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes for elongation of nascent polypeptides; moonlighting function as an actin binding and bundling protein; association with GTPase Rho1p on the vacuolar membrane may facilitate F-actin remodeling; involved in tRNA re-export from the nucleus; Tef2p-RFP levels increase during replicative aging
YLR249W YEF3 eEF3 | EF-3 | TEF3 | translation elongation factor EF-3 Translation elongation factor 3; contains two ABC cassettes; binds and hydrolyzes ATP; YEF3 has a paralog, HEF3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL081W TEF4 EFC1 | translation elongation factor EF1B gamma Gamma subunit of translational elongation factor eEF1B; stimulates the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA (AA-tRNA) to ribosomes by releasing eEF1A (Tef1p/Tef2p) from the ribosomal complex
YNL163C RIA1 EFL1 | GTPase RIA1 Cytoplasmic GTPase/eEF2-like factor involved in ribosomal biogenesis; with Sdo1p, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), promotes release of Tif6p from 60S ribosomal subunits in the cytoplasm so that they can assemble with 40S subunits to generate mature ribosomes; required for quality control check of newly made large ribosomal subunits before they are released into the pool of translating ribosomes
YLR285W NNT1 EFM7 | S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase; novel N-terminal protein methyltransferase that trimethylates the N-terminal glycine residue (G2) and also dimethylates lysine (K3) on elongation factor eEF1A (Tef1p/Tef2p); has a role in rDNA silencing and in lifespan determination
YKR007W MEH1 EGO1 | GSE2 Subunit of the EGO/GSE complex; the vacuolar/endosomal membrane associated EGO/GSE complex regulates exit from rapamycin-induced growth arrest, stimulating microautophagy and sorting of Gap1p from the endosome to the plasma membrane; loss results in a defect in vacuolar acidification
YBR077C SLM4 EGO3 | GSE1 | NIR1 Subunit of the EGO/GSE complex; the vacuolar/endosomal membrane associated EGO/GSE complex regulates exit from rapamycin-induced growth arrest, stimulating microautophagy and sorting of Gap1p from the endosome to the plasma membrane; essential for the integrity and function of EGO; gene exhibits synthetic genetic interaction with MSS4
YKL193C SDS22 EGP1 | type 1 protein phosphatase-activating protein SDS22 Regulatory subunit of the type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) Glc7p; whether it functions as a positive or negative regulator of Glc7p is controversial; involved in the regulation of Glc7p nuclear localization and function
YKR059W TIF1 eIF4A | translation initiation factor eIF4A Translation initiation factor eIF4A; DEA(D/H)-box RNA helicase that couples ATPase activity to RNA binding and unwinding; forms a dumbbell structure of two compact domains connected by a linker; interacts with eIF4G; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TIF1 has a paralog, TIF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL138C TIF2 eIF4A | translation initiation factor eIF4A Translation initiation factor eIF4A; DEA(D/H)-box RNA helicase that couples ATPase activity to RNA binding and unwinding; forms a dumbbell structure of two compact domains connected by a linker; interacts with eIF4G; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TIF2 has a paralog, TIF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR163C TIF3 eIF4B | RBL3 | STM1 Translation initiation factor eIF-4B; contains an RNA recognition motif and binds to single-stranded RNA; has RNA annealing activity; interacts with Rps20p at the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit and alters the structure of the mRNA entry channel
YOL139C CDC33 eIF4E | TIF45 | translation initiation factor eIF4E mRNA cap binding protein and translation initiation factor eIF4E; the eIF4E-cap complex is responsible for mediating cap-dependent mRNA translation via interactions with translation initiation factor eIF4G (Tif4631p or Tif4632p); protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; mutants are defective for adhesion and pseudohyphal growth; human homolog EIF4E can complement yeast cdc33 null mutant
YGR162W TIF4631 eiF4G1 | translation initiation factor eIF4G Translation initiation factor eIF4G; subunit of the mRNA cap-binding protein complex (eIF4F) that also contains eIF4E (Cdc33p); interacts with Pab1p and with eIF4A (Tif1p); also has a role in biogenesis of the large ribosomal subunit; TIF4631 has a paralog, TIF4632, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL049C TIF4632 eIF4G2 | translation initiation factor eIF4G Translation initiation factor eIF4G; subunit of the mRNA cap-binding protein complex (eIF4F) that also contains eIF4E (Cdc33p); associates with the poly(A)-binding protein Pab1p, also interacts with eIF4A (Tif1p); TIF4632 has a paralog, TIF4631, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR047C ANB1 eIF5A | eIF-5A | HYP1 | TIF51B | translation elongation factor eIF-5A Translation elongation factor eIF-5A; previously thought to function in translation initiation; undergoes an essential hypusination modification; expressed under anaerobic conditions; ANB1 has a paralog, HYP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human EIF5A complements the inviability of the yeast hyp2 anb1 double null mutant
YAL035W FUN12 eIF5B | translation initiation factor eIF5B | yIF2 Translation initiation factor eIF5B; GTPase that promotes Met-tRNAiMet binding to ribosomes and ribosomal subunit joining; promotes GTP-dependent maturation of 18S rRNA by Nob1p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; homolog of bacterial IF2
YMR142C RPL13B eL13 | L13B | L13e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L13B Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L13B; not essential for viability; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L13, no bacterial homolog; RPL13B has a paralog, RPL13A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL006W RPL14A eL14 | L14A | L14e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L14A Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L14A; N-terminally acetylated; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L14, no bacterial homolog; RPL14A has a paralog, RPL14B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHL001W RPL14B eL14 | L14B | L14e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L14B Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L14B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L14, no bacterial homolog; RPL14B has a paralog, RPL14A, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR121C RPL15B eL15 | L13B | L15B | L15e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L15B | rp15R | YL10 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L15B; binds to 5.8 S rRNA; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L15, no bacterial homolog; RPL15B has a paralog, RPL15A, that arose from the whole genome duplication; relocalizes from nucleus to nucleolus upon DNA replication stress
YNL301C RPL18B eL18 | L18B | L18e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L18B | rp28B | RP28B Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L18B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L18, no bacterial homolog; RPL18B has a paralog, RPL18A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR084C-A RPL19A eL19 | L19A | L19e | L23A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L19A | rpl5L | YL14 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L19A; rpl19a and rpl19b single null mutations result in slow growth, while the double null mutation is lethal; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L19, no bacterial homolog; RPL19A has a paralog, RPL19B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL027W RPL19B eL19 | L19B | L19e | L23B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L19B | rpl5L | YL14 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L19B; rpl19a and rpl19b single null mutations result in slow growth, while the double null mutation is lethal; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L19, no bacterial homolog; RPL19B has a paralog, RPL19A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR242C RPL20A eL20 | L18A | L20A | L20e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L20A | RPL18A2 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L20A; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L18A, no bacterial homolog; RPL20A has a paralog, RPL20B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR312C RPL20B eL20 | L18B | L20B | L20e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L20B | RPL18A1 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L20B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L18A, no bacterial homolog; RPL20B has a paralog, RPL20A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR191W RPL21A eL21 | L21A | L21e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L21A | URP1 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L21A; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L21, no bacterial homolog; RPL21A has a paralog, RPL21B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL079W RPL21B eL21 | L21B | L21e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L21B Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L21B; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L21, no bacterial homolog; RPL21B has a paralog, RPL21A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR061W RPL22A eL22 | l1c | L22A | L22e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L22A | rp4 | YL31 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L22A; required for translation of long 5' UTR of IME1 mRNA and meiotic entry; required for the oxidative stress response, pseudohyphal and invasive growth; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L22, no bacterial homolog; RPL22A has a paralog, RPL22B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFL034C-A RPL22B eL22 | l1c | L22B | L22e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L22B | rp4 | YFL035C-B | YL31 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L22A; required for translation of long 5' UTR of IME1 mRNA and meiotic entry; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L22, no bacterial homolog; RPL22B has a paralog, RPL22A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL031C RPL24A eL24 | L24A | L24e | L30A | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L24A | rp29 | RPL30A | YL21 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L24A; not essential for translation but may be required for normal translation rate; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L24, no bacterial homolog; RPL24A has a paralog, RPL24B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR148C RPL24B eL24 | L24B | L24e | L30B | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L24B | rp29 | RPL30B | YL21 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L24B; not essential for translation but may be required for normal translation rate; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L24, no bacterial homolog; RPL24B has a paralog, RPL24A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR010W RPL27A eL27 | L27A | L27e | ribosomal 60S subunit protein L27A | RPL27 Ribosomal 60S subunit protein L27A; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein L27, no bacterial homolog; RPL27A has a paralog, RPL27B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR471W