ORF Standard name Aliases Description
YDL144C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; YDL144C is not an essential gene; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR170W-A gag protein Retrotransposon TYA Gag gene; Gag is a nucleocapsid protein that is the structural constituent of virus-like particles (VLPs); similar to retroviral Gag; YDR170W-A is part of a mutant retrotransposon; distribution in the cytoplasm becomes irregular rather than punctate upon DNA replication stress
YLR035C-A gag-pol fusion protein Retrotransposon TYA Gag and TYB Pol genes; polyprotein is processed to make a nucleocapsid-like protein (Gag), reverse transcriptase (RT), protease (PR), and integrase (IN); YLR035C-A is part of a mutant retrotransposon
YAR009C truncated gag-pol fusion protein | YARCTyB1-1 Retrotransposon TYA Gag and TYB Pol genes; Gag processing produces capsid proteins, Pol is cleaved to produce protease, reverse transcriptase and integrase activities; in YARCTy1-1 TYB is mutant and probably non-functional; protein product forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YNL095C Putative protein of unknown function; predicted to contain a transmembrane domain; not an essential gene; YNL095C has a paralog, ECM3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR259W Protein of unknown function; YBR259W is not an essential gene; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YDL211C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the vacuole; YDL211C has a paralog, TDA7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR036C Putative protein predicted to have transmembrane domains; interacts with HSP90 by yeast two-hybrid analysis; YLR036C is not an essential protein
YGR219W Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; partially overlaps the verified ORF MRPL9/YGR220C
YPL071C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus
YBL010C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein colocalizes with clathrin-coated vesicles
YPL068C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YLR001C Putative protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; predicted to be palmitoylated
YDL012C Tail-anchored plasma membrane protein with a conserved CYSTM module; possibly involved in response to stress; may contribute to non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) based on ydl012c htz1 double null phenotype; YDL012C has a paralog, YBR016W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR084W CSN12 Protein that forms a complex with Thp3p; may have a role in transcription elongation and/or mRNA splicing; identified as a COP9 signalosome component but phenotype and interactions suggest it may not be involved with the signalosome
YGR237C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YLL032C Protein of unknown function; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YLL032C is not an essential gene
YLL054C Putative protein of unknown function with similarity to Pip2p; an oleate-specific transcriptional activator of peroxisome proliferation; YLL054C is not an essential gene
YHR182W Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery and cytoplasm; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YGR266W Protein of unknown function; predicted to contain a single transmembrane domain; mutant has increased aneuploidy tolerance; localized to both the mitochondrial outer membrane and the plasma membrane; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGR269W Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; partially overlaps the uncharacterized ORF HUA1/YGR268C
YJR096W aldo-keto reductase superfamily protein Xylose and arabinose reductase; member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) family; GFP-fusion protein is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YPR003C Putative sulfate permease; physically interacts with Hsp82p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the ER; YPR003C is not an essential gene
YJR098C Putative protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YPR011C Mitochondrial transporter; major substrates are adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) and 3'-phospho-adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS); member of the mitochondrial carrier family; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YKR078W Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function; potential Cdc28p substrate; contains a Phox homology (PX) domain and specifically binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns-3-P); YKR078W has a paralog, VPS5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR075C Protein of unknown function; similar to Reg1p; expression regulated by glucose and Rgt1p; GFP-fusion protein is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS; YKR075C has a paralog, YOR062C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL028C Protein of unknown function that may interact with ribosomes; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleolus; predicted to be involved in ribosome biogenesis
YBL029W Non-essential protein of unknown function
YKR070W Putative protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YGR283C putative methyltransferase Putative methyltransferase; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; predicted to be involved in ribosome biogenesis; null mutant is resistant to fluconazole; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the nucleolus; YGR283C has a paralog, YMR310C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL029C-A Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; has potential orthologs in Saccharomyces species and in Yarrowia lipolytica
YKR045C Putative protein of unknown function; epitope-tagged protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YKR041W Protein of unknown function; localizes to the mitotic spindle; overexpression of YKR041W affects endocytic protein trafficking
YHL026C Putative protein of unknown function; transcriptionally regulated by Upc2p via an upstream sterol response element; SWAT-GFP fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery, while mCherry fusion localizes to both the cell periphery and vacuole; YHL026C is not an essential gene; in 2005 the start site was moved 141 nt upstream (see Locus History)
YHL017W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein co-localizes with clathrin-coated vesicles; YHL017W has a paralog, PTM1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR018C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; YKR018C has a paralog, IML2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL036C Putative non-specific single-domain racemase; based on structural similarity; binds pyridoxal 5'-phosphate; expression of GFP-fusion protein induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YPR063C ER-localized protein of unknown function
YKR011C TOS5 Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPR071W Putative membrane protein; YPR071W is not an essential gene; YPR071W has a paralog, YIL029C, that arose from a single-locus duplication
YHL008C Putative protein of unknown function; may be involved in the uptake of chloride ions; does not appear to be involved in monocarboxylic acid transport; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the vacuole
YDL085C-A Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus
YPR089W YPR090W Protein of unknown function; exhibits genetic interaction with ERG11 and protein-protein interaction with Hsp82p
YDL180W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the vacuole
YPR097W Protein that contains a PX domain and binds phosphoinositides; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; PX stands for Phox homology
YJR146W Protein of unknown function; expressed at both mRNA and protein levels; partially overlaps HMS2
YPR114W Putative protein of unknown function
YKL023W Putative protein of unknown function; predicted by computational methods to be involved in mRNA degradation; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YJR149W putative nitronate monooxygenase Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YJR154W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YHR140W Putative integral membrane protein of unknown function
YKL222C Protein of unknown function; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; similar to transcriptional regulators from the zinc cluster (binuclear cluster) family; null mutant is sensitive to caffeine
YPR127W pyridoxine 4-dehydrogenase Putative pyridoxine 4-dehydrogenase; differentially expressed during alcoholic fermentation; expression activated by transcription factor YRM1/YOR172W; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus
YHR138C Protein of unknown function; similar to Pbi2p; double null mutant lacking Pbi2p and Yhr138cp exhibits highly fragmented vacuoles; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPR147C Bifunctional triacylglycerol lipase and short chain ester hydrolase; null mutant results in the accumulation of both triacylglycerol and fatty acids derived from neutral lipids and phospholipids as well as an increase in the quantity of lipid droplets; contains an alpha/beta hydrolase domain with a conserved GXSXG lipase motif; localizes to lipid droplets; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YPR148C Protein of unknown function; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern
YKL063C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the Golgi
YKL069W fRMsr | L-methionine (R)-S-oxide reductase | YKG9 Methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase; reduces the R enantiomer of free Met-SO, in contrast to Ycl033Cp which reduces Met-R-SO in a peptide linkage; has a role in protection against oxidative stress; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YKL071W NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase; involved in detoxification of furfural; expression is upregulated in cells treated with the aldehydes furfural and glycolaldehyde, the mycotoxin patulin, and also the quinone methide triterpene celastrol; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YKL075C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; proposed to be involved in resistance to streptozotocin and camptothecin
YHR131C Putative protein of unknown function; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; overexpression causes cell cycle delay or arrest; contains a PH domain and binds phosphatidylinositols and other lipids in a large-scale study; YHR131C has a paralog, YNL144C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL055C 3'-5'-exodeoxyribonuclease | Tat-D 3'-->5' exonuclease and endonuclease with a possible role in apoptosis; has similarity to mammalian and C. elegans apoptotic nucleases
YKL091C phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylcholine-binding protein | SFH1 Putative phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylcholine transfer protein; possibly involved in lipid metabolism; localizes to the nucleus; contains a CRAL/TRIO domain and binds several lipids in a large-scale study; YKL091C has a paralog, SEC14, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR045W Putative protein of unknown function; possible role in iron metabolism and/or amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum
YPR172W pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase Protein of unknown function; predicted to encode a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase based on sequence similarity but purified protein does not possess this activity, nor does it bind flavin mononucleotide (FMN); transcriptionally activated by Yrm1p along with genes involved in multidrug resistance; YPR172W has a paralog, YLR456W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR127W HSN1 Protein of unknown function; localizes to the nucleus; required for asymmetric localization of Kar9p during mitosis
YDL157C Putative protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YKL102C Putative protein of unknown function; conserved across S. cerevisiae strains; deletion confers sensitivity to citric acid; predicted protein would include a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase active site
YPR174C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nuclear periphery; potential Cdc28p substrate; binds phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylethanolamine in a large-scale study; relative distribution to foci at the nuclear periphery increases upon DNA replication stress; YPR174C has a paralog, NBP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL124W aldo-keto reductase superfamily protein NADPH-dependent alpha-keto amide reductase; reduces aromatic alpha-keto amides, aliphatic alpha-keto esters, and aromatic alpha-keto esters; member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) family; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YHR112C putative cystathionine beta-lyase Protein of unknown function; localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; overexpression affects protein trafficking through the endocytic pathway
YBL111C Helicase-like protein encoded within the telomeric Y' element; relocalizes from mitochondrion to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YDL129W Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus; YDL129W is not an essential gene; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YBL086C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery
YDL152W Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; partially overlaps the verified ORF SAS10/YDL153C, a component of the small ribosomal subunit processosome
YKL162C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the mitochondrion
YKL169C Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; partially overlaps the verified gene MRPL38
YEL008W Putative protein of unknown function; conserved among S. cerevisiae strains; YEL008W is not an essential gene; predicted to be involved in metabolism
YNL108C HUF Protein phosphatase; similar to prokaryotic phosphotransfer enzymes; null mutant shows alterations in glucose metabolism; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; YNL108C has a paralog, TFC7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL115C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to mitochondria; YNL115C is not an essential gene
YEL014C Putative protein of unknown function; conserved among S. cerevisiae strains
YNL122C bL35m Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit; homologous to bacterial L35 and human MRPL35 ribosomal proteins
YNL058C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to vacuole; not an essential gene; YNL058C has a paralog, PRM5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL025C SRI1 Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus
YNL134C NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase, involved in detoxification of furfural; expression is up-regulated in the presence of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which are compounds generated during lignocellulosic biomass pre-treatment; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL046W Putative protein of unknown function; expression depends on Swi5p; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum; deletion confers sensitivity to 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsenoxide (GSAO)
YNL143C Protein of unknown function; expressed at both mRNA and protein levels
YNL146W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum; YNL146W is not an essential gene
YBR242W YB92 Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; YBR242W is not an essential gene; YBR242W has a paralog, YGL101W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR241C Putative transporter, member of the sugar porter family; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the vacuolar membrane; YBR241C is not an essential gene; YBR241C has a paralog, VPS73, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL040W putative alanine--tRNA ligase Protein of unknown function; has strong similarity to alanyl-tRNA synthases from Eubacteria; null mutant displays decreased translation rate and increased readthrough of premature stop codons; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YNL040W is not an essential gene
YEL043W Predicted cytoskeleton protein involved in intracellular signaling; based on quantitative analysis of protein-protein interaction maps; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification studies; contains fibronectin type III domain fold
YBR238C Mitochondrial membrane protein; not required for respiratory growth but causes a synthetic respiratory defect in combination with rmd9 mutations; transcriptionally up-regulated by TOR; deletion increases life span; YBR238C has a paralog, RMD9, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL001W Putative protein of unknown function; contains a BTB/POZ domain which generally function in protein interactions; deletion slightly improved competitive fitness in rich media; GFP-tagged protein is localized to the cytoplasm
YNL035C Nuclear protein of unknown function; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; contains WD-40 domains; not an essential gene; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL162W-A Putative protein of unknown function; identified by homology
YER034W Protein of unknown function; non-essential gene; expression induced upon calcium shortage; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YEL073C Putative protein of unknown function; located adjacent to ARS503 and the telomere on the left arm of chromosome V; regulated by inositol/choline
YBR225W Putative protein of unknown function; non-essential gene identified in a screen for mutants affected in mannosylphophorylation of cell wall components
YNL190W Hydrophilin essential in desiccation-rehydration process; cell wall protein; contains a putative GPI-attachment site
YNL194C Integral membrane protein; required for sporulation and plasma membrane sphingolipid content; similar to SUR7; GFP-fusion protein is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS; GFP-fusion protein is more abundant at MCCs (membrane compartment occupied by Can1) in the presence of glycerol and oleate; YNL194C has a paralog, FMP45, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL198C Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data
YNR014W Putative protein of unknown function; expression is cell-cycle regulated, Azf1p-dependent, and heat-inducible; YNR014W has a paralog, YMR206W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNR021W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum; YNR021W is not an essential gene
YER053C-A Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNR029C Putative protein of unknown function; deletion confers reduced fitness in saline
YDR514C Protein of unknown function that localizes to mitochondria; overexpression affects endocytic protein trafficking; YDR514C has a paralog, GFD2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL234W Protein of unknown function with similarity to globins; has a functional heme-binding domain; mutant has aneuploidy tolerance; transcription induced by stress conditions; may be involved in glucose signaling or metabolism; regulated by Rgt1
YNL247W cysteine--tRNA ligase Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; human gene CARS allows growth of the yeast haploid null mutant after sporulation of a heterozygous diploid
YBR287W ZSP1 Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the ER; YBR287W is not an essential gene
YNR048W CRF1 | putative aminophospholipid translocase regulatory protein Potential noncatalytic subunit for phospholipid translocase Dnf3p; YNR048W has a paralog, CDC50, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER079W Putative protein of unknown function
YER084W Protein of unknown function; expressed at both mRNA and protein levels
YAR028W DUP240 family protein Putative integral membrane protein; member of DUP240 gene family; GFP-fusion protein is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YER087C-A Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; almost completely overlaps ORF AIM10/YER087W
YNR061C Protein of unknown function; relocalizes from vacuole to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YOL159C-A Protein of unknown function; overexpression affects endocytic protein trafficking; identified by sequence comparison with hemiascomycetous yeast species
YOL150C Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data
YBR197C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; YBR197C is not an essential gene; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; YBR197C has a paralog, YPL077C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR476C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum; YDR476C is not an essential gene
YOL134C Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; partially overlaps HRT1, a verified gene that encodes an SCF ubiquitin ligase subunit
YOL107W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and colocalizes in a punctate pattern with the early golgi/COPI vesicles; YOL107W is not an essential protein
YER134C MDP-1 | Mg-dependent acid phosphatase Magnesium-dependent acid phosphatase; member of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily; non-essential gene
YMR315W Protein with NADP(H) oxidoreductase activity; transcription is regulated by Stb5p in response to NADPH depletion induced by diamide; promoter contains a putative Stb5p binding site; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR310C putative methyltransferase Putative methyltransferase; predicted to be involved in ribosome biogenesis; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus; not an essential gene; YMR310C has a paralog, YGR283C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER152C 2-aminoadipate transaminase Protein with 2-aminoadipate transaminase activity; shares amino acid similarity with the aminotransferases Aro8p and Aro9p; YER152C is not an essential gene
YMR295C IBI2 Protein of unknown function that associates with ribosomes; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery and bud; not an essential gene; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; YMR295C has a paralog, YGR273C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER156C Putative protein of unknown function; interacts with Hsp82p and copurifies with Ipl1p; expression is copper responsive and downregulated in strains deleted for MAC1, a copper-responsive transcription factor; similarity to mammalian MYG1
YDR444W putative hydrolase Putative hydrolase acting on ester bonds
YOL057W dipeptidyl-peptidase III Dipeptidyl-peptidase III; cleaves dipeptides from the amino terminus of target proteins; highly active on synthetic substrate Arg-Arg-2-naphthylamide; mammalian ortholog may be a biomarker for some cancers
YMR253C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern; YMR253C is not an essential gene
YOL019W TOS7 Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery and vacuole; YOL019W has a paralog, DCV1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR226C oxidoreductase | TMA29 NADP(+)-dependent serine dehydrogenase and carbonyl reductase; acts on serine, L-allo-threonine, and other 3-hydroxy acids; green fluorescent protein fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments
YFR006W putative Xaa-Pro dipeptidase Putative X-Pro aminopeptidase; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YFR006W is not an essential gene
YJL169W Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; partially overlaps the verified gene YJL168C/SET2
YMR209C Putative S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase; SWAT-GFP and mCherry fusion proteins localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole respectively; YMR209C is not an essential gene
YCR016W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleolus and nucleus; predicted to be involved in ribosome biogenesis
YDR391C Putative protein of unknown function; possibly involved in zinc homeostasis; Bdf1p-dependent transcription induced by salt stress; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus
YFR016C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and bud; interacts with Spa2p; YFR016C is not an essential gene
YMR196W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YMR196W is not an essential gene
YIL055C Putative protein of unknown function
YCR018C-A Putative protein of unknown function; encoded opposite a Ty1 LTR
YMR160W Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the membrane of the vacuole; mutant has enhanced sensitivity to overexpression of mutant huntingtin; YMR160W is not an essential gene; relative distribution within the vacuolar membrane changes upon DNA replication stress
YOR062C YOR29-13 Protein of unknown function; similar to Reg1p; expression regulated by glucose and Rgt1p; GFP-fusion protein is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS; YOR062C has a paralog, YKR075C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR023C Vacuolar membrane protein of unknown function; member of the multidrug resistance family; YCR023C is not an essential gene
YDR344C Putative protein of unknown function; conserved among S. cerevisiae strains
YDR338C Putative protein of unknown function; member of the multi-drug and toxin extrusion (MATE) family of the multidrug/oligosaccharidyl-lipid/polysaccharide (MOP) exporter superfamily
YIL067C Uncharacterized protein of unknown function
YMR114C putative peptide hydrolase Protein of unknown function; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus and cytoplasm; YMR114C is not an essential gene
YBR138C HDR1 Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function; APCC(Cdh1) substrate; potentially phosphorylated by Cdc28p; YBR138C is not an essential gene
YMR111C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus; YMR111C is not an essential gene; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YBR137W Protein with a role in ER delivery of tail-anchored membrane proteins; interacts with Sgt2p; binds to the TRC complex, which inserts proteins into the ER membrane; interacts with Msn5p karyopherin; YBR137W is not an essential gene
YMR102C Protein of unknown function; transcription is activated by paralogous transcription factors Yrm1p and Yrr1p along with genes involved in multidrug resistance; mutant shows increased resistance to azoles; not an essential gene; YMR102C has a paralog, DGR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL185C putative hydroxyacid dehydrogenase Putative protein with sequence similar to hydroxyacid dehydrogenases; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YMR090W Putative protein of unknown function; similar to DTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratases; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; up-regulated in response to the fungicide mancozeb; not essential for viability
YJL107C Putative protein of unknown function; expression is induced by activation of the HOG1 mitogen-activated signaling pathway and this induction is Hog1p/Pbs2p dependent; YJL107C and adjacent ORF, YJL108C are merged in related fungi
YOR131C putative haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase Putative haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase; non-essential gene; overexpression causes a cell cycle delay or arrest; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGL140C Putative protein of unknown function; non-essential gene; contains multiple predicted transmembrane domains
YMR027W putative methyltransferase A metal-dependent phosphatase, part of the DUF89 protein family; dephosphorylates fructose-1-phosphate; human ortholog, C6orf211 is involved in response to DNA damage; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus and cytoplasm; YMR027W is not an essential gene
YGL108C Protein of unknown function, predicted to be palmitoylated; SWAT-GFP, seamless-GFP and mCherry C-terminal fusion proteins localize to the cytosol, while N-terminal GFP fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YML018C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the membrane of the vacuole; physical interaction with Atg27p suggests a possible role in autophagy; YML018C is not an essential gene; relative distribution to the vacuolar membrane decreases upon DNA replication stress; YML018C has a paralog, THI74, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML020W Putative protein of unknown function
YIL092W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and to the nucleus
YML037C Putative protein of unknown function; has some characteristics of a transcriptional activator; may be a target of Dbf2p-Mob1p kinase; GFP-fusion protein co-localizes with clathrin-coated vesicles; YML037C is not an essential gene
YML053C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus; overexpression causes a cell cycle delay or arrest; YML053C is not an essential gene
YDR262W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the vacuole and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS; gene expression increases in response to Zymoliase treatment
YDR250C Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data
YDR248C gluconokinase Putative gluconokinase; sequence similarity to bacterial and human gluconokinase; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; upregulated by deletion of the RNAP-II associated factor, PAF1
YCR043C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the Golgi apparatus; YCR043C is not an essential gene
YCR051W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; contains ankyrin (Ank) repeats; YCR051W is not an essential gene
YGL082W Putative protein of unknown function; MINDY family deubiquitinase that does not appear to contain catalytic activity; predicted prenylation/proteolysis target of Afc1p and Rce1p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; not an essential gene; YGL082W has a paralog, YPL191C, that arose from the whole genome duplication; ortholog of human MINDY1/FAM63A
YOR238W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YJL070C metallo-dependent hydrolase superfamily protein Putative metallo-dependent hydrolase superfamily protein; similar to AMP deaminases but lacks key catalytic residues and does not rescue purine nucleotide metabolic defect of quadruple aah1 ade8 amd1 his1 mutant; may regulate purine nucleotide homeostasis as overexpression in an AMD1 strain grown in adenine results in greatly reduced GDP and GTP intracellular levels; not an essential gene; YJL070C has a paralog, YBR284W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML079W Non-essential protein of unknown function; has structural resemblance to plant storage and ligand binding proteins (canavalin, glycinin, auxin binding protein) and to some enzymes (epimerase, germin); localizes to the nucleus and cytoplasm
YJL068C SFGH | S-formylglutathione hydrolase Esterase that can function as an S-formylglutathione hydrolase; non-essential intracellular esterase; may be involved in the detoxification of formaldehyde, which can be metabolized to S-formylglutathione; similar to human esterase D
YDR239C Protein of unknown function; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments
YIL108W putative metalloendopeptidase Putative metalloendopeptidase; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YML082W putative cystathionine gamma-synthase Putative protein predicted to have carbon-sulfur lyase activity; transcriptionally regulated by Upc2p via an upstream sterol response element; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus and the cytoplasm; not an essential gene; YML082W has a paralog, STR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR248W TOS11 Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data
YML096W putative asparagine synthase Putative protein with similarity to asparagine synthetases; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YML096W is not an essential gene and partially overlaps the verified gene RAD10
YDR222W Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern; YDR222W has a paralog, YLR225C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML108W Protein of unknown function; structure defines a new subfamily of the split beta-alpha-beta sandwiches; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; YML108W is not an essential gene; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YOR283W phosphoglycerate mutase Phosphatase with a broad substrate specificity; has some similarity to GPM1/YKL152C, a phosphoglycerate mutase; YOR283W is not an essential gene
YBR096W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the ER
YDR210W Predicted tail-anchored plasma membrane protein; contains a conserved CYSTM module; related proteins in other organisms may be involved in response to stress; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery
YOR289W Putative protein of unknown function; transcription induced by the unfolded protein response; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus
YML131W Protein of unknown function; similar to medium chain dehydrogenase/reductases; expression induced by stresses including osmotic shock, DNA damaging agents, and other chemicals; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR090C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus
YJL043W Putative protein of unknown function; YJL043W is a non-essential gene
YCR061W YCR062W Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern; induced by treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA irradiation
YBR085C-A Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and to the nucleus; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGL039W carbonyl reductase (NADPH-dependent) Aldehyde reductase; reduces aliphatic aldehyde substrates using NADH as cofactor; shown to reduce carbonyl compounds to chiral alcohols
YOR292C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the vacuole; YOR292C is not an essential gene
YOR296W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; expressed during copper starvation; YOR296W is not an essential gene
YGL036W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YGL036W is not an essential gene
YOR302W CPA1 uORF; Arginine attenuator peptide, regulates translation of the CPA1 mRNA
YDR193W Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data
YLR407W Putative protein of unknown function; null mutant displays elongated buds and a large fraction of budded cells have only one nucleus
YOR342C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; YOR342C has a paralog, YAL037W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR017W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm
YGR026W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery
YLR363W-A Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus; relocalizes from nucleus to nucleolus upon DNA replication stress
YOR385W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YOR385W is not an essential gene
YLR345W bifunctional fructose-2,6-bisphosphate 2-phosphatase/6-phosphofructo-2-kinase Similar to 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase enzymes; mRNA expression is repressed by the Rfx1p-Tup1p-Ssn6p repressor complex; YLR345W is not an essential gene
YLR326W Putative protein of unknown function; SWAT-GFP and mCherry fusion proteins localize to the cell periphery; predicted to be palmitoylated
YLR297W Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the vacuole; not an essential gene; induced by treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA irradiation; relocalizes from nucleus to vacuole upon DNA replication stress; YLR297W has a paralog, YOR186W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL247C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; similar to the petunia WD repeat protein an11; overexpression causes a cell cycle delay or arrest
YPL245W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm
YLR287C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YLR287C is not an essential gene
YLR283W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to mitochondria; YLR283W is not an essential gene
YBR071W Protein of unknown function found in the cytoplasm and bud neck; mRNA expression may be regulated by the cell cycle and/or cell wall stress; overexpression of YBR071W affects endocytic protein trafficking
YDR132C Protein of unknown function; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; YDR132C has a paralog, YLR108C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR131C F-box protein subunit of SCF ubiquitin ligase complex; substrate-specific adaptor subunit that recruits substrates to a core ubiquitination complex
YPL229W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; not an essential gene; YPL229W has a paralog, YMR181C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR257W Protein of unknown function; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL225W Protein of unknown function; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR225C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; not an essential gene; YLR225C has a paralog, YDR222W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR111W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus
YJR011C Putative protein of unknown function; GFP-fusion protein expression is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YGR117C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YPL199C Putative protein of unknown function; predicted to be palmitoylated
YJR015W Putative protein of unknown function; localizes to endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm; predicted to encode a membrane transporter based on phylogenetic analysis; not an essential gene; YJR015W has a paralog, SNG1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL191C MIY1 K48-specific deubiquitinating (DUB) enzyme; MINDY family endo-type deubiquitinase that preferentially cleaves long K48-linked polyubiquitin chains between moieties; diploid deletion strain exhibits high budding index; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm endoplasmic reticulum and cell periphery in high-throughput studies; YPL191C has a paralog, YGL082W, that arose from the whole genome duplication; ortholog of human MINDY2/FAM63B
YGR122W Protein that may be involved in pH regulation; probable ortholog of A. nidulans PalC, which is involved in pH regulation and binds to the ESCRT-III complex; null mutant does not properly process Rim101p and has decreased resistance to rapamycin; GFP-fusion protein is cytoplasmic; relative distribution to cytoplasm increases upon DNA replication stress
YBR056W 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-like protein Putative glycoside hydrolase of the mitochondrial intermembrane space
YGR125W Putative protein of unknown function; deletion mutant has decreased rapamycin resistance but normal wormannin resistance; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the vacuole
YGR126W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YLR179C Protein of unknown function with similarity to Tfs1p; transcription is activated by paralogous proteins Yrm1p and Yrr1p along with proteins involved in multidrug resistance; GFP-tagged protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus
YCR087C-A LUG1 Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleolus; YCR087C-A is not an essential gene
YLR177W Putative protein of unknown function; phosphorylated by Dbf2p-Mob1p in vitro; some strains contain microsatellite polymophisms at this locus; not an essential gene; YLR177W has a paralog, PSP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR090C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; YCR090C is not an essential gene
YGR130C Component of the eisosome with unknown function; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; specifically phosphorylated in vitro by mammalian diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7)
YLR149C Protein of unknown function; overexpression causes a cell cycle delay or arrest; null mutation results in a decrease in plasma membrane electron transport; YLR149C is not an essential gene; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL162C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the membrane of vacuole with cell cycle-correlated morphology
YGR151C Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; overlaps almost completely with the verified ORF RSR1/BUD1/YGR152C; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YIL161W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; mRNA is enriched in Scp160p-associated mRNPs; YIL161W is a non-essential gene
YBR016W Tail-anchored plasma membrane protein with a conserved CYSTM module; predicted to be palmitoylated; has similarity to hydrophilins, which are involved in the adaptive response to hyperosmotic conditions; YBR016W has a paralog, YDL012C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR126C putative amidotransferase Putative glutamine amidotransferase; has Aft1p-binding motif in the promoter; may be involved in copper and iron homeostasis; YLR126C is not an essential protein; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YJR056C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YPL150W non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase Protein kinase of unknown cellular role; binds phosphatidylinositols and cardiolipin in a large-scale study
YLR108C Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus; YLR108C is not an esssential gene; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; YLR108C has a paralog, YDR132C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR061W Protein with similarity to ABC transporter family members; lacks predicted membrane-spanning regions; transcriptionally activated by Yrm1p along with genes involved in multidrug resistance
YPL108W Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function; non-essential gene that is induced in a GDH1 deleted strain with altered redox metabolism; GFP-fusion protein is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YDR034W-B Predicted tail-anchored plasma membrane protein; contains conserved CYSTM module; related proteins in other organisms may be involved in response to stress; N- and C-terminal fusion proteins localize to the cell periphery; YDR034W-B has a paralog, YBR056W-A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR210C Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YLR042C Cell wall protein of unknown function; localizes to the cytoplasm; deletion improves xylose fermentation in industrially engineered strains; YLR042C is not an essential gene
YHR202W Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the vacuole, while HA-tagged protein is found in the soluble fraction, suggesting cytoplasmic localization
YNL241C ZWF1 glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase | MET19 | POS10 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD); catalyzes the first step of the pentose phosphate pathway; involved in adapting to oxidative stress; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; homolog of human G6PD which is deficient in patients with hemolytic anemia; human G6PD can complement yeast zwf1 null mutant
YGR285C ZUO1 zuotin Ribosome-associated chaperone; zuotin functions in ribosome biogenesis and as a chaperone for nascent polypeptide chains in partnership with Ssz1p and SSb1/2; contains a DnaJ domain and functions as a J-protein partner for Ssb1p and Ssb2p; human gene DNAJC2 can partially complement yeast zuo1 null mutant
YBR046C ZTA1 NADPH:quinone reductase NADPH-dependent quinone reductase; GFP-tagged protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; has similarity to E. coli quinone oxidoreductase and to human zeta-crystallin
YKL175W ZRT3 Zn(2+) transporter ZRT3 Vacuolar membrane zinc transporter; transports zinc from storage in the vacuole to the cytoplasm when needed; transcription is induced under conditions of zinc deficiency
YLR130C ZRT2 low-affinity Zn(2+) transporter ZRT2 Low-affinity zinc transporter of the plasma membrane; transcription is induced under low-zinc conditions by the Zap1p transcription factor
YGL255W ZRT1 high-affinity Zn(2+) transporter ZRT1 High-affinity zinc transporter of the plasma membrane; responsible for the majority of zinc uptake; transcription is induced under low-zinc conditions by the Zap1p transcription factor
YER033C ZRG8 Protein of unknown function; authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; GFP-fusion protein is localized to the cytoplasm; transcription induced under conditions of zinc deficiency
YNR039C ZRG17 Zn(2+) transporter ZRG17 Endoplasmic reticulum zinc transporter; part of a heterodimeric transporter with Msc2p that transfers zinc from the cytosol to the ER lumen; member of the cation diffusion facilitator family of efflux pumps; zinc-regulated directly through Zap1p; transcription induced under conditions of zinc deficiency
YMR243C ZRC1 OSR1 | Zn(2+) transporter ZRC1 Vacuolar membrane zinc transporter; transports zinc from cytosol to vacuole for storage; also has role in resistance to zinc shock resulting from sudden influx of zinc into cytoplasm; human ortholog SLC30A10 functions as a Mn transporter and mutations in SLC30A10 cause neurotoxic accumulation of Mn in liver and brain; ZRC1 has a paralog, COT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL154W ZPS1 Putative GPI-anchored protein; transcription is induced under low-zinc conditions, as mediated by the Zap1p transcription factor, and at alkaline pH
YGR211W ZPR1 zinc finger-containing protein ZPR1 Essential protein with two zinc fingers; present in nucleus of growing cells, relocates to cytoplasm in starved cells via a process mediated by Cpr1p; binds translation elongation factor eEF-1 (Tef1p); relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; human ZPR1 gene can complement yeast by allowing growth during down-regulation of yeast zpr1
YGL249W ZIP2 Meiosis-specific protein; involved in normal synaptonemal complex formation and pairing between homologous chromosomes during meiosis; relocalizes from mitochondrion to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YNL310C ZIM17 FMP28 | HEP1 | TIM15 Protein co-chaperone with a zinc finger motif; essential for protein import into mitochondria; may act with Pam18p to facilitate recognition and folding of imported proteins by Ssc1p (mtHSP70) in the mitochondrial matrix; required for the maintenance of Ssc1p solubility and assists in the functional interaction of Ssc1p with substrate proteins
YML109W ZDS2 CES4 Protein with a role in regulating Swe1p-dependent polarized growth; involved in maintenance of Cdc55p in the cytoplasm where it promotes mitotic entry; interacts with silencing proteins at the telomere; implicated in the mitotic exit network through regulation of Cdc14p localization; ZDS2 has a paralog, ZDS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR273C ZDS1 CES1 | CKM1 | NRC1 | OSS1 Protein with a role in regulating Swe1p-dependent polarized growth; involved in maintaining Cdc55p in the cytoplasm where it promotes mitotic entry; involved in mitotic exit through Cdc14p regulation; interacts with silencing proteins at telomeres; has a role in Bcy1p localization; implicated in mRNA nuclear export; ZDS1 has a paralog, ZDS2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL056C ZAP1 ZRG10 Zinc-regulated transcription factor; binds to zinc-responsive promoters to induce transcription of certain genes in presence of zinc, represses other genes in low zinc; regulates its own transcription; contains seven zinc-finger domains
YIR026C YVH1 tyrosine protein phosphatase YVH1 Dual specificity protein phosphatase; regulates growth, sporulation, and glycogen accumulation in a cAMP-dependent protein kinase cascade dependent manner; mutants are defective in 60S ribosome assembly; positively regulates pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS) formation upon nitrogen starvation or rapamycin treatment
YOR087W YVC1 TRPY1 | YOR088W Vacuolar cation channel; mediates release of Ca(2+) from the vacuole in response to hyperosmotic shock
YOR272W YTM1 CST14 Ribosomal assembly factor and 66S pre-ribosomal particle constituent; subunit of the Nop7-subcomplex (PeBoW complex), required for an early nucleolar step in pre-60S ribosomal particle maturation; interaction of its ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain with the MIDAS domain in the Rea1p tail triggers release of the subcomplex and possibly other biogenesis factors via cycles of ATP hydrolysis; involved in the processing of 27S pre-rRNA; contains an N-terminal UBL domain and seven C-terminal WD repeats
YPR107C YTH1 cleavage polyadenylation factor RNA-binding subunit YTH1 Essential RNA-binding component of cleavage and polyadenylation factor; contains five zinc fingers; required for pre-mRNA 3'-end processing and polyadenylation; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YGR270W YTA7 Protein that localizes to chromatin; has a role in regulation of histone gene expression; has a bromodomain-like region that interacts with the N-terminal tail of histone H3, and an ATPase domain; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; potentially phosphorylated by Cdc28p
YPL074W YTA6 putative AAA family ATPase YTA6 Putative ATPase of the CDC48/PAS1/SEC18 (AAA) family; localized to the cortex of mother cells but not to daughter cells; relocalizes from cytoplasm to plasma membrane foci upon DNA replication stress
YMR089C YTA12 m-AAA protease subunit YTA12 | RCA1 Mitochondrial inner membrane m-AAA protease component; mediates degradation of misfolded or unassembled proteins; also required for correct assembly of mitochondrial enzyme complexes; overexpression of human AFG3L2 complements respiratory defect of yeast afg3 yta12 double null mutation, but overexpression of disease-associated AFG3L2 variants does not; expression of both human SPG7 (paraplegin) and AFG3L2 complements yeast yta12 afg3 double mutation
YBR162W-A YSY6 Protein of unknown function; expression suppresses a secretory pathway mutation in E. coli; has similarity to the mammalian RAMP4 protein involved in secretion
YDR326C YSP2 LAM2 | LTC4 Sterol-binding protein; has a probable role in retrograde transport of sterols from the plasma membrane to the ER; contains two StART-like domains that bind sterols and a GRAM domain; co-localizes to puncta in the cortical ER with Sip3p; one of six StART-like domain-containing proteins in yeast that may be involved in sterol transfer between intracellular membranes; conserved across eukaryotes
YLR277C YSH1 BRR5 | cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit YSH1 Endoribonuclease; subunit of the mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation specificity complex; required for 3' processing, splicing, and transcriptional termination of mRNAs and snoRNAs; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; YSH1 has a paralog, SYC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR111C YSA1 ADP-ribose diphosphatase | RMA2 Nudix hydrolase family member with ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase activity; shown to metabolize O-acetyl-ADP-ribose to AMP and acetylated ribose 5'-phosphate
YOR162C YRR1 PDR2 Zn2-Cys6 zinc-finger transcription factor; activates genes involved in multidrug resistance; paralog of Yrm1p, acting on an overlapping set of target genes; YRR1 has a paralog, PDR8, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR054W YRO2 Protein with a putative role in response to acid stress; null mutant is sensitive to acetic acid; transcription is regulated by Haa1p and induced in the presence of acetic acid; protein observed in plasma membrane foci in the presence of acetic acid; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in a phosphorylated state in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YOR172W YRM1 Zinc finger transcription factor involved in multidrug resistance; Zn(2)-Cys(6) zinc finger transcription factor; activates genes involved in multidrug resistance; paralog of Yrr1p, acting on an overlapping set of target genes
YGL164C YRB30 RanGTP-binding protein; inhibits RanGAP1 (Rna1p)-mediated GTP hydrolysis of RanGTP (Gsp1p); shares similarity to proteins in other fungi but not in higher eukaryotes
YIL063C YRB2 Protein of unknown function; involved in nuclear processes of the Ran-GTPase cycle; involved in nuclear protein export; contains Ran Binding Domain and FxFG repeats; interacts with Srm1p, GTP-Gsp1p, Rna1p and Crm1p; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; not essential for viability
YKL214C YRA2 Member of the REF (RNA and export factor binding proteins) family; when overexpressed, can substitute for the function of Yra1p in export of poly(A)+ mRNA from the nucleus
YDR381W YRA1 RNA-binding protein YRA1 | SHE11 Nuclear polyadenylated RNA-binding protein; required for export of poly(A)+ mRNA from the nucleus; proposed to couple mRNA export with 3' end processing via its interactions with Mex67p and Pcf11p; interacts with DBP2; inhibits the helicase activity of Dbp2; functionally redundant with Yra2p, another REF family member
YML001W YPT7 AST4 | Rab family GTPase YPT7 | VAM4 Rab family GTPase; GTP-binding protein of the rab family; required for homotypic fusion event in vacuole inheritance, for endosome-endosome fusion; localizes to sites of contact between the vacuole and mitochondria (vCLAMPs); interacts with the cargo selection/retromer complex for retrograde sorting; similar to mammalian Rab7
YLR262C YPT6 Rab family GTPase YPT6 Rab family GTPase; required for endosome-to-Golgi, intra-Golgi retrograde, and retrograde Golgi-to-ER transport; temporarily at the Golgi, dissociating into the cytosol on arrival of the late Golgi GTPase Ypt32p; Golgi-localized form is GTP bound, while cytosolic form is GDP-bound; required for delivery of Atg9p to the phagophore assembly site during autophagy under heat stress, with Ypt6p for starvation induced autophagy and for the CVT pathway; homolog of mammalian Rab6
YKR014C YPT52 Rab family GTPase YPT52 Endosomal Rab family GTPase; required for vacuolar protein sorting, endocytosis and multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis and sorting; required for localization of the CORVET complex to endosomes; involved in autophagy and ionic stress tolerance; similar to Vps21p and Ypt53p; mammalian Rab5 homolog; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YHR105W YPT35 Endosomal protein of unknown function; contains a phox (PX) homology domain; binds to both phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) and proteins involved in ER-Golgi or vesicular transport
YGL210W YPT32 Rab family GTPase YPT32 Rab family GTPase involved in the exocytic pathway; mediates intra-Golgi traffic or the budding of post-Golgi vesicles from the trans-Golgi; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; YPT32 has a paralog, YPT31, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER031C YPT31 Rab family GTPase YPT31 | YPT8 Rab family GTPase; involved in the exocytic pathway; mediates intra-Golgi traffic or the budding of post-Golgi vesicles from the trans-Golgi; YPT31 has a paralog, YPT32, that arose from the whole genome duplication; localizes to the transitional and late Golgi
YNL304W YPT11 Rab family GTPase YPT11 Rab GTPase; Myo2p-binding protein implicated in mother-to-bud transport of cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER), late Golgi, and mitochondria during cell division; function is regulated at multiple levels; abundance of active Ypt11p forms is controlled by phosphorylation status and degradation; normally a low-abundance protein whose ER localization is only detected when protein is highly over expressed
YBR264C YPT10 Rab family GTPase YPT10 Rab family GTP-binding protein; contains the PEST signal sequence specific for proteolytic enzymes; may be involved in vesicular transport; overexpression leads to accumulation of Golgi-like cisternae with budding vesicles
YDR349C YPS7 putative aspartic endopeptidase Putative GPI-anchored aspartic protease; member of the yapsin family of proteases involved in cell wall growth and maintenance; located in the cytoplasm and endoplasmic reticulum
YLR121C YPS3 aspartyl protease | YPS4 Aspartic protease; member of the yapsin family of proteases involved in cell wall growth and maintenance; attached to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor
YLR120C YPS1 aspartyl protease | YAP3 Aspartic protease; hyperglycosylated member of the yapsin family of proteases, attached to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor; involved in nutrient limitation-induced cleavage of the extracellular inhibitory domain of signaling mucin Msb2p, resulting in activation of the filamentous growth MAPK pathway; involved with other yapsins in the cell wall integrity response; role in KEX2-independent processing of the alpha factor precursor
YDR368W YPR1 trifunctional aldehyde reductase/carbonyl reductase (NADPH)/glucose 1-dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) YPR1 NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductase; reduces multiple substrates including 2-methylbutyraldehyde and D,L-glyceraldehyde, expression is induced by osmotic and oxidative stress; functionally redundant with other aldo-keto reductases; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; YPR1 has a paralog, GCY1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human homolog AKR1B1 can complement yeast null mutant
YDR352W YPQ2 Putative vacuolar membrane transporter for cationic amino acids; likely contributes to amino acid homeostasis by exporting cationic amino acids from the vacuole; member of the PQ-loop family, with seven transmembrane domains; mutant phenotype is functionally complemented by rat PQLC2 vacuolar transporter
YOL092W YPQ1 cationic amino acid transporter Putative vacuolar membrane transporter for cationic amino acids; likely contributes to amino acid homeostasis by exporting cationic amino acids from the vacuole; member of the PQ-loop family, with seven transmembrane domains; similar to mammalian PQLC2 vacuolar transporter; YPQ1 has a paralog, RTC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR198W YPP1 Cargo-transport protein involved in endocytosis; interacts with phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase Stt4p; is required, along with Efr3p, for the assembly and recruitment of multiple copies of the kinase into phosphoinositide kinase (PIK) patches at the plasma membrane; positively regulates Stt4p; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YGR198W is an essential gene
YOR291W YPK9 putative acid anhydride hydrolase Vacuolar protein with a possible role in sequestering heavy metals; has similarity to the type V P-type ATPase Spf1p; homolog of human ATP13A2 (PARK9), mutations in which are associated with Parkinson disease and Kufor-Rakeb syndrome
YBR028C YPK3 putative protein kinase YPK3 AGC kinase; phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in a TORC1-dependent manner; directly phosphorylated by TORC1; phosphorylates ribosomal protein Rps6a/b (S6), in a TORC-dependent manner; undergoes autophosphorylation
YMR104C YPK2 putative protein kinase YPK2 | YKR2 Protein kinase similar to S/T protein kinase Ypk1p; functionally redundant with YPK1 at the genetic level; participates in a signaling pathway required for optimal cell wall integrity; involved in the TORC-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins Rps6a/b (S6); human homolog SGK2 can complement a ypk1 ypk2 double mutant
YKL126W YPK1 serine/threonine protein kinase YPK1 | SLI2 S/T protein kinase; phosphorylates, downregulates flippase activator Fpk1p; inactivates Orm1p and Orm2p by phosphorylation in response to compromised sphingolipid synthesis; involved in the TORC-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins Rps6a/b (S6); mutations affect receptor-mediated endocytosis and sphingolipid-mediated and cell integrity signaling pathways; human homolog SGK1 can complement a null mutant; human homolog SGK2 can complement a ypk1 ypk2 double mutant
YDL235C YPD1 Osmotic stress-responsive phosphorelay intermediate sensor protein; phosphorylated by the plasma membrane sensor Sln1p in response to osmotic stress and then in turn phosphorylates the response regulators Ssk1p in the cytosol and Skn7p in the nucleus
YML027W YOX1 Homeobox transcriptional repressor; binds to Mcm1p and to early cell cycle boxes (ECBs) in the promoters of cell cycle-regulated genes expressed in M/G1 phase; expression is cell cycle-regulated; phosphorylated by Cdc28p; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; YOX1 has a paralog, YHP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR281W YOR1 ATP-binding cassette transporter YOR1 | YRS1 Plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter; multidrug transporter mediates export of many different organic anions including oligomycin; homolog of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor (CFTR)
YPR028W YOP1 YIP2 Reticulon-interacting protein; ER integral membrane protein involved in the generation of tubular ER morphology; promotes membrane curvature; forms tubules in vitro; regulates the ER asymmetry-induced inheritance block during ER stress; role in ER-derived peroxisomal biogenesis; interacts with Yip1p to mediate membrane traffic and with Sey1p to maintain ER morphology; facilitates lipid exchange between the ER and mitochondria; forms ER foci upon DNA replication stress
YKL067W YNK1 NDK1 | nucleoside diphosphate kinase Nucleoside diphosphate kinase; catalyzes the transfer of gamma phosphates from nucleoside triphosphates, usually ATP, to nucleoside diphosphates by a mechanism that involves formation of an autophosphorylated enzyme intermediate; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YHR090C YNG2 EAF4 | histone acetyltransferase YNG2 | NBN1 Subunit of NuA4, an essential histone acetyltransferase complex; positions Piccolo NuA4 for efficient acetylation of histone H4 or histone H2A; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; similar to human tumor suppressor ING1 and its isoforms ING4 and ING5
YOR064C YNG1 YOR29-15 Subunit of the NuA3 histone acetyltransferase complex; this complex acetylates histone H3; contains PHD finger domain that interacts with methylated histone H3; shares significant sequence identity with the human candidate tumor suppressor p33-ING1 in C-terminal region
YER005W YND1 APY1 | apyrase | YEJ5 Apyrase with wide substrate specificity; helps prevent inhibition of glycosylation by hydrolyzing nucleoside tri- and diphosphates that inhibit glycotransferases; partially redundant with Gda1p; mediates adenovirus E4orf4-induced toxicity
YFR049W YMR31 KGD4 | mitochondrial 37S ribosomal protein YMR31 Subunit of the mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase; recruits E3 subunit (Lpd1p) to the E1-E2 (Kgd1p, Kgd2p) core; has similarity to human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRP-S36
YJR110W YMR1 phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphatase YMR1 Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) phosphatase; involved in various protein sorting pathways, including CVT targeting and endosome to vacuole transport; has similarity to the conserved myotubularin dual specificity phosphatase family
YML025C YML6 mitochondrial 54S ribosomal protein YmL6 | uL4m Mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the large subunit; has similarity to E. coli L4 ribosomal protein and human mitoribosomal MRP-L4 protein; essential for viability, unlike most other mitoribosomal proteins
YMR302C YME2 PRP12 | RNA12 Integral inner mitochondrial membrane protein; role in maintaining mitochondrial nucleoid structure and number; mutants exhibit an increased rate of mitochondrial DNA escape; shows some sequence similarity to exonucleases
YPR024W YME1 i-AAA protease YME1 | OSD1 | YTA11 Catalytic subunit of i-AAA protease complex; complex is located in mitochondrial inner membrane; responsible for degradation of unfolded or misfolded mitochondrial gene products; serves as nonconventional translocation motor to pull PNPase into intermembrane space; also has role in intermembrane space protein folding; mutation causes elevated rate of mitochondrial turnover; human homolog YME1L1 can complement yeast null mutant
YML038C YMD8 Putative nucleotide sugar transporter; has similarity to Vrg4p
YBR104W YMC2 organic acid transporter Putative mitochondrial inner membrane transporter; proposed role in oleate metabolism and glutamate biosynthesis; member of the mitochondrial carrier (MCF) family; YMC2 has a paralog, YMC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR125W YLH47 MRS7 Mitochondrial inner membrane protein; exposed to the mitochondrial matrix; associates with mitochondrial ribosomes; NOT required for respiratory growth; homolog of human Letm1, a protein implicated in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome
YHL014C YLF2 YLF1 Protein of unknown function; has weak similarity to E. coli GTP-binding protein gtp1; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YMR106C YKU80 ATP-dependent DNA helicase YKU80 | HDF2 Subunit of telomeric Ku complex (Yku70p-Yku80p); involved in telomere length maintenance, structure and telomere position effect; required for localization of telomerase ribonucleoprotein via interaction with TLC1 guide RNA; relocates to sites of double-strand cleavage to promote nonhomologous end joining during DSB repair; colocalizes with quiescent cell telomere hyperclusters
YMR284W YKU70 ATP-dependent DNA helicase YKU70 | HDF1 | KU70 | NES24 Subunit of the telomeric Ku complex (Yku70p-Yku80p); involved in telomere length maintenance, structure and telomere position effect; required for localization of telomerase ribonucleoprotein to nucleus via interaction with the TLC1 guide RNA; relocates to sites of double-strand cleavage to promote nonhomologous end joining during DSB repair
YLR200W YKE2 GIM1 | PFD6 | tubulin-binding prefolding complex subunit YKE2 Subunit of the heterohexameric Gim/prefoldin protein complex; involved in the folding of alpha-tubulin, beta-tubulin, and actin; prefoldin complex also localizes to chromatin of actively transcribed genes in the nucleus and facilitates transcriptional elongation
YKL094W YJU3 acylglycerol lipase Monoglyceride lipase (MGL); functional ortholog of mammalian MGL, localizes to lipid particles and membranes, also member of the eukaryotic serine hydrolase family
YKL095W YJU2 CWC16 | mRNA splicing protein YJU2 Essential protein required for pre-mRNA splicing; associates transiently with the spliceosomal NTC ("nineteen complex") and acts after Prp2p to promote the first catalytic reaction of splicing
YGL161C YIP5 Protein that interacts with Rab GTPases; localized to late Golgi vesicles; computational analysis of large-scale protein-protein interaction data suggests a possible role in vesicle-mediated transport
YNL044W YIP3 Protein localized to COPII vesicles; proposed to be involved in ER to Golgi transport; interacts with members of the Rab GTPase family and Yip1p; also interacts with Rtn1p
YMR152W YIM1 Protein of unknown function; null mutant displays sensitivity to DNA damaging agents; may have a role in lipid metabolism, based on localization to lipid droplets; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YCR059C YIH1 Negative regulator of eIF2 kinase Gcn2p; competes with Gcn2p for binding to Gcn1p; may contribute to regulation of translation in response to starvation via regulation of Gcn2p; binds to monomeric actin and to ribosomes and polyribosomes; ortholog of mammalian IMPACT
YDR451C YHP1 Homeobox transcriptional repressor; binds Mcm1p and early cell cycle box (ECB) elements of cell cycle regulated genes, thereby restricting ECB-mediated transcription to the M/G1 interval; YHP1 has a paralog, YOX1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR241W YHM2 Citrate and oxoglutarate carrier protein; exports citrate from and imports oxoglutarate into the mitochondrion, causing net export of NADPH reducing equivalents; also associates with mt nucleoids and has a role in replication and segregation of the mt genome
YLR298C YHC1 U1C | U1-C Component of the U1 snRNP complex required for pre-mRNA splicing; putative ortholog of human U1C protein, which is involved in formation of a complex between U1 snRNP and the pre-mRNA 5' splice site
YGR234W YHB1 flavohemoglobin | YHB4 Nitric oxide oxidoreductase; flavohemoglobin that plays role in oxidative and nitrosative stress responses; protects against nitration of cellular targets and against cell growth inhibition under aerobic or anaerobic conditions; yeast flavohemoglobin Yhb1p and human homolog neuroglobin NGB protect cells against alpha-synuclein cytotoxicity and aggregate formation; protein increases in abundance, relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YGL101W YGK1 Protein of unknown function; non-essential gene; interacts with the DNA helicase Hpr5p; YGL101W has a paralog, YBR242W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR319C YFT2 FIT2A Protein required for normal ER membrane biosynthesis; member of the highly conserved FIT family of proteins involved in triglyceride droplet biosynthesis and homologous to human FIT2; interacts with Sst2p and Hsp82p in high-throughput two-hybrid screens
YDL120W YFH1 ferroxidase Mitochondrial matrix iron chaperone; oxidizes and stores iron; interacts with Isu1p to promote Fe-S cluster assembly; mutation results in multiple Fe/S-dependent enzyme deficiencies; human frataxin homolog FXN is mutated in Friedrich's ataxia; human FTL gene can complement yeast yfh1 null mutant
YDL072C YET3 Protein of unknown function; YET3 null mutant decreases the level of secreted invertase; homolog of human BAP31 protein; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL065C YET1 Endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; homolog of human BAP31 protein; YET1 has a paralog, YET2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL060W YEL1 Arf family guanine nucleotide exchange factor YEL1 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor specific for Arf3p; localized to the bud neck and tip; required for localization of Arf3p to the bud neck and tip
YLR020C YEH2 sterol esterase Steryl ester hydrolase; catalyzes steryl ester hydrolysis at the plasma membrane; involved in sterol metabolism; YEH2 has a paralog, YEH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLL012W YEH1 sterol esterase Steryl ester hydrolase; one of three gene products (Yeh1p, Yeh2p, Tgl1p) responsible for steryl ester hydrolase activity and involved in sterol homeostasis; localized to lipid particle membranes; YEH1 has a paralog, YEH2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR249W YEF3 eEF3 | EF-3 | TEF3 | translation elongation factor EF-3 Translation elongation factor 3; contains two ABC cassettes; binds and hydrolyzes ATP; YEF3 has a paralog, HEF3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL006W YEA6 NAD+ transporter | NDT2 Putative mitochondrial NAD+ transporter; member of the mitochondrial carrier subfamily (see also YIA6); has putative human ortholog; YEA6 has a paralog, YIA6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL064C YDJ1 HSP40 | MAB3 | MAS5 | type I HSP40 co-chaperone YDJ1 Type I HSP40 co-chaperone; involved in regulation of HSP90 and HSP70 functions; acts as an adaptor that helps Rsp5p recognize cytosolic misfolded proteins for ubiquitination after heat shock; critical for determining cell size at Start as a function of growth rate; involved in protein translocation across membranes; member of the DnaJ family; chimeric protein in which human p58IPK J domain replaces yeast Ydj1p J domain can complement yeast ydj1 mutant
YPL087W YDC1 alkaline dihydroceramidase Alkaline dihydroceramidase, involved in sphingolipid metabolism; preferentially hydrolyzes dihydroceramide to a free fatty acid and dihydrosphingosine; has a minor reverse activity; YDC1 has a paralog, YPC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLL055W YCT1 High-affinity cysteine-specific transporter; has similarity to the Dal5p family of transporters; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum; YCT1 is not an essential gene
YLR272C YCS4 condensin subunit YCS4 | LOC7 Subunit of the condensin complex; required for establishment and maintenance of chromosome condensation, chromosome segregation, chromatin binding of condensin, tRNA gene clustering at the nucleolus, and silencing at the mating type locus; required for replication slow zone (RSZ) breakage following Mec1p inactivation
YCR004C YCP4 flavodoxin-like fold family protein Protein of unknown function; has sequence and structural similarity to flavodoxins; predicted to be palmitoylated; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YER123W YCK3 casein kinase YCK3 | CKI3 Palmitoylated vacuolar membrane-localized casein kinase I isoform; negatively regulates vacuole fusion during hypertonic stress via phosphorylation of Vps41p; shares essential functions with Hrr25p; regulates vesicle fusion in AP-3 pathway
YNL154C YCK2 serine/threonine protein kinase YCK2 Palmitoylated plasma membrane-bound casein kinase I (CK1) isoform; shares redundant functions with Yck1p in morphogenesis, proper septin assembly, endocytic trafficking, and glucose sensing; stabilized by Sod1p binding in the presence of glucose and oxygen, causing glucose repression of respiratory metabolism; involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of glucose sensor Rgt2p; YCK2 has a paralog, YCK1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR135C YCK1 CKI2 | serine/threonine protein kinase YCK1 Palmitoylated plasma membrane-bound casein kinase I (CK1) isoform; shares redundant functions with Yck2p in morphogenesis, proper septin assembly, endocytic trafficking, and glucose sensing; stabilized by Sod1p binding in the presence of glucose and oxygen, causing glucose repression of respiratory metabolism; involved in the phosphorylation and regulation of glucose sensor Rgt2p; YCK1 has a paralog, YCK2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR203W YCH1 phosphatase YCH1 Phosphatase with sequence similarity to Cdc25p; Arr2p and Mih1p; member of the single-domain rhodanese homology superfamily; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus
YDR325W YCG1 condensin subunit YCG1 | TIE1 | YCS5 Subunit of the condensin complex; required for establishment and maintenance of chromosome condensation, chromosome segregation and chromatin binding by the complex; required for tRNA genes clustering at the nucleolus; required for replication slow zone breakage following Mec1p inactivation; transcription is cell cycle regulated, peaking in mitosis and declining in G1; protein is constitutively degraded by the proteasome; rate limiting for condensin recruitment to chromatin
YDR135C YCF1 ATP-binding cassette glutathione S-conjugate transporter YCF1 Vacuolar glutathione S-conjugate transporter; ABC-C transporter of the ATP-binding cassette family; required for vacuole fusion; forms stable complexes with vacuole fusion machinery; regulates Vam7p recruitment to vacuoles; role in detoxifying metals (Cd, Hg, As); transports GSSG that is not immediately reduced in cytosol to vacuole; transports unconjugated bilirubin, selenodigluthatione, oxidized glutathione; similar to human cystic fibrosis protein CFTR
YLL048C YBT1 BAT1 | bile acid-transporting ATPase YBT1 Transporter of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family; involved in bile acid transport; negative regulator of vacuole fusion; regulates release of lumenal Ca2+ stores; similar to mammalian bile transporters; YBT1 has a paralog, VMR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL060W YBP2 YBH1 Central kinetochore associated protein; mediates mitotic progression; interacts with several central kinetochore proteins and centromeric histone Cse4p; role in resistance to oxidative stress; similar to Slk19p; YBP2 has a paralog, YBP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR216C YBP1 Protein involved in cellular response to oxidative stress; required for oxidation of specific cysteine residues of transcription factor Yap1p, resulting in nuclear localization of Yap1p in response to stress; YBP1 has a paralog, YBP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER024W YAT2 carnitine O-acetyltransferase YAT2 Carnitine acetyltransferase; has similarity to Yat1p, which is a carnitine acetyltransferase associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane
YPL239W YAR1 Ankyrin-repeat containing, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling chaperone; prevents aggregation of Rps3p in the cytoplasm, associates with nascent Rps3p during its translation in the cytoplasm and delivers it to the 90S in the nucleus; required for 40S ribosomal subunit export, biogenesis and adaptation to osmotic and oxidative stress; expression repressed by heat shock
YOL028C YAP7 Putative basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor; YAP7 has a paralog, YAP5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIR018W YAP5 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) iron-sensing transcription factor; involved in diauxic shift; YAP5 has a paralog, YAP7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHL009C YAP3 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor
YGR241C YAP1802 Protein of the AP180 family, involved in clathrin cage assembly; binds Pan1p and clathrin; YAP1802 has a paralog, YAP1801, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR161C YAP1801 Protein of the AP180 family, involved in clathrin cage assembly; binds Pan1p and clathrin; YAP1801 has a paralog, YAP1802, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML007W YAP1 DNA-binding transcription factor YAP1 | PAR1 | PDR4 | SNQ3 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor; required for oxidative stress tolerance; activated by H2O2 through the multistep formation of disulfide bonds and transit from the cytoplasm to the nucleus; Yap1p is degraded in the nucleus after the oxidative stress has passed; mediates resistance to cadmium; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; YAP1 has a paralog, CAD1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL252C YAH1 adrenodoxin Ferredoxin of the mitochondrial matrix; required for formation of cellular iron-sulfur proteins; involved in heme A biosynthesis; human homolog FDX1L can complement yeast by allowing growth during down-regulation of yeast YAH1
YNL107W YAF9 Subunit of NuA4 histone H4 acetyltransferase and SWR1 complexes; may function to antagonize silencing near telomeres; interacts directly with Swc4p; has homology to human leukemogenic protein AF9; contains a YEATS domain
YJR067C YAE1 Substrate-specific adaptor protein involved in apo-Rli1p maturation; subunit of the Yae1-Lto1 complex, recruiting apo-Rli1p to the CIA targeting complex, facilitating the insertion of an Fe/S cluster by the Fe-S biosynthetic machinery; deca-GX3 motif crucial for complex formation; essential for aerobic but not anaerobic growth; homolog of human YAE1D1, which is overexpressed in oral cancers; co-expression of YAE1D1 and LTO1 homolog ORAOV1 restores growth and Rli1p maturation after YAE1 depletion
YDR369C XRS2 Protein required for DNA repair; component of the Mre11 complex, which is involved in double strand breaks, meiotic recombination, telomere maintenance, and checkpoint signaling
YGL173C XRN1 chromatin-binding exonuclease XRN1 | DST2 | KEM1 | RAR5 | SEP1 | SKI1 Evolutionarily-conserved 5'-3' exonuclease; component of cytoplasmic processing (P) bodies involved in mRNA decay; enters the nucleus and positively regulates transcription initiation and elongation; involved in microtubule-mediated processes, filamentous growth, ribosomal RNA maturation, and telomere maintenance; negative regulator of autophagy; activated by the scavenger decapping enzyme Dcs1p; expression regulated by Ash1p in rich conditions
YJR133W XPT1 xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase Xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase; required for xanthine utilization and for optimal utilization of guanine
YGR194C XKS1 xylulokinase Xylulokinase; converts D-xylulose and ATP to xylulose 5-phosphate and ADP; rate limiting step in fermentation of xylulose; required for xylose fermentation by recombinant S. cerevisiae strains
YLR090W XDJ1 Chaperone with a role in facilitating mitochondrial protein import; ascomycete-specific member of the DnaJ-like family, closely related to Ydj1p; predicted to be C-terminally prenylated; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YIL101C XBP1 Transcriptional repressor; binds promoter sequences of cyclin genes, CYS3, and SMF2; not expressed during log phase of growth, but induced by stress or starvation during mitosis, and late in meiosis; represses 15% of all yeast genes as cells transition to quiescence; important for maintaining G1 arrest and for longevity of quiescent cells; member of Swi4p/Mbp1p family; phosphorylated by Cdc28p; relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YFL010C WWM1 WW domain containing protein of unknown function; binds to Mca1p, a caspase-related protease that regulates H2O2-induced apoptosis; overexpression causes G1 phase growth arrest and clonal death that is suppressed by overexpression of MCA1
YOR229W WTM2 transcriptional modulator Transcriptional modulator; involved in regulation of meiosis, silencing, and expression of RNR genes; involved in response to replication stress; contains WD repeats; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; WTM2 has a paralog, UME1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR230W WTM1 transcriptional modulator Transcriptional modulator; involved in regulation of meiosis, silencing, and expression of RNR genes; required for nuclear localization of the ribonucleotide reductase small subunit Rnr2p and Rnr4p; contains WD repeats
YHL028W WSC4 YFW1 | YHC8 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein; involved in the translocation of soluble secretory proteins and insertion of membrane proteins into the ER membrane; may also have a role in the stress response but has only partial functional overlap with WSC1-3
YOL105C WSC3 Sensor-transducer of the stress-activated PKC1-MPK1 signaling pathway; involved in maintenance of cell wall integrity; involved in response to heat shock and other stressors; regulates 1,3-beta-glucan synthesis; WSC3 has a paralog, WSC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL283C WSC2 STA3 Sensor-transducer of the stress-activated PKC1-MPK1 signaling pathway; involved in maintenance of cell wall integrity and recovery from heat shock; required for the arrest of secretion response; WSC2 has a paralog, WSC3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL097C WRS1 HRE342 | tryptophan--tRNA ligase WRS1 Cytoplasmic tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase; aminoacylates tryptophanyl-tRNA; human homolog WARS can complement yeast null mutant
YOR083W WHI5 transcriptional repressor WHI5 Repressor of G1 transcription; binds to SCB binding factor (SBF) at SCB target promoters in early G1; dilution of Whi5p concentration during cell growth determines cell size; phosphorylation of Whi5p by the CDK, Cln3p/Cdc28p relieves repression and promoter binding by Whi5, and contributes to both the determination of critical cell size at START and cell fate; periodically expressed in G1
YDL224C WHI4 Putative RNA binding protein; regulates the cell size requirement for passage through Start and commitment to cell division; WHI4 has a paralog, WHI3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL197C WHI3 mRNA-binding protein WHI3 RNA binding protein that sequesters CLN3 mRNA in cytoplasmic foci; regulates genes involved in the cell cycle, sister chromatid cohesion, and stress response; acts as a cytoplasmic retention factor for Cdc28p and associated cyclins; regulates cell fate and dose-dependently regulates the critical cell size required for passage through Start; Tpk1p (PKA) mediated phosphorylation (S568) inhibits Whi3p function, decreasing its interaction with CLN3 mRNA; regulates ploidy
YOR043W WHI2 Negative regulator of TORC1 in response to limiting leucine; suppresses TORC1 activity with binding partners Psr1p/Psr2p, acting in parallel with SEACIT; regulates cell cycle arrest in stationary phase; inhibits Ras-cAMP-PKA regulation of apoptosis during nutrient depletion; required with Psr1p for activation of the general stress response; role in rapamycin-induced mitophagy; localizes to the cell periphery; human tumor suppressor and Whi2-like protein KCTD11 functionally complements the null
YEL002C WBP1 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycotransferase Beta subunit of the oligosaccharyl transferase glycoprotein complex; required for N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum; human homolog DDOST can complement yeast growth defect during down-regulation of yeast gene
YML076C WAR1 Homodimeric Zn2Cys6 zinc finger transcription factor; binds to a weak acid response element to induce transcription of PDR12 and FUN34, encoding an acid transporter and a putative ammonia transporter, respectively
YOR359W VTS1 Flap-structured DNA-binding and RNA-binding protein; stimulates deadenylation-dependent mRNA degradation mediated by the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex; member of the Smaug (Smg) family of post-transcriptional regulators which bind RNA through a conserved sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain that interacts with Smg recognition element (SREs) containing transcripts; stimulates Dna2p endonuclease activity
YJL222W VTH2 signal sequence-binding protein Putative membrane glycoprotein; has strong similarity to Vth1p and Pep1p/Vps10p; may be involved in vacuolar protein sorting
YIL173W VTH1 signal sequence-binding protein Putative membrane glycoprotein; has strong similarity to Vth2p and Pep1p/Vps10p; may be involved in vacuolar protein sorting
YDR089W VTC5 Novel subunit of the vacuolar transporter chaperone complex; vacuolar transmembrane protein that regulates biosynthesis of polyphosphate; deletion reduces and overexpression increases polyP accumulation; SPX domain (Syg1, Pho81, Xpr1)-containing protein involved in phosphate homeostasis; relocalizes from vacuole to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YJL012C VTC4 PHM3 | YJL012C-A Vacuolar membrane polyphosphate polymerase; subunit of the vacuolar transporter chaperone (VTC) complex involved in synthesis and transfer of polyP to the vacuole; regulates membrane trafficking; role in non-autophagic vacuolar fusion; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL019C VTC3 PHM2 | vacuolar transporter chaperone Regulatory subunit of the vacuolar transporter chaperone (VTC) complex; involved in membrane trafficking, vacuolar polyphosphate accumulation, microautophagy and non-autophagic vacuolar fusion; VTC3 has a paralog, VTC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFL004W VTC2 PHM1 | vacuolar transporter chaperone Regulatory subunit of the vacuolar transporter chaperone (VTC) complex; involved in membrane trafficking, vacuolar polyphosphate accumulation, microautophagy and non-autophagic vacuolar fusion; VTC2 has a paralog, VTC3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER072W VTC1 NRF1 | PHM4 Regulatory subunit of the vacuolar transporter chaperone (VTC) complex; VTC complex is involved in membrane trafficking, vacuolar polyphosphate accumulation, microautophagy and non-autophagic vacuolar fusion; also has mRNA binding activity; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR181C VTA1 Multivesicular body (MVB) protein; involved in endosomal protein sorting; regulates Vps4p activity by promoting its oligomerization; has an N-terminal Vps60- and Did2- binding domain, a linker region, and a C-terminal Vps4p binding domain
YLR337C VRP1 END5 | MDP2 | YLR337W Verprolin, proline-rich actin-associated protein; involved in cytoskeletal organization and cytokinesis; promotes actin nucleation and endocytosis; related to mammalian Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP)-interacting protein (WIP)
YGL225W VRG4 GDP-mannose transporter | GOG5 | LDB3 | VAN2 | VIG4 Golgi GDP-mannose transporter; regulates Golgi function and glycosylation in Golgi; VRG4 has a paralog, HVG1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML097C VPS9 guanine nucleotide exchange factor VPS9 | VPL31 | VPT9 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) and ubiquitin receptor; involved in vesicle-mediated vacuolar transport, including Golgi-endosome trafficking and sorting through the multivesicular body (MVB); stimulates the intrinsic guanine nucleotide exchange activity of Rab family members (Vps21p/Ypt52p/Ypt53p); partially redundant with GEF MUK1; required for localization of the CORVET complex to endosomes; similar to mammalian ras inhibitors; contains a Ub-interacting CUE domain
YAL002W VPS8 CORVET complex membrane-binding subunit VPS8 | FUN15 | VPL8 | VPT8 Membrane-binding component of the CORVET complex; involved in endosomal vesicle tethering and fusion in the endosome to vacuole protein targeting pathway; interacts with Vps21p; contains RING finger motif
YNL246W VPS75 NAP family histone chaperone; binds to histones and Rtt109p, stimulating histone acetyltransferase activity; possesses nucleosome assembly activity in vitro; proposed role in vacuolar protein sorting and in double-strand break repair; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YDR372C VPS74 API1 | MNN3 Golgi phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase effector and PtdIns4P sensor; interacts with the cytosolic domains of cis and medial glycosyltransferases, and in the PtdIns4P-bound state mediates the targeting of these enzymes to the Golgi; interacts with the catalytic domain of Sac1p, the major cellular PtdIns4P phosphatase, to direct dephosphosphorylation of the Golgi pool of PtdIns4P; tetramerization required for function; ortholog of human GOLPH3/GPP34/GMx33
YDR485C VPS72 SWC2 Htz1p-binding component of the SWR1 complex; exchanges histone variant H2AZ (Htz1p) for chromatin-bound histone H2A; may function as a lock that prevents removal of H2AZ from nucleosomes; required for vacuolar protein sorting
YML041C VPS71 SWC6 Nucleosome-binding component of the SWR1 complex; SWR1 exchanges histone variant H2AZ (Htz1p) for chromatin-bound histone H2A; required for vacuolar protein sorting
YOL129W VPS68 Vacuolar membrane protein of unknown function; involved in vacuolar protein sorting; also detected in the mitochondria
YDR200C VPS64 FAR9 Protein required for cytoplasm to vacuole targeting of proteins; forms a complex with Far3p and Far7p to Far11p involved in recovery from pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest; mutant has increased aneuploidy tolerance; VPS64 has a paralog, FAR10, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR486C VPS60 CHM5 | MOS10 Protein involved in late endosome to vacuole transport; cytoplasmic and vacuolar membrane protein; required for normal filament maturation during pseudohyphal growth; may function in targeting cargo proteins for degradation; interacts with Vta1p
YJR044C VPS55 Late endosomal protein involved in late endosome to vacuole transport; functional homolog of human obesity receptor gene-related protein (OB-RGRP)
YDR027C VPS54 CGP1 | LUV1 | TCS3 Component of the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein) complex; GARP is required for the recycling of proteins from endosomes to the late Golgi, and for mitosis after DNA damage induced checkpoint arrest; potentially phosphorylated by Cdc28p; members of the GARP complex are Vps51p-Vps52p-Vps53p-Vps54p
YJL029C VPS53 Component of the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein) complex; GARP is required for the recycling of proteins from endosomes to the late Golgi, and for mitosis after DNA damage induced checkpoint arrest; required for vacuolar protein sorting; members of the GARP complex are Vps51p-Vps52p-Vps53p-Vps54p; human ortholog is implicated in progressive cerebello-cerebral atrophy type 2 (PCCA2)
YDR484W VPS52 SAC2 Component of the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein) complex; GARP is required for the recycling of proteins from endosomes to the late Golgi, and for mitosis after DNA damage induced checkpoint arrest; involved in localization of actin and chitin; members of the GARP complex are Vps51p-Vps52p-Vps53p-Vps54p
YKR020W VPS51 API3 | VPS67 | WHI6 Component of the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein) complex; GARP is required for the recycling of proteins from endosomes to the late Golgi, and for mitosis after DNA damage induced checkpoint arrest; links the (VFT/GARP) complex to the SNARE Tlg1p; members of the GARP complex are Vps51p-Vps52p-Vps53p-Vps54p
YOR069W VPS5 GRD2 | PEP10 | sorting nexin 1 | VPT5 | YOR29-20 Nexin-1 homolog; required for localizing membrane proteins from a prevacuolar/late endosomal compartment back to late Golgi; structural component of retromer membrane coat complex; forms a retromer subcomplex with Vps17p; required for recruiting the retromer complex to the endosome membranes; VPS5 has a paralog, YKR078W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL095C VPS45 STT10 | VPL28 Protein of the Sec1p/Munc-18 family; essential for vacuolar protein sorting; required for the function of Pep12p and the early endosome/late Golgi SNARE Tlg2p; essential for fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles with the prevacuolar compartment
YDR080W VPS41 CVT8 | FET2 | SVL2 | VAM2 | VPL20 Subunit of the HOPS endocytic tethering complex; vacuole membrane protein that functions as a Rab GTPase effector, interacting specifically with the GTP-bound conformation of Ypt7p, facilitating tethering, docking and promoting membrane fusion events at the late endosome and vacuole; required for both membrane and protein trafficking; Yck3p-mediated phosphorylation regulates the organization of vacuolar fusion sites
YPR173C VPS4 AAA family ATPase VPS4 | CSC1 | DID6 | END13 | GRD13 | VPL4 | VPT10 AAA-ATPase involved in multivesicular body (MVB) protein sorting; ATP-bound Vps4p localizes to endosomes and catalyzes ESCRT-III disassembly and membrane release; ATPase activity is activated by Vta1p; regulates cellular sterol metabolism
YLR360W VPS38 VPL17 Part of a Vps34p phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex; functions in carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) sorting; binds Vps30p and Vps34p to promote production of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) which stimulates kinase activity; required for overflow degradation of misfolded proteins when ERAD is saturated
YLR417W VPS36 ESCRT-II subunit protein VPS36 | GRD12 | VAC3 | VPL11 Component of the ESCRT-II complex; contains the GLUE (GRAM Like Ubiquitin binding in EAP45) domain which is involved in interactions with ESCRT-I and ubiquitin-dependent sorting of proteins into the endosome; plays a role in the formation of mutant huntingtin (Htt) aggregates in yeast
YJL154C VPS35 GRD9 | retromer subunit VPS35 | VPT7 Endosomal subunit of membrane-associated retromer complex; required for retrograde transport; receptor that recognizes retrieval signals on cargo proteins, forms subcomplex with Vps26p and Vps29p that selects cargo proteins for retrieval; interacts with Ypt7p; overexpression of wild-type human VPS35 or Parkinson's-associated vps35-D686N or vps35-P299S variants complements Ni2+ resistance and Cd2+ sensitivity of yeast vps35 null mutant
YLR240W VPS34 END12 | PEP15 | phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase VPS34 | STT8 | VPL7 | VPS7 | VPT29 Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase that synthesizes PI-3-phosphate; forms membrane-associated signal transduction complex with Vps15p to regulate protein sorting; activated by the GTP-bound form of Gpa1p; a fraction is localized, with Vps15p, to nuclear pores at nucleus-vacuole junctions and may facilitate transcription elongation for genes positioned at the nuclear periphery
YLR396C VPS33 CLS14 | MET27 | PEP14 | SLP1 | tethering complex ATP-binding subunit VPS33 | VAM5 | VPL25 | VPT33 ATP-binding protein that is a subunit of the HOPS and CORVET complexes; essential for protein sorting, vesicle docking, and fusion at the vacuole; binds to SNARE domains
YPL120W VPS30 APG6 | ATG6 | beclin 1 | VPT30 Subunit of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase complexes I and II; Complex I is essential in autophagy, Complex II is required for vacuolar protein sorting; required for overflow degradation of misfolded proteins when ERAD is saturated; C-terminus has novel globular fold essential for autophagy through the targeting of the PI3-kinase complex I to the pre-autophagosomal structure; ortholog of higher eukaryote gene Beclin 1; human BECN1 can complement yeast null mutant
YDR495C VPS3 CORVET complex subunit VPS3 | PEP6 | VPL3 | VPT17 Component of CORVET membrane tethering complex; cytoplasmic protein required for the sorting and processing of soluble vacuolar proteins, acidification of the vacuolar lumen, and assembly of the vacuolar H+-ATPase
YHR012W VPS29 PEP11 | retromer subunit VPS29 | VPT6 Subunit of the membrane-associated retromer complex; endosomal protein; essential for endosome-to-Golgi retrograde transport; forms a subcomplex with Vps35p and Vps26p that selects cargo proteins for endosome-to-Golgi retrieval
YPL065W VPS28 ESCRT-I subunit protein VPS28 | VPL13 | VPT28 Component of the ESCRT-I complex; complex is involved in ubiquitin-dependent sorting of proteins into the endosome; conserved C-terminal domain interacts with ESCRT-III subunit Vps20p; other members include Stp22p, Srn2p, Vps28p, and Mvb12p
YNR006W VPS27 DID7 | ESCRT-0 subunit protein VPS27 | GRD11 | SSV17 | VPL23 | VPT27 Endosomal protein that forms a complex with Hse1p; required for recycling Golgi proteins, forming lumenal membranes and sorting ubiquitinated proteins destined for degradation; has Ubiquitin Interaction Motifs which bind ubiquitin (Ubi4p)
YKL041W VPS24 DID3 | ESCRT-III subunit protein VPS24 | VPL26 One of four subunits of the ESCRT-III complex; forms an endosomal sorting complex required for transport III (ESCRT-III) subcomplex with Did4p; involved in the sorting of transmembrane proteins into the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway
YOR089C VPS21 Rab family GTPase VPS21 | VPS12 | VPT12 | YPT21 | YPT51 Endosomal Rab family GTPase; required for endocytic transport and sorting of vacuolar hydrolases; required for endosomal localization of the CORVET complex; required with YPT52 for MVB biogenesis and sorting; involved in autophagy and ionic stress tolerance; geranylgeranylation required for membrane association; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; mammalian Rab5 homolog; VPS21 has a paralog, YPT53, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR077C VPS20 CHM6 | ESCRT-III subunit protein VPS20 | VPL10 | VPT20 Myristoylated subunit of the ESCRT-III complex; the endosomal sorting complex required for transport of transmembrane proteins into the multivesicular body pathway to the lysosomal/vacuolar lumen; cytoplasmic protein recruited to endosomal membranes
YOR132W VPS17 PEP21 | retromer subunit VPS17 | VPT3 Subunit of the membrane-associated retromer complex; essential for endosome-to-Golgi retrograde protein transport; peripheral membrane protein that assembles onto the membrane with Vps5p to promote vesicle formation; required for recruiting the retromer complex to the endosome membranes
YPL045W VPS16 CVT15 | SVL6 | tethering complex subunit VPS16 | VAM9 | VPT16 Subunit of the HOPS and the CORVET complexes; part of the Class C Vps complex essential for membrane docking and fusion at Golgi-to-endosome and endosome-to-vacuole protein transport stages
YBR097W VPS15 GRD8 | ubiquitin-binding serine/threonine protein kinase VPS15 | VAC4 | VPL19 | VPS40 | VPT15 Serine/threonine protein kinase involved in vacuolar protein sorting; functions as a membrane-associated complex with Vps34p; active form recruits Vps34p to the Golgi membrane; interacts with the GDP-bound form of Gpa1p; myristoylated; a fraction is localized, with Vps34p, to nuclear pores at nucleus-vacuole junctions and may facilitate transcription elongation for genes positioned at the nuclear periphery
YLL040C VPS13 membrane morphogenesis protein VPS13 | SOI1 | VPT2 Protein involved in prospore membrane morphogenesis; peripheral membrane protein that localizes to the prospore membrane and at numerous membrane contact sites; involved in sporulation, vacuolar protein sorting, prospore membrane formation during sporulation, and protein-Golgi retention; required for mitochondrial integrity; contains a PH-like domain; homologous to human CHAC and COH1 which are involved in Chorea-acanthocytosis and Cohen syndrome, respectively
YKR001C VPS1 dynamin-like GTPase VPS1 | GRD1 | LAM1 | SPO15 | VPL1 | VPT26 Dynamin-like GTPase required for vacuolar sorting; also involved in actin cytoskeleton organization, endocytosis, late Golgi-retention of some proteins, regulation of peroxisome biogenesis
YKL119C VPH2 CLS10 | VMA12 Integral membrane protein required for V-ATPase function; not an actual component of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) complex; functions in the assembly of the V-ATPase; localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); involved in methionine restriction extension of chronological lifespan in an autophagy-dependent manner
YOR270C VPH1 H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit a Subunit a of vacuolar-ATPase V0 domain; one of two isoforms (Vph1p and Stv1p); Vph1p is located in V-ATPase complexes of the vacuole while Stv1p is located in V-ATPase complexes of the Golgi and endosomes; relative distribution to the vacuolar membrane decreases upon DNA replication stress; human homolog ATP6V0A4 implicated in renal tubular acidosis, can complement yeast null mutant
YGR106C VOA1 ER protein that functions in assembly of the V0 sector of V-ATPase; functions with other assembly factors; null mutation enhances the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) deficiency of a vma21 mutant impaired in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval
YDR049W VMS1 Component of a Cdc48p-complex involved in protein quality control; exhibits cytosolic and ER-membrane localization, with Cdc48p, during normal growth, and contributes to ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of specific substrates at a step after their ubiquitination; forms a mitochondrially-associated complex with Cdc48p and Npl4p under oxidative stress that is required for ubiquitin-mediated mitochondria-associated protein degradation (MAD); conserved in C. elegans and humans
YEL051W VMA8 H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit D Subunit D of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; plays a role in the coupling of proton transport and ATP hydrolysis; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits
YGR020C VMA7 H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit F Subunit F of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; required for the V1 domain to assemble onto the vacuolar membrane; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits
YLR447C VMA6 H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit d Subunit d of the V0 integral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found in the endomembrane system; required for V1 domain assembly on the vacuolar membrane; the V0 integral membrane domain of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has five subunits
YKL080W VMA5 CSL5 | H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit C | VAT3 Subunit C of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; required for the V1 domain to assemble onto the vacuolar membrane; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits
YOR332W VMA4 H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit E Subunit E of the V1 domain of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase); V-ATPase is an electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; V1 domain has eight subunits; required for the V1 domain to assemble onto the vacuolar membrane; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YEL027W VMA3 CLS7 | CUP5 | GEF2 | H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit c Proteolipid subunit c of the V0 domain of vacuolar H(+)-ATPase; dicyclohexylcarbodiimide binding subunit; required for vacuolar acidification and important for copper and iron metal ion homeostasis
YHR060W VMA22 CEV1 | VPH6 Protein that is required for vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) function; peripheral membrane protein; not an actual component of the V-ATPase complex; functions in the assembly of the V-ATPase; localized to the yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
YGR105W VMA21 Integral membrane protein required for V-ATPase function; not an actual component of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) complex; diverged ortholog of human XMEA (X-linked Myopathy with Excessive Autophagy); functions in the assembly of the V-ATPase; localized to the yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
YBR127C VMA2 ATPSV | H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit B | VAT2 Subunit B of V1 peripheral membrane domain of vacuolar H+-ATPase; electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; contains nucleotide binding sites; also detected in the cytoplasm; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human homolog ATP6V1B1, implicated in autosomal-recessive distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) with sensorineural deafness, complements yeast null mutant
YHR026W VMA16 H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit c'' | PPA1 Subunit c'' of the vacuolar ATPase; v-ATPase functions in acidification of the vacuole; one of three proteolipid subunits of the V0 domain
YPR036W VMA13 CLS11 | H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit H Subunit H of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; serves as an activator or a structural stabilizer of the V-ATPase; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits
YPL234C VMA11 CLS9 | H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit c' | TFP3 Vacuolar ATPase V0 domain subunit c'; involved in proton transport activity; hydrophobic integral membrane protein (proteolipid) containing four transmembrane segments; N and C termini are in the vacuolar lumen
YHR039C-A VMA10 H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit G | YHR039BC | YHR039C-B Subunit G of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; part of the electrogenic proton pump found throughout the endomembrane system; involved in vacuolar acidification; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits
YDL185W VMA1 CLS8 | H(+)-transporting V1 sector ATPase subunit A | TFP1 Subunit A of the V1 peripheral membrane domain of V-ATPase; protein precursor undergoes self-catalyzed splicing to yield the extein Tfp1p and the intein Vde (PI-SceI), which is a site-specific endonuclease; the V1 peripheral membrane domain of the vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) has eight subunits; involved in methionine restriction extension of chronological lifespan in an autophagy-dependent manner
YIR014W VLD1 Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the vacuole; expression directly regulated by the metabolic and meiotic transcriptional regulator Ume6p; YIR014W is a non-essential gene
YLR410W VIP1 inositol polyphosphate kinase VIP1 Inositol hexakisphosphate and inositol heptakisphosphate kinase; inositol heptakisphosphate (IP7) production is important for phosphate signaling; involved in cortical actin cytoskeleton function, and invasive pseudohyphal growth analogous to S. pombe asp1; inositol hexakisphosphate is also known as IP6
YGL227W VID30 GID1 | glucose-induced degradation complex subunit VID30 Central component of GID Complex, involved in FBPase degradation; interacts strongly with Gid8p to serve as a scaffold for other GID Complex subunits; contains SPRY domain and 3 domains that are also found in Gid8p - LisH, CTLH, and CRA; required for association of Vid vesicles and actin patches in vacuole import and degradation pathway; shifts the balance of nitrogen metabolism toward glutamate production; localizes to the nucleus and the cytoplasm
YIL017C VID28 GID5 | glucose-induced degradation complex subunit VID28 | YIL017W GID Complex subunit, serves as adaptor for regulatory subunit Vid24p; protein involved in proteasome-dependent catabolite degradation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase); localized to the nucleus and the cytoplasm
YNL212W VID27 Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function; possibly involved in vacuolar protein degradation; not essential for proteasome-dependent degradation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase); null mutants exhibit normal growth; contains two PH-like domains
YBR105C VID24 GID4 | glucose-induced degradation complex subunit VID24 GID Complex regulatory subunit; binds GID Complex in response to glucose through interactions with complex member Vid28p; regulates fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) targeting to the vacuole; promotes proteasome-dependent catabolite degradation of FBPase; peripheral membrane protein located at Vid (vacuole import and degradation) vesicles
YLR373C VID22 Glycosylated integral membrane protein localized to plasma membrane; plays a role in fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) degradation; involved in FBPase transport from the cytosol to Vid (vacuole import and degradation) vesicles; VID22 has a paralog, ENV11, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR065C VHT1 High-affinity plasma membrane H+-biotin (vitamin H) symporter; mutation results in fatty acid auxotrophy; 12 transmembrane domain containing major facilitator subfamily member; mRNA levels negatively regulated by iron deprivation and biotin
YIL135C VHS2 Regulator of septin dynamics; involved in the regulation of septin dynamics at bud neck after mitotic entry, likely by stabilizing septin structure; regulated at post-translational level by cell cycle dependent phosphorylation; likely phosphorylated by Cdc28p and dephosphorylated by Cdc14p before cytokinesis; high-copy suppressor of synthetic lethality of sis2 sit4 double mutant; VHS2 has a paralog, MLF3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR247W VHS1 putative serine/threonine protein kinase VHS1 Cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase; identified as a high-copy suppressor of the synthetic lethality of a sis2 sit4 double mutant, suggesting a role in G1/S phase progression; VHS1 has a paralog, SKS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER064C VHR2 Non-essential nuclear protein; null mutation has global effects on transcription; VHR2 has a paralog, VHR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YIL056W VHR1 Transcriptional activator; required for the vitamin H-responsive element (VHRE) mediated induction of VHT1 (Vitamin H transporter) and BIO5 (biotin biosynthesis intermediate transporter) in response to low biotin concentrations; VHR1 has a paralog, VHR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR235W VHC1 Vacuolar membrane cation-chloride cotransporter (CCC); likely mediates K+ and Cl- cotransport into the vacuole; has a role in potassium homeostasis and salt tolerance; localizes to sites of contact between the vacuole and mitochondria (vCLAMPs); similar to mammalian electroneutral Na(+)-(K+)-C1- cotransporter family
YER128W VFA1 Protein that interacts with Vps4p and has a role in vacuolar sorting; stimulates the ATPase activity of Vps4; localizes to endosomes in a Vps4-dependent manner; overexpression causes canavanine sensitivity and confers a partial class D vacuole morphology
YDL128W VCX1 HUM1 | MNR1 Vacuolar membrane antiporter with Ca2+/H+ and K+/H+ exchange activity; involved in control of cytosolic Ca2+ and K+ concentrations; has similarity to sodium/calcium exchangers, including the bovine Na+/Ca2+,K+ antiporter
YDR119W VBA4 Protein of unknown function; proposed role as a basic amino acid permease based on phylogeny; GFP-fusion protein localizes to vacuolar membrane; physical interaction with Atg27p suggests a possible role in autophagy; non-essential gene
YGR094W VAS1 valine--tRNA ligase Mitochondrial and cytoplasmic valyl-tRNA synthetase; human homolog VARS2 implicated in mitochondrial diseases, can partially complement yeast null mutant
YML115C VAN1 LDB13 | VRG7 | VRG8 Component of the mannan polymerase I; complex contains Van1p and Mnn9p and is involved in the first steps of mannan synthesis; mutants are vanadate-resistant
YGL212W VAM7 VPL24 | VPS43 Vacuolar SNARE protein; functions with Vam3p in vacuolar protein trafficking; has an N-terminal PX domain (phosphoinositide-binding module) that binds PtdIns-3-P and mediates membrane binding; SNAP-25 homolog; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDL077C VAM6 CVT4 | VPL18 | VPL22 | VPS39 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the GTPase Gtr1p; subunit of the HOPS endocytic tethering complex; vacuole membrane protein; functions as a Rab GTPase effector, interacting with both GTP- and GDP-bound conformations of Ypt7p; facilitates tethering and promotes membrane fusion events at the late endosome and vacuole; required for both membrane and protein trafficking; component of vacuole-mitochondrion contacts (vCLAMPs) important for lipid transfer between organelles
YEL013W VAC8 protein anchor VAC8 | YEB3 Vacuolar membrane protein; vacuole-specific Myo2p receptor and Myo2p-Vac17p-Vac8p transport complex subunit required for vacuolar inheritance; required with Atg13p for the vesicle closure step of the cytoplasm-to-vacuole (CVT) pathway, for homotypic vacuole-vacuole fusion and for nucleus-vacuole junction formation with Nvy1p; contains 11 armadillo (ARM) repeats; myristoylated, palmitoylated, and phosphorylated
YLR386W VAC14 Enzyme regulator; involved in synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, in control of trafficking of some proteins to the vacuole lumen via the MVB, and in maintenance of vacuole size and acidity; binds negative (Fig4p) and positive (Fab1p) regulators of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) to control endolysosome function; similar to mammalian Vac14p
YEL005C VAB2 VAB31 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; interacts with Vps21p-GFP; has potential role in vacuolar function, as suggested by its ability to bind Vac8p; likely member of; Vab2p-GFP-fusion localizes to cytoplasm in punctate pattern
YEL038W UTR4 putative acireductone synthase UTR4 Protein with sequence similarity to acireductone synthases; involved in methionine salvage; found in both the cytoplasm and nucleus
YEL040W UTR2 CRH2 Chitin transglycosylase; functions in the transfer of chitin to beta(1-6) and beta(1-3) glucans in the cell wall; similar to and functionally redundant with Crh1; glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein localized to bud neck
YJR049C UTR1 NADH/NAD(+) kinase ATP-NADH kinase; phosphorylates both NAD and NADH; active as a hexamer; enhances the activity of ferric reductase (Fre1p); UTR1 has a paralog, YEF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR196W UTP9 Nucleolar protein; component of the small subunit (SSU) processome containing the U3 snoRNA that is involved in processing of pre-18S rRNA
YGR128C UTP8 Nucleolar protein required for export of tRNAs from the nucleus; also copurifies with the small subunit (SSU) processome containing the U3 snoRNA that is involved in processing of pre-18S rRNA
YDR449C UTP6 snoRNA-binding rRNA-processing protein UTP6 Nucleolar protein; component of the small subunit (SSU) processome containing the U3 snoRNA that is involved in processing of pre-18S rRNA
YDR398W UTP5 Subunit of U3-containing Small Subunit (SSU) processome complex; involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of small ribosomal subunit
YDR324C UTP4 Subunit of U3-containing 90S preribosome and SSU processome complexes; involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of small ribosomal subunit; member of t-Utp subcomplex involved with transcription of 35S rRNA transcript; Small Subunit processome is also known as SSU processome
YKR060W UTP30 Putative subunit of U3-containing 90S preribosome complex; complex is involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of small ribosomal subunit
YIL091C UTP25 rRNA-binding ribosome biosynthesis protein UTP25 Nucleolar protein; required for 35S pre-RNA processing and 40S ribosomal subunit biogenesis
YOR004W UTP23 rRNA-binding ribosome biosynthesis protein UTP23 Component of the small subunit processome; involved in 40S ribosomal subunit biogenesis; interacts with snR30 and is required for dissociation of snR30 from large pre-ribosomal particles; has homology to PINc domain protein Fcf1p, although the PINc domain of Utp23p is not required for function; essential protein
YGR090W UTP22 rRNA-processing protein UTP22 Component of the small-subunit processome; required for nuclear export of tRNAs; may facilitate binding of Utp8p to aminoacylated tRNAs and their delivery to Los1p for export; conserved from yeast to mammals
YLR409C UTP21 rRNA-processing protein UTP21 Subunit of U3-containing 90S preribosome and SSU processome complexes; involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of small ribosomal subunit; synthetic defect with STI1 Hsp90 cochaperone; human homolog linked to glaucoma; Small Subunit processome is also known as SSU processome
YBL004W UTP20 Component of the small-subunit (SSU) processome; SSU processome is involved in the biogenesis of the 18S rRNA
YJL069C UTP18 Small-subunit processome protein involved in pre-18S rRNA maturation; part of a subunit of the 90S preribosomal particle capable of interacting directly with the 5' ETS of the 35S pre-rRNA; contains WD40 repeats
YMR093W UTP15 snoRNA-binding rRNA-processing protein UTP15 Nucleolar protein; component of the small subunit (SSU) processome containing the U3 snoRNA that is involved in processing of pre-18S rRNA
YML093W UTP14 Subunit of U3-containing Small Subunit (SSU) processome complex; involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of small ribosomal subunit
YLR222C UTP13 Nucleolar protein; component of the small subunit (SSU) processome containing the U3 snoRNA that is involved in processing of pre-18S rRNA
YJL109C UTP10 snoRNA-binding rRNA-processing protein UTP10 Nucleolar protein; component of the small subunit (SSU) processome containing the U3 snoRNA that is involved in processing of pre-18S rRNA; mutant has increased aneuploidy tolerance
YKR042W UTH1 SUN family protein UTH1 Mitochondrial inner membrane protein; role in mitophagy is disputed; implicated in cell wall biogenesis, the oxidative stress response, life span during starvation, and cell death; SUN family member; UTH1 has a paralog, NCA3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL058W USO1 INT1 Essential protein involved in vesicle-mediated ER to Golgi transport; binds membranes and functions during vesicle docking to the Golgi; required for assembly of the ER-to-Golgi SNARE complex
YGL098W USE1 SLT1 | SNAP receptor USE1 Essential SNARE protein localized to the ER; involved in retrograde traffic from the Golgi to the ER and Sey1p-independent homotypic ER fusion; required for efficient nuclear fusion during mating; forms a complex with the SNAREs Sec22p, Sec20p and Ufe1p
YLR132C USB1 phosphoric diester hydrolase Putative poly(U)-specific 3'-to-5' RNA exonuclease; involved in 3'-end processing of U6 snRNA removing uridines and generating a terminal 2′,3′ cyclic phosphate; essential protein that localizes to the nucleus and mitochondria; overexpression suppresses the respiratory defects of oxa1 and mtf2 mutants; homolog of S.pombe gene, mpn1 and human gene, hUSB1; mutations in hUSB1 are associated with a rare genodermatosis, poikiloderma with neutropenia (OMIM 604173)
YML029W USA1 Scaffold subunit of the Hrd1p ubiquitin ligase; also promotes ligase oligomerization; involved in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD); interacts with the U1 snRNP-specific protein, Snp1p
YPR152C URN1 Protein of unknown function containing WW and FF domains; overexpression causes accumulation of cells in G1 phase
YIL008W URM1 ubiquitin-related modifier URM1 Ubiquitin-like protein involved in thiolation of cytoplasmic tRNAs; receives sulfur from the E1-like enzyme Uba4p and transfers it to tRNA; also functions as a protein tag with roles in nutrient sensing and oxidative stress response
YNR012W URK1 uridine kinase URK1 Uridine/cytidine kinase; component of the pyrimidine ribonucleotide salvage pathway that converts uridine into UMP and cytidine into CMP; involved in the pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotide salvage pathway, converting deoxycytidine into dCMP
YDR400W URH1 trifunctional uridine nucleosidase/nicotinamide riboside hydrolase/nicotinic acid riboside hydrolase Uridine nucleosidase (uridine-cytidine N-ribohydrolase); cleaves N-glycosidic bonds in nucleosides; involved in the pyrimidine salvage and nicotinamide riboside salvage pathways
YNL229C URE2 [URE3] Nitrogen catabolite repression transcriptional regulator; inhibits GLN3 transcription in good nitrogen source; role in sequestering Gln3p and Gat1p to the cytoplasm; has glutathione peroxidase activity and can mutate to acquire GST activity; self-assembly under limited nitrogen conditions creates [URE3] prion and releases catabolite repression
YDR520C URC2 RRT4 Putative Zn(II)2Cys6 motif containing transcription factor; non-essential gene identified in a screen for mutants with increased levels of rDNA transcription; similar to S. kluyveri Urc2p involved in uracil catabolism
YJR041C URB2 NPA2 Protein required for normal metabolism of the rRNA primary transcript; nucleolar protein; proposed to be involved in ribosome biogenesis
YKL014C URB1 NPA1 Protein required for the normal accumulation of 25S and 5.8S rRNAs; nucleolar protein; associated with the 27SA2 pre-ribosomal particle; proposed to be involved in the biogenesis of the 60S ribosomal subunit
YJR103W URA8 CTP synthase URA8 Minor CTP synthase isozyme (see also URA7); catalyzes the ATP-dependent transfer of the amide nitrogen from glutamine to UTP, forming CTP, the final step in de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines; involved in phospholipid biosynthesis; capable of forming cytoplasmic filaments termed cytoophidium, especially during conditions of glucose depletion; URA8 has a paralog, URA7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL039C URA7 CTP synthase URA7 Major CTP synthase isozyme (see also URA8); catalyzes the ATP-dependent transfer of the amide nitrogen from glutamine to UTP, forming CTP, the final step in de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines; involved in phospholipid biosynthesis; capable of forming cytoplasmic filaments termed cytoophidium, especially during conditions of glucose depletion; URA7 has a paralog, URA8, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL024C URA6 bifunctional uridylate/adenylate kinase | SOC8 Uridylate kinase; catalyzes the seventh enzymatic step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines, converting uridine monophosphate (UMP) into uridine-5'-diphosphate (UDP)
YML106W URA5 orotate phosphoribosyltransferase URA5 | PYR5 Major orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRTase) isozyme; catalyzes the fifth enzymatic step in de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines, converting orotate into orotidine-5'-phosphate; URA5 has a paralog, URA10, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR420W URA4 dihydroorotase Dihydroorotase; catalyzes the third enzymatic step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines, converting carbamoyl-L-aspartate into dihydroorotate
YJL130C URA2 bifunctional carbamoylphosphate synthetase/aspartate transcarbamylase Bifunctional carbamoylphosphate synthetase/aspartate transcarbamylase; catalyzes the first two enzymatic steps in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines; both activities are subject to feedback inhibition by UTP
YMR271C URA10 orotate phosphoribosyltransferase URA10 Minor orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRTase) isozyme; catalyzes the fifth enzymatic step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines, converting orotate into orotidine-5'-phosphate; URA10 has a paralog, URA5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL216W URA1 dihydroorotate dehydrogenase Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase; catalyzes the fourth enzymatic step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines, converting dihydroorotic acid into orotic acid
YDR185C UPS3 GEP2 Mitochondrial protein of unknown function; similar to Ups1p and Ups2p which are involved in regulation of mitochondrial cardiolipin and phosphatidylethanolamine levels; null is viable but interacts synthetically with ups1 and ups2 mutations; UPS3 has a paralog, UPS2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR168C UPS2 AIM30 | GEP1 | MSF1 | MSF1' Mitochondrial intermembrane space protein; involved in phospholipid metabolism; forms complex with Mdm35p that transfers phosphatidylserine from outer membrane to inner membrane for phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis; null mutant has defects in mitochondrial morphology; similar to Ups1p, Ups3p and to human PRELI; UPS2 has a paralog, UPS3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR193C UPS1 Phosphatidic acid transfer protein; plays a role in phospholipid metabolism by transporting phosphatidic acid from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane; localizes to the mitochondrial intermembrane space; null mutant has altered cardiolipin and phosphatidic acid levels; ortholog of human PRELI
YGR072W UPF3 SUA6 | SUP112 Component of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway; along with Nam7p and Nmd2p; involved in decay of mRNA containing nonsense codons; involved in telomere maintenance
YDR213W UPC2 MOX4 Sterol regulatory element binding protein; induces sterol biosynthetic genes, upon sterol depletion; acts as a sterol sensor, binding ergosterol in sterol rich conditions; relocates from intracellular membranes to perinuclear foci upon sterol depletion; redundant activator of filamentation with ECM22, up-regulating the expression of filamentous growth genes; contains a Zn[2]-Cys[6] binuclear cluster; UPC2 has a paralog, ECM22, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML021C UNG1 uracil-DNA glycosylase Uracil-DNA glycosylase; required for repair of uracil in DNA formed by spontaneous cytosine deamination; efficiently excises uracil from single-stranded DNA in vivo; not required for strand-specific mismatch repair; cell-cycle regulated, expressed in late G1; localizes to mitochondria and nucleus
YBR173C UMP1 RNS2 Chaperone required for correct maturation of the 20S proteasome; short-lived chaperone; may inhibit premature dimerization of proteasome half-mers; degraded by proteasome upon completion of its assembly
YDR207C UME6 CAR80 | DNA-binding transcriptional regulator UME6 | NIM2 | RIM16 Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex subunit; key transcriptional regulator of early meiotic genes; involved in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional repression via DNA looping; binds URS1 upstream regulatory sequence, represses transcription by recruiting conserved histone deacetylase Rpd3p (through co-repressor Sin3p) and chromatin-remodeling factor Isw2p; couples metabolic responses to nutritional cues with initiation and progression of meiosis
YPL139C UME1 WTM3 Component of both the Rpd3S and Rpd3L histone deacetylase complexes; negative regulator of meiosis; required for repression of a subset of meiotic genes during vegetative growth, binding of histone deacetylase Rpd3p required for activity, contains a NEE box and a WD repeat motif; homologous with Wtm1p; UME1 has a paralog, WTM2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR191W ULS1 DIS1 | RIS1 | TID4 | translocase ULS1 Swi2/Snf2-related translocase, SUMO-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase (STUbL); required for maintenance of NHEJ inhibition at telomeres; functions at telomeres to translocate and ubiquitinylate poly-sumoylated Rap1p for proteosomal degradation; plays role in antagonizing silencing during mating-type switching; only known STUbL with a translocase activity; contains RING finger domain; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YIL031W ULP2 SMT4 | SUMO protease ULP2 Peptidase that deconjugates Smt3/SUMO-1 peptides from proteins; plays a role in chromosome cohesion at centromeric regions and recovery from checkpoint arrest induced by DNA damage or DNA replication defects; potential Cdc28p substrate; human homolog PML implicated in promyelocytic leukemia can partially complement yeast null mutant
YPL020C ULP1 NIB1 | SUMO protease ULP1 Protease that specifically cleaves Smt3p protein conjugates; required for cell cycle progression; associates with nucleoporins and may interact with septin rings during telophase; sequestered to the nucleolus under stress conditions
YKR044W UIP5 Protein of unknown function that interacts with Ulp1p; a Ubl (ubiquitin-like protein)-specific protease for Smt3p protein conjugates
YAR027W UIP3 DUP240 family protein UIP3 Putative integral membrane protein of unknown function; interacts with Ulp1p at the nuclear periphery; member of DUP240 gene family
YKL035W UGP1 UTP glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase); catalyses the reversible formation of UDP-Glc from glucose 1-phosphate and UTP, involved in a wide variety of metabolic pathways, expression modulated by Pho85p through Pho4p; involved in PKA-mediated oxidative stress resistance and long-term survival in stationary phase; UGP1 has a paralog, YHL012W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL170W UGA3 Transcriptional activator for GABA-dependent induction of GABA genes; binds to DNA elements found in the promoters of target genes and increases their expression in the presence of GABA (gamma-aminobutyrate); zinc finger transcription factor of the Zn(2)-Cys(6) binuclear cluster domain type; localized to the nucleus; examples of GABA genes include UGA1, UGA2, and UGA4
YBR006W UGA2 succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)(+)) | UGA5 Succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase; involved in the utilization of gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) as a nitrogen source; part of the 4-aminobutyrate and glutamate degradation pathways; localized to the cytoplasm
YGR019W UGA1 4-aminobutyrate transaminase Gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) transaminase; also known as 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase; involved in the 4-aminobutyrate and glutamate degradation pathways; required for normal oxidative stress tolerance and nitrogen utilization; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YML088W UFO1 SCF ubiquitin ligase complex subunit UFO1 F-box receptor protein; subunit of the Skp1-Cdc53-F-box receptor (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex; binds to phosphorylated Ho endonuclease, allowing its ubiquitination by SCF and subsequent degradation
YOR075W UFE1 YOR29-26 t-SNARE protein required for retrograde vesicular traffic; involved in Sey1p-independent homotypic ER fusion; required for efficient nuclear fusion during mating; forms a complex with the SNAREs Sec22p, Sec20p and Use1p to mediate fusion of Golgi-derived vesicles at the ER
YKL010C UFD4 putative ubiquitin-protein ligase UFD4 Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3); interacts with Rpt4p and Rpt6p, two subunits of the 19S particle of the 26S proteasome; cytoplasmic E3 involved in the degradation of ubiquitin fusion proteins; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YDL190C UFD2 ubiquitin-ubiquitin ligase UFD2 Ubiquitin chain assembly factor (E4); cooperates with a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), and a ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) to conjugate ubiquitin to substrates; also functions as an E3
YGR048W UFD1 polyubiquitin-binding protein UFD1 Substrate-recruiting cofactor of the Cdc48p-Npl4p-Ufd1p segregase; polyubiquitin binding protein that assists in the dislocation of misfolded, ERAD substrates that are subsequently delivered to the proteasome for degradation; involved in regulated destruction of ER membrane proteins such as HMG-CoA reductase (Hmg1/2p) and cytoplasmic proteins (Fbp1p); involved in mobilizing membrane bound transcription factors by regulated Ub/proteasome-dependent processing (RUP)
YBR273C UBX7 CUI3 UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X) domain-containing protein; interacts with Cdc48p; UBX7 has a paralog, UBX6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL048C UBX6 CUI2 UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X) domain-containing protein; interacts with Cdc48p, transcription is repressed when cells are grown in media containing inositol and choline; UBX6 has a paralog, UBX7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR330W UBX5 UBX domain-containing protein that interacts with Cdc48p; ubiquitin regulatory X is also known as UBX
YMR067C UBX4 CUI1 UBX domain-containing protein that interacts with Cdc48p; involved in degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins via the ERAD (ER-associated degradation) pathway; modulates the Cdc48p-Nplp-Ufd1p AAA ATPase complex during its role in delivery of misfolded proteins to the proteasome; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDL091C UBX3 Clathrin-coated vesicle component, regulator of endocytosis; copurifies with the DSC ubiquitin ligase complex; UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X) domain-containing protein that interacts with Cdc48p; required for efficient clathrin-mediated endocytosis; ortholog of fission yeast Ucp10
YML013W UBX2 SEL1 Bridging factor involved in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD); bridges the cytosolic Cdc48p-Npl1p-Ufd1p ATPase complex and the membrane associated Ssm4p and Hrd1p ubiquitin ligase complexes; contains a UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X) domain and a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain; redistributes from the ER to lipid droplets during the diauxic shift and stationary phase; required for the maintenance of lipid homeostasis
YLR024C UBR2 putative ubiquitin-protein ligase UBR2 Cytoplasmic ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3); component of the Mub1p-Ubr2p-Rad6p ubiquitin ligase complex required for the ubiquitination and degradation of Rpn4p; mediates formation of the ternary complex
YER098W UBP9 putative ubiquitin-specific protease UBP9 Ubiquitin-specific protease that cleaves ubiquitin-protein fusions; UBP9 has a paralog, UBP13, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR223W UBP8 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP8 Ubiquitin-specific protease component of the SAGA acetylation complex; required for SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase)-mediated deubiquitination of histone H2B
YIL156W UBP7 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP7 Ubiquitin-specific protease that cleaves ubiquitin-protein fusions; UBP7 has a paralog, UBP11, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFR010W UBP6 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP6 Ubiquitin-specific protease; situated in the base subcomplex of the 26S proteasome, releases free ubiquitin from branched polyubiquitin chains en bloc, rather than from the distal tip of the chain; negatively regulates degradation of ubiquitinated proteins by the proteasome; works in opposition to Hul5p polyubiquitin elongation activity; mutant has aneuploidy tolerance; human homolog UBP14 complements yeast null mutant
YER151C UBP3 BLM3 | mRNA-binding ubiquitin-specific protease UBP3 Ubiquitin-specific protease involved in transport and osmotic response; negatively regulates Ras/PKA signaling; interacts with Bre5p to coregulate anterograde, retrograde transport between ER and Golgi; involved in transcription elongation in response to osmostress through phosphorylation at Ser695 by Hog1p; inhibitor of gene silencing; role in ribophagy; cleaves ubiquitin fusions but not polyubiquitin; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR124C UBP2 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP2 Ubiquitin-specific protease; removes ubiquitin from ubiquitinated proteins; controls K63 homeostasis during oxidative stress; deubiquitinates Rsp5p and is required for MVB sorting of membrane proteins; can cleave polyubiquitin and has isopeptidase activity
YPL072W UBP16 putative ubiquitin-specific protease UBP16 Deubiquitinating enzyme anchored to the outer mitochondrial membrane; probably not important for general mitochondrial functioning, but may perform a more specialized function at mitochondria
YMR304W UBP15 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP15 Ubiquitin-specific protease involved in protein deubiquitination; forms a complex with AAA peroxins Pex1p and Pex6p; deubiquitinates mono- and polyubiquitinated forms of Pex5p; deubiquitinates Clb5p, counteracting APC activity, and facilitating both Clb5p accumulation and S phase entry; physically interacts with anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) activator, Cdh1p; catalytic activity regulated by an N-terminal TRAF-like domain and and C-terminal sequences
YBR058C UBP14 GID6 | ubiquitin-specific protease UBP14 Ubiquitin-specific protease; specifically disassembles unanchored ubiquitin chains; involved in fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fbp1p) degradation; similar to human isopeptidase T
YBL067C UBP13 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP13 Ubiquitin-specific protease that cleaves Ub-protein fusions; UBP13 has a paralog, UBP9, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL197W UBP12 putative ubiquitin-specific protease UBP12 Ubiquitin-specific protease; cleaves ubiquitin from ubiquitinated proteins; present in the nucleus and cytoplasm
YNL186W UBP10 DOT4 | ubiquitin-specific protease UBP10 Ubiquitin-specific protease, deubiquitinates Ub-protein moieties; interacts with proteins that function in rRNA production and ribosome biogenesis via its intrinsically disordered regions; stabilizes Rpa190p by deubiquitination; controls PCNA deubiquitylation; may regulate silencing by acting on Sir4p; involved in posttranscriptionally regulating Gap1p, possibly other transporters; localized to the nucleolus; null mutant phenotypes are functionally complemented by human USP36
YDL122W UBP1 ubiquitin-specific protease UBP1 Ubiquitin-specific protease; removes ubiquitin from ubiquitinated proteins; cleaves at the C terminus of ubiquitin fusions irrespective of their size; capable of cleaving polyubiquitin chains
YLL039C UBI4 SCD2 | UB14 | ubiquitin Ubiquitin; becomes conjugated to proteins, marking them for selective degradation via the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system; essential for the cellular stress response; encoded as a polyubiquitin precursor comprised of 5 head-to-tail repeats; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDL064W UBC9 E2 SUMO-conjugating protein UBC9 SUMO-conjugating enzyme involved in the Smt3p conjugation pathway; nuclear protein required for S- and M-phase cyclin degradation and mitotic control; involved in proteolysis mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex cyclosome (APCC)
YEL012W UBC8 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC8 | GID3 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that regulates gluconeogenesis; negatively regulates gluconeogenesis by mediating the glucose-induced ubiquitination of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase); cytoplasmic enzyme that catalyzes the ubiquitination of histones in vitro
YMR022W UBC7 DER2 | E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC7 | QRI8 Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme; involved in the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway and in the inner nuclear membrane-associated degradation (INMAD) pathway; requires Cue1p for recruitment to the ER membrane; proposed to be involved in chromatin assembly
YER100W UBC6 DOA2 | E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC6 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme involved in ERAD; located at the cytosolic side of the ER membrane; tail region contains a transmembrane segment at the C-terminus; substrate of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway; ER-associated protein degradation is also known as ERAD
YDR059C UBC5 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC5 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme; mediates selective degradation of short-lived, abnormal, or excess proteins, including histone H3; central component of the cellular stress response; expression is heat inducible; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; UBC5 has a paralog, UBC4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR082C UBC4 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC4 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2); key E2 partner with Ubc1p for the anaphase-promoting complex (APC); mediates degradation of abnormal or excess proteins, including calmodulin and histone H3; regulates levels of DNA Polymerase-{alpha} to promote efficient and accurate DNA replication; interacts with many SCF ubiquitin protein ligases; component of the cellular stress response; UBC4 has a paralog, UBC5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR092W UBC13 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC13 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme; involved in the error-free DNA postreplication repair pathway; interacts with Mms2p to assemble ubiquitin chains at the Ub Lys-63 residue; DNA damage triggers redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus
YDR177W UBC1 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC1 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme; key E2 partner with Ubc4p for the anaphase-promoting complex (APC); mediates selective degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins; plays a role in vesicle biogenesis and ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD); component of the cellular stress response; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress key E2 partner with Ubc4p for the anaphase-promoting complex (APC)
YHR111W UBA4 YHR1 E1-like protein that activates Urm1p before urmylation; also acts in thiolation of the wobble base of cytoplasmic tRNAs by adenylating and then thiolating Urm1p; receives sulfur from Tum1p
YDR390C UBA2 E1 ubiquitin-activating protein UBA2 | UAL1 Subunit of heterodimeric nuclear SUMO activating enzyme E1 with Aos1p; activates Smt3p (SUMO) before its conjugation to proteins (sumoylation), which may play a role in protein targeting; essential for viability
YKL210W UBA1 E1 ubiquitin-activating protein UBA1 Ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1); involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation and essential for viability; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR295W UAF30 Subunit of UAF (upstream activation factor) complex; UAF is an RNA polymerase I specific transcription stimulatory factor composed of Uaf30p, Rrn5p, Rrn9p, Rrn10p, histones H3 and H4; targeting factor for the UAF that facilitates activation of many rDNA genes; deletion decreases cellular growth rate; UAF30 has a paralog, TRI1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL207W TYW1 putative tRNA 4-demethylwyosine synthase Iron-sulfer protein required for synthesis of Wybutosine modified tRNA; Wybutosine is a modified guanosine found at the 3'-position adjacent to the anticodon of phenylalanine tRNA which supports reading frame maintenance by stabilizing codon-anticodon interactions; induction by Yap5p in response to iron provides protection from high iron toxicity; overexpression results in increased cellular iron
YGR185C TYS1 TTS1 | tyrosine--tRNA ligase TYS1 | TyrRS Cytoplasmic tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase; required for cytoplasmic protein synthesis; interacts with positions 34 and 35 of the tRNATyr anticodon; mutations in human ortholog YARS are associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathies; human ortholog YARS functionally complements the heat sensitivity of a ts allele; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR166C TYR1 prephenate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) Prephenate dehydrogenase involved in tyrosine biosynthesis; expression is dependent on phenylalanine levels
YOR344C TYE7 SGC1 Serine-rich protein that contains a bHLH DNA binding motif; binds E-boxes of glycolytic genes and contributes to their activation; may function as a transcriptional activator in Ty1-mediated gene expression; bHLH stands for basic-helix-loop-helix
YGR080W TWF1 Twinfilin; highly conserved actin monomer-sequestering protein involved in regulation of the cortical actin cytoskeleton; coordinates actin filament severing and monomer sequestering at sites of rapid actin turnover; composed of two cofilin-like regions, stimulates actin depolymerization as does the mouse homolog, mTwf1
YKR088C TVP38 Integral membrane protein; localized to late Golgi vesicles along with the v-SNARE Tlg2p; required for asymmetric localization of Kar9p during mitosis; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern
YDR084C TVP23 Integral membrane protein; localized to late Golgi vesicles along with the v-SNARE Tlg2p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern
YMR071C TVP18 Integral membrane protein; localized to late Golgi vesicles along with the v-SNARE Tlg2p; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; may have a role in intracellular sterol transport
YDR100W TVP15 Integral membrane protein; localized to late Golgi vesicles along with the v-SNARE Tlg2p
YCR084C TUP1 AAR1 | AER2 | AMM1 | chromatin-silencing transcriptional regulator TUP1 | CRT4 | CYC9 | FLK1 | ROX4 | SFL2 | UMR7 General repressor of transcription; forms complex with Cyc8p, involved in the establishment of repressive chromatin structure through interactions with histones H3 and H4, appears to enhance expression of some genes
YOR251C TUM1 thiosulfate sulfurtransferase Rhodanese domain sulfur transferase; accepts persulfite from Nfs1p and transfers it to Uba4p in the pathway for 2-thiolation of the wobble uridine base of tRNAs; also stimulates sulfur transfer by Nfs1p; may be mitochondrially localized
YOR187W TUF1 translation elongation factor Tu | tufM Mitochondrial translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu); involved in fundamental pathway of mtDNA homeostasis; comprises both GTPase and guanine nucleotide exchange factor activities, while these activities are found in separate proteins in S. pombe and humans; rare mutations in human mitochondrial elongation factor Tu (EFTu) associated with severe lactic acidosis, rapidly progressive fatal encephalopathy, severe infantile macrocystic leukodystrophy with micropolygyria
YLR212C TUB4 gamma-tubulin Gamma-tubulin; involved in nucleating microtubules from both the cytoplasmic and nuclear faces of the spindle pole body; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YML124C TUB3 alpha-tubulin TUB3 Alpha-tubulin; associates with beta-tubulin (Tub2p) to form tubulin dimer, which polymerizes to form microtubules; expressed at lower level than Tub1p; TUB3 has a paralog, TUB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML085C TUB1 alpha-tubulin TUB1 Alpha-tubulin; associates with beta-tubulin (Tub2p) to form tubulin dimer, which polymerizes to form microtubules; relative distribution to nuclear foci increases upon DNA replication stress; TUB1 has a paralog, TUB3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR136C TTI2 Subunit of the ASTRA complex, involved in chromatin remodeling; telomere length regulator involved in the stability or biogenesis of PIKKs such as TORC1; involved in the cellular stress response; similar to S. pombe Tti2p; may interact with Rsm23p; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YKL033W TTI1 FMP47 Subunit of the ASTRA complex, involved in chromatin remodeling; telomere length regulator involved in the stability or biogenesis of PIKKs such as TORC1; similar to S. pombe Tti1p; detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YOL022C TSR4 Cytoplasmic protein required for correct processing of 20S pre-rRNA; protein required for processing of the 20S pre-rRNA at site D to generate mature 18S rRNA; essential gene in S288C background but not in CEN.PK2
YOR006C TSR3 Protein required for 20S pre-rRNA processing; involved in processing of the 20S pre-rRNA at site D to generate mature 18S rRNA; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YLR435W TSR2 Protein with a potential role in pre-rRNA processing
YDL060W TSR1 Protein required for processing of 20S pre-rRNA in the cytoplasm; associates with pre-40S ribosomal particles; inhibits the premature association of 60S subunits with assembling 40S subunits in the cytoplasm; similar to Bms1p; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YML100W TSL1 trehalose 6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase complex subunit Large subunit of trehalose 6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase complex; Tps1p-Tps2p complex converts uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose and glucose 6-phosphate to trehalose; contributes to survival to acute lethal heat stress; mutant has aneuploidy tolerance; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TSL1 has a paralog, TPS3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL015C TSC13 trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase (NADPH) TSC13 Enoyl reductase; catalyzes last step in each cycle of very long chain fatty acid elongation; localizes to ER, highly enriched in a structure marking nuclear-vacuolar junctions; coimmunoprecipitates with elongases Elo2p and Elo3p; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to ER foci increases upon DNA replication stress; human homolog TECR implicated in nonsyndromic mental retardation, can complement yeast mutant
YBR265W TSC10 3-dehydrosphinganine reductase 3-ketosphinganine reductase; catalyzes the second step in phytosphingosine synthesis; essential for growth in the absence of exogenous dihydrosphingosine or phytosphingosine; localized to lipid droplets; member of short chain dehydrogenase/reductase protein family
YDR453C TSA2 cTPxII | thioredoxin peroxidase TSA2 Stress inducible cytoplasmic thioredoxin peroxidase; cooperates with Tsa1p in the removal of reactive oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur species using thioredoxin as hydrogen donor; deletion enhances the mutator phenotype of tsa1 mutants; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TSA2 has a paralog, TSA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML028W TSA1 cTPxI | thioredoxin peroxidase TSA1 | TPX1 | ZRG14 Thioredoxin peroxidase; acts as both ribosome-associated and free cytoplasmic antioxidant; self-associates to form high-molecular weight chaperone complex under oxidative stress; chaperone activity essential for growth in zinc deficiency; required for telomere length maintenance; binds and modulates Cdc19p activity; protein abundance increases, forms cytoplasmic foci during DNA replication stress; TSA1 has a paralog, TSA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR079C TRZ1 tRNase Z tRNA 3'-end processing endonuclease tRNase Z; also localized to mitochondria and interacts genetically with Rex2 exonuclease; homolog of the human candidate prostate cancer susceptibility gene ELAC2
YCR083W TRX3 Mitochondrial thioredoxin; highly conserved oxidoreductase required to maintain the redox homeostasis of the cell, forms the mitochondrial thioredoxin system with Trr2p, redox state is maintained by both Trr2p and Glr1p
YGR209C TRX2 LMA1 | thioredoxin TRX2 Cytoplasmic thioredoxin isoenzyme; part of thioredoxin system which protects cells against oxidative and reductive stress; forms LMA1 complex with Pbi2p; acts as a cofactor for Tsa1p; required for ER-Golgi transport and vacuole inheritance; with Trx1p, facilitates mitochondrial import of small Tims Tim9p, Tim10p, Tim13p by maintaining them in reduced form; abundance increases under DNA replication stress; TRX2 has a paralog, TRX1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR043C TRX1 LMA1 | thioredoxin TRX1 Cytoplasmic thioredoxin isoenzyme; part of thioredoxin system which protects cells against oxidative and reductive stress; forms LMA1 complex with Pbi2p; acts as a cofactor for Tsa1p; required for ER-Golgi transport and vacuole inheritance; with Trx2p, facilitates mitochondrial import of small Tims Tim9p, Tim10p, Tim13p by maintaining them in reduced form; abundance increases iunder DNA replication stress; TRX1 has a paralog, TRX2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR108W TRS85 GSG1 | MUM1 Component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex III; TRAPPIII is a multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating endosome-Golgi traffic and required for membrane expansion during autophagy and the CVT pathway; directs Ypt1p to the PAS; late post-replication meiotic role
YGR166W TRS65 KRE11 Component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex II; TRAPPII is a multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating intra-Golgi and endosome-Golgi traffic; role in cell wall beta-glucan biosynthesis and the stress response
YOR115C TRS33 Core component of TRAPP complexes I, II and IV; transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes are related multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating ER-Golgi traffic (TRAPPI), intra-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII), endosome-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII and III) and autophagy (TRAPPIII, and IV); proposed subunit of a novel complex, TRAPPIV, that may function redundantly with TRAPPIII as a GEF that activates Ypt1 during autophagy
YDR472W TRS31 TRAPP subunit TRS31 Core component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes I-III; TRAPP complexes are related multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating ER-Golgi traffic (TRAPPI), intra-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII), endosome-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII and III) and autophagy (TRAPPIII)
YDR246W TRS23 TRAPP subunit TRS23 Core component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes I-III; TRAPP complexes are related multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating ER-Golgi traffic (TRAPPI), intra-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII), endosome-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII and III) and autophagy (TRAPPIII); human homolog is TRAPPC4
YBR254C TRS20 TRAPP subunit TRS20 Core component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes I-III; TRAPPs are multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factors for GTPase Ypt1p, regulating ER-Golgi traffic (TRAPPI), intra-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII), endosome-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII and III) and autophagy (TRAPPIII); mutation leads to defects in endocytic recycling, block in sporulation/meiosis; mutations in human homolog TRAPPC2 cause spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda, TRAPPC2 can complement yeast null mutant
YMR218C TRS130 transport protein particle complex II subunit TRS130 Component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex II; TRAPPII is a multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating intra-Golgi and endosome-Golgi traffic
YDR407C TRS120 Component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex II; TRAPPII is a multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating intra-Golgi and endosome-Golgi traffic
YHR106W TRR2 thioredoxin-disulfide reductase TRR2 Mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase; involved in protection against oxidative stress, required with Glr1p to maintain the redox state of Trx3p; contains active-site motif (CAVC) present in prokaryotic orthologs; binds NADPH and FAD; TRR2 has a paralog, TRR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR353W TRR1 thioredoxin-disulfide reductase TRR1 Cytoplasmic thioredoxin reductase; key regulatory enzyme that determines the redox state of the thioredoxin system, which acts as a disulfide reductase system and protects cells against both oxidative and reductive stress; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TRR1 has a paralog, TRR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL026C TRP5 tryptophan synthase TRP5 Tryptophan synthase; catalyzes the last step of tryptophan biosynthesis; regulated by the general control system of amino acid biosynthesis
YDR354W TRP4 anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase Anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase; transferase of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway; catalyzes the phosphoribosylation of anthranilate; subject to the general control system of amino acid biosynthesis
YKL211C TRP3 bifunctional anthranilate synthase/indole-3-glycerol-phosphate synthase Indole-3-glycerol-phosphate synthase; forms bifunctional hetero-oligomeric anthranilate synthase:indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase enzyme complex with Trp2p
YER090W TRP2 anthranilate synthase TRP2 Anthranilate synthase; catalyzes the initial step of tryptophan biosynthesis, forms multifunctional hetero-oligomeric anthranilate synthase:indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase enzyme complex with Trp3p
YDR007W TRP1 phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase TRP1 Phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase; catalyzes the third step in tryptophan biosynthesis; in 2004, the sequence of TRP1 from strain S228C was updated by changing the previously annotated internal STOP (TAA) to serine (TCA); enhances vegetative growth at low and high temperatures when used as an auxotrophic marker in strains such as W303
YML014W TRM9 KTI1 | tRNA (carboxymethyluridine(34)-5-O)-methyltransferase tRNA methyltransferase; catalyzes modification of wobble bases in tRNA anticodons to 2, 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine and 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine; may act as part of a complex with Trm112p; deletion mutation increases translational infidelity, including amino acid misincorporation and -1 frameshifting, and also confers resistance to zymocin; null mutant displays activation of stress responses
YDR165W TRM82 Noncatalytic subunit of a tRNA methyltransferase complex; Trm8p and Trm82p comprise an enzyme that catalyzes a methyl-transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the N(7) atom of guanine at position 46 in tRNA; Trm8 lacks catalytic activity if not bound to Trm82p; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; mutation in human ortholog WDR4 causes microcephalic primordial dwarfism
YDL201W TRM8 tRNA (guanine46-N7)-methyltransferase Catalytic subunit of a tRNA methyltransferase complex; Trm8p and Trm82p comprise an enzyme that catalyzes a methyl-transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the N(7) atom of guanine at position 46 in tRNA; Trm8 lacks catalytic activity if not bound to Trm82p
YMR259C TRM732 tRNA methylation protein TRM732 Protein involved in 2'-O-methylation of C32 of substrate tRNAs; interacts with 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase Trm7p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; non-essential gene; yeast null mutant can be functionally complemented by human THADA, mutations in which have been implicated in epithelial thyroid adenomas, type 2 diabetes, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
YBR061C TRM7 tRNA methyltransferase TRM7 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase; methylates the 2'-O-ribose of tRNA-Phe, tRNA-Trp, and tRNA-Leu at positions C32 and N34 of tRNA anticodon loop; crucial biological role likely modification of tRNA-Phe; interacts with Trm732p and Rtt10p in 2'-O-methylation of C32 and N34 substrate tRNAs, respectively; yeast null mutant can be functionally complemented by human FTSJ1, mutations in which have been implicated in nonsyndromic X-linked intellectual disability (NSXLID)
YHR070W TRM5 tRNA (guanine) methyltransferase tRNA(m(1)G37)methyltransferase; methylates a tRNA base adjacent to the anticodon that has a role in prevention of frameshifting; localized to both cytoplasm and mitochondria, and modifies both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs; mutations in human ortholog TRMT5 are associated with skeletal muscle respiratory chain deficiencies, and trm5 mutations analogous to disease mutations decrease respiration
YPL030W TRM44 tRNA (uracil) methyltransferase tRNA(Ser) Um(44) 2'-O-methyltransferase; involved in maintaining levels of the tRNA-Ser species tS(CGA) and tS(UGA); conserved among metazoans and fungi but there does not appear to be a homolog in plants; TRM44 is a non-essential gene
YDL112W TRM3 tRNA (guanosine(18)-2'-O)-methyltransferase 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase; catalyzes the ribose methylation of the guanosine nucleotide at position 18 of tRNAs
YOL125W TRM13 tRNA:m4X modification enzyme 2'-O-methyltransferase; responsible for modification of tRNA at position 4; C-terminal domain has similarity to Rossmann-fold (RFM) superfamily of RNA methyltransferases
YML005W TRM12 TYW2 S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase; required for wybutosine formation in phenylalanine-accepting tRNA; member of the seven beta-strand family
YNR046W TRM112 RNA methylation protein TRM112 Protein involved in methylation of tRNA, rRNA, and translation factors; also involved in ribosome biogenesis; subunit of tRNA methyltransferase (MTase) complexes in combination with Trm9p and Trm11p; N7-methylates G1575 of 18S rRNA as complex with Bud23p; subunit of complex with Mtq2p that methylates Sup45p (eRF1) in the ternary complex eRF1-eRF3-GTP; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; functional homolog of human TRMT112
YOL124C TRM11 tRNA (guanine-N2-)-methyltransferase Catalytic subunit of adoMet-dependent tRNA methyltransferase complex; required for the methylation of the guanosine nucleotide at position 10 (m2G10) in tRNAs; contains a THUMP domain and a methyltransferase domain; another complex member is Trm112p
YOL093W TRM10 tRNA (guanine(9)-N(1))-methyltransferase tRNA methyltransferase; methylates the N-1 position of guanine at position 9 in tRNAs; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; member of the SPOUT (SpoU-TrmD) methyltransferase family; human ortholog TRMT10A plays a role in the pathogenesis of microcephaly and early onset diabetes; an 18-mer originates from the TRM10 locus; genetic analysis shows the 18-mer is the translation regulator
YDR120C TRM1 tRNA (guanine26-N2)-dimethyltransferase tRNA methyltransferase; two forms of protein are made by alternative translation starts; localizes to both nucleus and mitochondrion to produce modified base N2,N2-dimethylguanosine in tRNAs in both compartments; nuclear Trm1p is evenly distributed around inner nuclear membrane in WT, but mislocalizes as puncta near ER-nucleus junctions in spindle pole body (SPB) mutants; both Trm1p inner nuclear membrane targeting and maintenance depend upon SPB
YJL087C TRL1 LIG1 | RLG1 | tRNA ligase tRNA ligase; required for tRNA splicing and for both splicing and translation of HAC1 mRNA in the UPR; has phosphodiesterase, polynucleotide kinase, and ligase activities; localized at the inner nuclear envelope and cytoplasm
YMR233W TRI1 Non-essential sumoylated protein of unknown function; similar to components of human SWI/SNF complex including SMRD3; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus; TRI1 has a paralog, UAF30, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL299W TRF5 non-canonical poly(A) polymerase TRF5 Non-canonical poly(A) polymerase; involved in nuclear RNA degradation as a component of the TRAMP complex; catalyzes polyadenylation of hypomodified tRNAs, and snoRNA and rRNA precursors; overlapping but non-redundant functions with Pap2p
YOL102C TPT1 tRNA 2'-phosphotransferase tRNA 2'-phosphotransferase that catalyzes final step in tRNA splicing: the transfer of the 2'-PO(4) from the splice junction to NAD(+) to form ADP-ribose 1''-2''cyclic phosphate and nicotinamide
YMR261C TPS3 trehalose 6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase complex subunit Regulatory subunit of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase/phosphatase; involved in synthesis of storage carbohydrate trehalose; expression is induced by stress conditions and repressed by the Ras-cAMP pathway; TPS3 has a paralog, TSL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR074W TPS2 HOG2 | PFK3 | trehalose-phosphatase TPS2 Phosphatase subunit of the trehalose-6-P synthase/phosphatase complex; involved in synthesis of the storage carbohydrate trehalose; expression is induced by stress conditions and repressed by the Ras-cAMP pathway; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR126C TPS1 alpha,alpha-trehalose-phosphate synthase (UDP-forming) TPS1 | BYP1 | CIF1 | FDP1 | GGS1 | GLC6 | TSS1 Synthase subunit of trehalose-6-P synthase/phosphatase complex; synthesizes the storage carbohydrate trehalose, which is critically important for survival of long-term desiccation; also found in a monomeric form; expression is induced by the stress response and repressed by the Ras-cAMP pathway; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress and in response to prolonged exposure to boric acid
YOR273C TPO4 Polyamine transporter of the major facilitator superfamily; member of the 12-spanner drug:H(+) antiporter DHA1 family; recognizes spermine, putrescine, and spermidine; localizes to the plasma membrane
YPR156C TPO3 spermine transporter Polyamine transporter of the major facilitator superfamily; member of the 12-spanner drug:H(+) antiporter DHA1 family; specific for spermine; localizes to the plasma membrane; TPO3 has a paralog, TPO2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR138C TPO2 spermine transporter Polyamine transporter of the major facilitator superfamily; member of the 12-spanner drug:H(+) antiporter DHA1 family; specific for spermine; localizes to the plasma membrane; transcription of TPO2 is regulated by Haa1p; TPO2 has a paralog, TPO3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLL028W TPO1 Polyamine transporter of the major facilitator superfamily; member of the 12-spanner drug:H(+) antiporter DHA1 family; recognizes spermine, putrescine, and spermidine; catalyzes uptake of polyamines at alkaline pH and excretion at acidic pH; during oxidative stress exports spermine, spermidine from the cell, which controls timing of expression of stress-responsive genes; phosphorylation enhances activity and sorting to the plasma membrane
YGL186C TPN1 Plasma membrane pyridoxine (vitamin B6) transporter; member of the purine-cytosine permease subfamily within the major facilitator superfamily; proton symporter with similarity to Fcy21p, Fcy2p, and Fcy22p
YIL138C TPM2 tropomyosin TPM2 Minor isoform of tropomyosin; binds to and stabilizes actin cables and filaments, which direct polarized cell growth and the distribution of several organelles; appears to have distinct and also overlapping functions with Tpm1p; TPM2 has a paralog, TPM1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL166C TPK3 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit TPK3 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit; promotes vegetative growth in response to nutrients via the Ras-cAMP signaling pathway; partially redundant with Tpk1p and Tpk2p; localizes to P-bodies during stationary phase; TPK3 has a paralog, TPK1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL203W TPK2 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit TPK2 | PKA2 | PKA3 | YKR1 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit; promotes vegetative growth in response to nutrients via the Ras-cAMP signaling pathway; partially redundant with Tpk1p and Tpk3p; localizes to P-bodies during stationary phase; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YJL164C TPK1 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit TPK1 | PKA1 | SRA3 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit; promotes vegetative growth in response to nutrients via the Ras-cAMP signaling pathway; inhibited by regulatory subunit Bcy1p in the absence of cAMP; phosphorylates and inhibits Whi3p to promote G1/S phase passage; partially redundant with Tpk2p and Tpk3p; phosphorylates pre-Tom40p, which impairs its import into mitochondria under non-respiratory conditions; TPK1 has a paralog, TPK3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR050C TPI1 triose-phosphate isomerase TPI1 Triose phosphate isomerase, abundant glycolytic enzyme; mRNA half-life is regulated by iron availability; transcription is controlled by activators Reb1p, Gcr1p, and Rap1p through binding sites in the 5' non-coding region; inhibition of Tpi1p activity by PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) stimulates redox metabolism in respiring cells; E104D mutation in human homolog TPI1 causes a rare autosomal disease; human TPI1 can complement yeast null mutant
YJL016W TPH3 YJL017W Putative protein of unknown function; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; contains two adjacent PH-like domains; conserved in closely related Saccharomyces species
YAL016W TPD3 FUN32 | protein phosphatase 2A structural subunit TPD3 Regulatory subunit A of the heterotrimeric PP2A complex; the heterotrimeric protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) complex also contains regulatory subunit Cdc55p and either catalytic subunit Pph21p or Pph22p; required for cell morphogenesis and transcription by RNA polymerase III
YGR096W TPC1 thiamine transporter TPC1 Mitochondrial membrane transporter; mediates uptake of the essential cofactor thiamine pyrophosphate (ThPP) into mitochondria; expression appears to be regulated by carbon source; member of the mitochondrial carrier family
YER049W TPA1 oxidative DNA demethylase Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family member; catalyzes the repair of methyl-base lesions in both ss and dsDNA by oxidative demethylation; Poly(rA)-binding protein involved in mRNA poly(A) tail length and mRNA stability; role in translation termination efficiency; interacts with Sup45p (eRF1), Sup35p (eRF3) and Pab1p; similar to human prolyl 4-hydroxylase OGFOD1; binds Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate
YNL300W TOS6 Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-dependent cell wall protein; expression is periodic and decreases in respone to ergosterol perturbation or upon entry into stationary phase; depletion increases resistance to lactic acid
YLR183C TOS4 Putative transcription factor, contains Forkhead Associated domain; binds chromatin; involved in expression homeostasis, buffering of mRNA synthesis rate against gene dosage changes during S phase; target of SBF transcription factor; expression is periodic and peaks in G1; involved in DNA replication checkpoint response; interacts with Rpd3 and Set3 histone deacetylase complexes; APCC(Cdh1) substrate; relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YBR162C TOS1 Covalently-bound cell wall protein of unknown function; identified as a cell cycle regulated SBF target gene; deletion mutants are highly resistant to treatment with beta-1,3-glucanase; has sequence similarity to YJL171C
YLR234W TOP3 DNA topoisomerase 3 | EDR1 DNA Topoisomerase III; conserved protein that functions in a complex with Sgs1p and Rmi1p to relax single-stranded negatively-supercoiled DNA preferentially; DNA catenation/decatenation activity is stimulated by RPA and Sgs1p-Top3p-Rmi1p; involved in telomere stability and regulation of mitotic recombination
YNL088W TOP2 DNA topoisomerase 2 | TOR3 | TRF3 Topoisomerase II; relieves torsional strain in DNA by cleaving and re-sealing phosphodiester backbone of both positively and negatively supercoiled DNA; cleaves complementary strands; localizes to axial cores in meiosis; required for replication slow zone (RSZ) breakage following Mec1p inactivation; human homolog TOP2A implicated in cancers, and can complement yeast null mutant
YOL006C TOP1 DNA topoisomerase 1 | MAK1 | MAK17 Topoisomerase I; nuclear enzyme that relieves torsional strain in DNA by cleaving and re-sealing the phosphodiester backbone; relaxes both positively and negatively supercoiled DNA; functions in replication, transcription, and recombination; role in processing ribonucleoside monophosphates in genomic DNA into irreversible single-strand breaks; enzymatic activity and interaction with Nsr1p are negatively regulated by polyphosphorylation
YHR117W TOM71 protein channel TOM71 | TOM72 Mitochondrial outer membrane protein; probable minor component of the TOM (translocase of outer membrane) complex responsible for recognition and import of mitochondrially directed proteins; TOM71 has a paralog, TOM70, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL121C TOM70 MAS70 | MOM72 | OMP1 | protein channel TOM70 Component of the TOM (translocase of outer membrane) complex; involved in the recognition and initial import steps for all mitochondrially directed proteins; acts as a receptor for incoming precursor proteins; TOM70 has a paralog, TOM71, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR045W TOM6 ISP6 | MOM8B Component of the TOM (translocase of outer membrane) complex; responsible for recognition and initial import steps for all mitochondrially directed proteins; promotes assembly and stability of the TOM complex
YNL131W TOM22 MAS17 | MAS22 | MOM22 Component of the TOM (Translocase of Outer Membrane) complex; responsible for initial import of mitochondrially directed proteins; mediates interaction between TOM and TIM complexes and acts as a receptor for precursor proteins
YGR082W TOM20 MAS20 | MOM19 Component of the TOM (translocase of outer membrane) complex; responsible for recognition and initial import steps for all mitochondrially directed proteins; acts as a receptor for incoming precursor proteins
YDR457W TOM1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TOM1 E3 ubiquitin ligase of the hect-domain class; has a role in mRNA export from the nucleus and may regulate transcriptional coactivators; involved in degradation of excess histones; interacts with Dia2p and is required for Dia2p degradation; required to target Cdc6p for ubiquitin-mediated destruction during G1 phase
YJL171C TOH1 GPI-anchored cell wall protein of unknown function; induced in response to cell wall damaging agents and by mutations in genes involved in cell wall biogenesis; sequence similarity to YBR162C/TOS1, a covalently bound cell wall protein; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKR010C TOF2 Protein required for rDNA silencing and mitotic rDNA condensation; stimulates Cdc14p phosphatase activity and biphasic release to promote rDNA repeat segregation; required for condensin recruitment to the replication fork barrier site; TOF2 has a paralog, NET1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL273W TOF1 Subunit of a replication-pausing checkpoint complex; Tof1p-Mrc1p-Csm3p acts at the stalled replication fork to promote sister chromatid cohesion after DNA damage, facilitating gap repair of damaged DNA; interacts with the MCM helicase; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YBL054W TOD6 PBF1 PAC motif binding protein involved in rRNA and ribosome biogenesis; subunit of the RPD3L histone deacetylase complex; Myb-like HTH transcription factor; hypophosphorylated by rapamycin treatment in a Sch9p-dependent manner; activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization
YKL058W TOA2 transcription initiation factor IIA subunit gamma TFIIA small subunit; involved in transcriptional activation, acts as antirepressor or as coactivator; required, along with Toa1p, for ribosomal protein gene transcription in vivo; homologous to smallest subunit of human and Drosophila TFIIA; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGR260W TNA1 High affinity nicotinic acid plasma membrane permease; responsible for uptake of low levels of nicotinic acid; expression of the gene increases in the absence of extracellular nicotinic acid or para-aminobenzoate (PABA)
YER175C TMT1 TAM1 Trans-aconitate methyltransferase; cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the methyl esterification of 3-isopropylmalate, an intermediate of the leucine biosynthetic pathway, and trans-aconitate, which inhibits the citric acid cycle
YDR105C TMS1 Vacuolar membrane protein of unknown function; is conserved in mammals; predicted to contain eleven transmembrane helices; interacts with Pdr5p, a protein involved in multidrug resistance
YER113C TMN3 Protein with a role in cellular adhesion and filamentous growth; similar to Emp70p and Tmn2p; member of Transmembrane Nine family with 9 transmembrane segments; localizes to Golgi; induced by 8-methoxypsoralen plus UVA irradiation
YLR118C TML25 APT1 | palmitoyl-(protein) hydrolase Acyl-protein thioesterase responsible for depalmitoylation of Gpa1p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YPR098C TMH18 Protein of unknown function; localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane
YJR085C TMH11 Protein of unknown function; GFP-fusion protein is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR052C TMC1 YOR29-03 AN1-type zinc finger protein, effector of proteotoxic stress response; stress-inducible transcriptional target of Rpn4p; induced by nitrogen limitation, weak acid, misfolded proteins; short-lived protein, degraded by proteasome; may protect cells from trivalent metalloid induced proteotoxicity; contains PACE promoter element; ortholog of human AIRAP, which stimulates proteasome activity in response to arsenic; protein abundance increases under DNA replication stress
YLR262C-A TMA7 RBF7 Protein of unknown that associates with ribosomes; null mutant exhibits translation defects, altered polyribosome profiles, and resistance to the translation inhibitor anisomcyin; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR091W TMA46 RBF46 Protein of unknown function that associates with translating ribosomes; interacts with GTPase Rbg1p
YMR269W TMA23 YMR268W-A Nucleolar protein implicated in ribosome biogenesis; deletion extends chronological lifespan
YJR014W TMA22 RBF22 Protein of unknown function; associates with ribosomes and has a putative RNA binding domain; interacts with Tma20p; similar to human GRAP and human DRP1, which interacts with human Tma20p homolog MCT-1; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YER007C-A TMA20 RBF20 Protein of unknown function that associates with ribosomes; has a putative RNA binding domain; interacts with Tma22p; null mutant exhibits translation defects; has homology to human oncogene MCT-1; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL056C TMA19 MMI1 | RBF18 Protein that associates with ribosomes; homolog of translationally controlled tumor protein; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and relocates to the mitochondrial outer surface upon oxidative stress
YDL110C TMA17 ADC17 ATPase dedicated chaperone that adapts proteasome assembly to stress; Tma17p is induced upon stress; interacts with Rpt6p to assist its pairing to Rpt3p and early steps in proteasome biogenesis; associates with ribosomes; heterozygous deletion demonstrated increases in chromosome instability in a rad9 deletion background; protein abundance is decreased upon intracellular iron depletion
YOR252W TMA16 RBF17 Protein of unknown function that associates with ribosomes
YIL137C TMA108 RBF108 | TAE3 Ribosome-associated, nascent chain binding factor; binds N-terminal region of nascent peptides during translation; recognizes target proteins via its putative metallopeptidase peptide-binding pocket
YLR327C TMA10 RBF9 | SFL2 Protein of unknown function that associates with ribosomes; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TMA10 has a paralog, STF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR117C TKL2 transketolase TKL2 Transketolase; catalyzes conversion of xylulose-5-phosphate and ribose-5-phosphate to sedoheptulose-7-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway; needed for synthesis of aromatic amino acids; TKL2 has a paralog, TKL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR074C TKL1 transketolase TKL1 Transketolase; catalyzes conversion of xylulose-5-phosphate and ribose-5-phosphate to sedoheptulose-7-phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway; needed for synthesis of aromatic amino acids; TKL1 has a paralog, TKL2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR136C TIS11 CTH2 mRNA-binding protein expressed during iron starvation; binds to a sequence element in the 3'-untranslated regions of specific mRNAs to mediate their degradation; involved in iron homeostasis; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; TIS11 has a paralog, CTH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER011W TIR1 GPI-anchored mannoprotein | SRP1 Cell wall mannoprotein; expression is downregulated at acidic pH and induced by cold shock and anaerobiosis; abundance is increased in cells cultured without shaking; member of the Srp1p/Tip1p family of serine-alanine-rich proteins
YPR040W TIP41 Protein that interacts with Tap42p, which regulates PP2A; component of the TOR (target of rapamycin) signaling pathway; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGL145W TIP20 TIP1 Peripheral membrane protein required for COPI vesicle fusion to the ER; mediates Sey1p-independent homotypic ER fusion; prohibits back-fusion of COPII vesicles with the ER; forms a tethering complex with Sec39p and Dsl1p that interacts with ER SNAREs Sec20p and Use1p
YBR067C TIP1 putative lipase Major cell wall mannoprotein with possible lipase activity; transcription is induced by heat- and cold-shock; member of the Srp1p/Tip1p family of serine-alanine-rich proteins
YJL054W TIM54 Component of the mitochondrial TIM22 complex; involved in insertion of polytopic proteins into the inner membrane
YPL063W TIM50 protein translocase subunit TIM50 Essential component of the TIM23 complex; acts as receptor for the translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane (TIM23) complex guiding incoming precursors from the TOM complex; may control the gating of the Tim23p-Tim17p channel
YIL022W TIM44 ISP45 | MIM44 | MPI1 | protein translocase subunit TIM44 Essential component of the TIM23 complex; tethers the import motor and regulatory factors (PAM complex) to the translocation channel (Tim23p-Tim17p core complex); TIM23 complex is short for the translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane
YNR017W TIM23 MAS6 | MIM23 | MPI3 | protein transporter TIM23 Essential component of the TIM23 complex; involved in protein import into mitochondrial matrix and inner membrane; with Tim17p, contributes to architecture and function of the import channel; TIM23 complex is short for the translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane
YGR033C TIM21 FMP17 Nonessential component of the TIM23 complex; interacts with the Translocase of the Outer Mitochondrial membrane (TOM complex) and with respiratory enzymes; may regulate the Translocase of the Inner Mitochondrial membrane (TIM23 complex) activity
YOR297C TIM18 Component of the mitochondrial TIM22 complex; involved in insertion of polytopic proteins into the inner membrane; may mediate assembly or stability of the complex
YJL143W TIM17 MIM17 | MPI2 | protein transporter TIM17 | SMS1 Essential component of the TIM23 complex; with Tim23p, contributes to the architecture and function of the import channel; may link the import motor to the core Translocase of the Inner Mitochondrial membrane (TIM23 complex)
YDR322C-A TIM11 ATP21 | F1F0 ATP synthase subunit e Subunit e of mitochondrial F1F0-ATPase; ATPase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; essential for the dimeric and oligomeric state of ATP synthase, which in turn determines the shape of inner membrane cristae
YPR016C TIF6 CDC95 | translation initiation factor 6 Constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; has similarity to human translation initiation factor 6 (eIF6); may be involved in the biogenesis and or stability of 60S ribosomal subunits
YPR041W TIF5 SUI5 | translation initiation factor eIF5 Translation initiation factor eIF5; functions both as a GTPase-activating protein to mediate hydrolysis of ribosome-bound GTP and as a GDP dissociation inhibitor to prevent recycling of eIF2
YGL049C TIF4632 eIF4G2 | translation initiation factor eIF4G Translation initiation factor eIF4G; subunit of the mRNA cap-binding protein complex (eIF4F) that also contains eIF4E (Cdc33p); associates with the poly(A)-binding protein Pab1p, also interacts with eIF4A (Tif1p); TIF4632 has a paralog, TIF4631, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR162W TIF4631 eiF4G1 | translation initiation factor eIF4G Translation initiation factor eIF4G; subunit of the mRNA cap-binding protein complex (eIF4F) that also contains eIF4E (Cdc33p); interacts with Pab1p and with eIF4A (Tif1p); also has a role in biogenesis of the large ribosomal subunit; TIF4631 has a paralog, TIF4632, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR429C TIF35 translation initiation factor eIF3 core subunit g eIF3g subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3); subunit of the core complex of eIF3; is essential for translation; stimulates resumption of ribosomal scanning during translation reinitiation; eIF3 is also involved in programmed stop codon readthrough
YPR163C TIF3 eIF4B | RBL3 | STM1 Translation initiation factor eIF-4B; contains an RNA recognition motif and binds to single-stranded RNA; has RNA annealing activity; interacts with Rps20p at the head of the 40S ribosomal subunit and alters the structure of the mRNA entry channel
YJL138C TIF2 eIF4A | translation initiation factor eIF4A Translation initiation factor eIF4A; DEA(D/H)-box RNA helicase that couples ATPase activity to RNA binding and unwinding; forms a dumbbell structure of two compact domains connected by a linker; interacts with eIF4G; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TIF2 has a paralog, TIF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR260C TIF11 Translation initiation factor eIF1A; essential protein that forms a complex with Sui1p (eIF1) and the 40S ribosomal subunit and scans for the start codon; C-terminus associates with Fun12p (eIF5B); N terminus interacts with eIF2 and eIF3
YKR059W TIF1 eIF4A | translation initiation factor eIF4A Translation initiation factor eIF4A; DEA(D/H)-box RNA helicase that couples ATPase activity to RNA binding and unwinding; forms a dumbbell structure of two compact domains connected by a linker; interacts with eIF4G; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TIF1 has a paralog, TIF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL078W THS1 threonine--tRNA ligase THS1 Threonyl-tRNA synthetase; essential cytoplasmic protein; human homolog TARS can complement yeast null mutant
YCR053W THR4 threonine synthase THR4 Threonine synthase; conserved protein that catalyzes formation of threonine from O-phosphohomoserine; expression is regulated by the GCN4-mediated general amino acid control pathway
YHR025W THR1 homoserine kinase Homoserine kinase; conserved protein required for threonine biosynthesis; long-lived protein that is preferentially retained in mother cells and forms cytoplasmic filaments; expression is regulated by the GCN4-mediated general amino acid control pathway
YPR045C THP3 MNI2 Protein that may have a role in transcription elongation; forms a complex with Csn12p that is recruited to transcribed genes; possibly involved in splicing based on pre-mRNA accumulation defect for many intron-containing genes
YHR167W THP2 Subunit of the THO and TREX complexes; THO connects transcription elongation and mitotic recombination, and TREX is recruited to activated genes and couples transcription to mRNA export; involved in telomere maintenance
YOL072W THP1 BUD29 Nuclear pore-associated protein; component of TREX-2 complex (Sac3p-Thp1p-Sus1p-Cdc31p) involved in transcription elongation and mRNA export from the nucleus; involved in post-transcriptional tethering of active genes to the nuclear periphery and to non-nascent mRNP; contains a PAM domain implicated in protein-protein binding
YNL139C THO2 LDB5 | RLR1 | ZRG13 Subunit of the THO complex; THO is required for efficient transcription elongation and involved in transcriptional elongation-associated recombination; required for LacZ RNA expression from certain plasmids
YER063W THO1 Conserved nuclear RNA-binding protein; specifically binds to transcribed chromatin in a THO- and RNA-dependent manner, genetically interacts with shuttling hnRNP NAB2; overproduction suppresses transcriptional defect caused by hpr1 mutation
YOR143C THI80 thiamine diphosphokinase Thiamine pyrophosphokinase; phosphorylates thiamine to produce the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate (thiamine diphosphate)
YLR237W THI7 THI10 | thiamine transporter THI7 Plasma membrane transporter responsible for the uptake of thiamine; contributes to uptake of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (acadesine); member of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters; mutation of human ortholog causes thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia
YPL214C THI6 bifunctional hydroxyethylthiazole kinase/thiamine-phosphate diphosphorylase Thiamine-phosphate diphosphorylase and hydroxyethylthiazole kinase; required for thiamine biosynthesis; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern
YDL080C THI3 branched-chain-2-oxoacid decarboxylase THI3 | KID1 Regulatory protein that binds Pdc2p and Thi2p transcription factors; activates thiamine biosynthesis transcription factors Pdc2p and Thi2p by binding to them, but releases and de-activates them upon binding to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the end product of the pathway; has similarity to decarboxylases but enzymatic activity is not detected
YOL055C THI20 trifunctional hydroxymethylpyrimidine kinase/phosphomethylpyrimidine kinase/thiaminase Trifunctional enzyme of thiamine biosynthesis, degradation and salvage; has hydroxymethylpyrimidine (HMP) kinase, HMP-phosphate (HMP-P) kinase and thiaminase activities; member of a gene family with THI21 and THI22; HMP and HMP-P kinase activity redundant with Thi21p
YGR024C THG1 tRNA guanylyltransferase tRNAHis guanylyltransferase; adds a guanosine residue to the 5' end of tRNAH is after transcription and RNase P cleavage; can also catalyze reverse (3'-5') polymerization with certain substrates in a template-dependent reaction; couples nuclear division and migration to cell budding and cytokinesis; essential enzyme conserved among eukaryotes
YOR081C TGL5 STC2 Bifunctional triacylglycerol lipase and LPA acyltransferase; lipid particle-localized triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase involved in triacylglycerol mobilization; catalyzes acylation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA); potential Cdc28p substrate; TGL5 has a paralog, TGL4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR089C TGL4 STC1 Multifunctional lipase/hydrolase/phospholipase; triacylglycerol lipase, steryl ester hydrolase, and Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2; catalyzes acyl-CoA dependent acylation of LPA to PA; required with Tgl3p for timely bud formation; phosphorylated and activated by Cdc28p; TGL4 has a paralog, TGL5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR313C TGL3 bifunctional triglyceride lipase/lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase Bifunctional triacylglycerol lipase and LPE acyltransferase; major lipid particle-localized triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase; catalyzes acylation of lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), a function which is essential for sporulation; protein level and stability of Tgl3p are markedly reduced in the absence of lipid droplets; required with Tgl4p for timely bud formation
YKL140W TGL1 YKL5 Steryl ester hydrolase; one of three gene products (Yeh1p, Yeh2p, Tgl1p) responsible for steryl ester hydrolase activity and involved in sterol homeostasis; localized to lipid particle membranes
YLR178C TFS1 DKA1 Inhibitor of carboxypeptidase Y (Prc1p), and Ras GAP (Ira2p); phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family member and ortholog of hPEBP1/RKIP, a natural metastasis suppressor; targets to vacuolar membranes during stationary phase; acetylated by NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGR186W TFG1 RAP74 | SSU71 | transcription factor IIF subunit TFG1 TFIIF (Transcription Factor II) largest subunit; involved in both transcription initiation and elongation of RNA polymerase II; homologous to human RAP74
YPL007C TFC8 tau 60 | transcription factor TFIIIC subunit TFC8 Subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex; one of six subunits of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex (TFIIIC); part of TFIIIC TauB domain that binds BoxB promoter sites of tRNA and other genes; linker between TauB and TauA domains; human homolog is TFIIIC-90
YOR110W TFC7 tau 55 | transcription factor TFIIIC subunit TFC7 RNA pol III transcription initiation factor complex (TFIIIC) subunit; part of the TauA globular domain of TFIIIC that binds DNA at the BoxA promoter sites of tRNA and similar genes; TFC7 has a paralog, YNL108C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR362C TFC6 tau 91 | transcription factor TFIIIC subunit TFC6 Subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex; one of six subunits of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex (TFIIIC); part of TFIIIC TauB domain that binds BoxB promoter sites of tRNA and other genes; cooperates with Tfc3p in DNA binding; human homolog is TFIIIC-110
YGR047C TFC4 PCF1 | tau 131 | transcription factor TFIIIC subunit TFC4 Subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex; one of six subunits of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex (TFIIIC); part of the TauA domain of TFIIIC that binds BoxA DNA promoter sites of tRNA and similar genes; has TPR motifs; human homolog is TFIIIC-102
YAL001C TFC3 FUN24 | tau 138 | transcription factor TFIIIC subunit TFC3 | TSV115 Subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex; part of TauB domain of TFIIIC that binds DNA at BoxB promoter sites of tRNA and similar genes; cooperates with Tfc6p in DNA binding; largest of six subunits of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex (TFIIIC); colocalizes with condensin at pol III genes and several ETC (“extra TFIIIC)” sites; may have a role in recruiting or stabilizing Scc2/4 and condensin on chromosomes
YBR123C TFC1 tau 95 | transcription factor TFIIIC subunit TFC1 Subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex; one of six subunits of the RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor complex (TFIIIC); part of the TauA globular domain of TFIIIC that binds DNA at the BoxA promoter sites of tRNA and similar genes; human homolog is TFIIIC-63
YOR352W TFB6 TFIIH complex subunit TFB6 Subunit of TFIIH complex; facilities dissociation of the Ssl2p helices from TFIIH; expression levels regulated by Arg5,6p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus
YDR079C-A TFB5 TFIIH complex subunit TFB5 Component of RNA polymerase II general transcription factor TFIIH; involved in transcription initiation and in nucleotide-excision repair; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; homolog of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii REX1-S protein involved in DNA repair
YPR056W TFB4 TFIIH/NER complex subunit TFB4 Subunit of TFIIH complex; involved in transcription initiation, similar to 34 kDa subunit of human TFIIH; interacts with Ssl1p
YDR460W TFB3 RIG2 | TFIIH/NER complex subunit TFB3 Subunit of TFIIH and nucleotide excision repair factor 3 complexes; involved in transcription initiation, required for nucleotide excision repair; ring finger protein similar to mammalian CAK and TFIIH subunit
YPL122C TFB2 TFIIH/NER complex subunit TFB2 Subunit of TFIIH and nucleotide excision repair factor 3 complexes; involved in transcription initiation, required for nucleotide excision repair, similar to 52 kDa subunit of human TFIIH
YDR311W TFB1 TFIIH/NER complex subunit TFB1 Subunit of TFIIH and nucleotide excision repair factor 3 complexes; required for nucleotide excision repair, target for transcriptional activators; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YKR062W TFA2 transcription factor TFIIE subunit TFA2 TFIIE small subunit; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation
YKL028W TFA1 transcription factor TFIIE subunit TFA1 TFIIE large subunit; involved in recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the promoter, activation of TFIIH, and promoter opening
YML064C TEM1 Ras family GTPase TEM1 GTP-binding protein of the Ras superfamily; involved in termination of M-phase; controls actomyosin and septin dynamics during cytokinesis
YKL081W TEF4 EFC1 | translation elongation factor EF1B gamma Gamma subunit of translational elongation factor eEF1B; stimulates the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA (AA-tRNA) to ribosomes by releasing eEF1A (Tef1p/Tef2p) from the ribosomal complex
YBR118W TEF2 eEF1A | EF-1 alpha | translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha Translational elongation factor EF-1 alpha; GTP-bound active form, binds to and delivers aminoacylated tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes for elongation of nascent polypeptides; moonlighting function as an actin binding and bundling protein; association with GTPase Rho1p on the vacuolar membrane may facilitate F-actin remodeling; involved in tRNA re-export from the nucleus; Tef2p-RFP levels increase during replicative aging
YPR080W TEF1 eEF1A | EF-1 alpha | translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha Translational elongation factor EF-1 alpha; GTP-bound active form, binds to and delivers aminoacylated tRNA to the A-site of ribosomes for elongation of nascent polypeptides; moonlighting function as an actin binding and bundling protein; association with GTPase Rho1p on the vacuolar membrane may facilitate F-actin remodeling; involved in tRNA re-export from the nucleus
YIL039W TED1 GPI-glycan remodelase; conserved phosphoesterase domain-containing protein; acts together with Emp24p/Erv25p in cargo exit from the ER; functional ortholog of mammalian GPI-glycan remodelase PGAP5; deletion confers sensitivity to 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsenoxide (GSAO)
YBR083W TEC1 ROC1 Transcription factor targeting filamentation genes and Ty1 expression; Ste12p activation of most filamentation gene promoters depends on Tec1p and Tec1p transcriptional activity is dependent on its association with Ste12p; binds to TCS elements upstream of filamentation genes, which are regulated by Tec1p/Ste12p/Dig1p complex; competes with Dig2p for binding to Ste12p/Dig1p; positive regulator of chronological life span; TEA/ATTS DNA-binding domain family member
YOR337W TEA1 Ty1 enhancer activator involved in Ty enhancer-mediated transcription; required for full levels of Ty enhancer-mediated transcription; C6 zinc cluster DNA-binding protein
YBR223C TDP1 tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I; hydrolyzes 3' and 5'-phosphotyrosyl bonds; involved in the repair of DNA lesions created by topo I and topo II; mutations in the human homolog, TDP1, result in the a neurodegenerative disease, spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy (SCAN1); yeast cells and human rhabdomyosarcoma lines that overexpress TDP1 both exhibit elevated dosage chromosomal instability (dCIN)
YGR192C TDH3 GAPDH | GLD1 | glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (phosphorylating) TDH3 | GPD | HSP35 | HSP36 | SSS2 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), isozyme 3; involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; tetramer that catalyzes the reaction of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3 bis-phosphoglycerate; detected in the cytoplasm and cell wall; GAPDH-derived antimicrobial peptides secreted by S. cerevisiae are active against a wide variety of wine-related yeasts and bacteria; binds AU-rich RNA
YJR009C TDH2 GAPDH | GLD2 | glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (phosphorylating) TDH2 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), isozyme 2; involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; tetramer that catalyzes reaction of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3 bis-phosphoglycerate; detected in cytoplasm and cell wall; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; GAPDH-derived antimicrobial peptides are active against a wide variety of wine-related yeasts and bateria; TDH2 has a paralog, TDH3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL052W TDH1 GAPDH | GLD3 | glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (phosphorylating) TDH1 Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), isozyme 1; involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; tetramer that catalyzes the reaction of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3 bis-phosphoglycerate; detected in the cytoplasm and cell wall; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; GAPDH-derived antimicrobial peptides secreted by S. cerevisiae are active against a wide variety of wine-related yeasts and bateria
YML081W TDA9 AAF1 Transcription factor that regulates acetate production; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus; null mutant is sensitive to expression of the top1-T722A allele; not an essential gene; TDA9 has a paralog, RSF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL176C TDA7 Cell cycle-regulated gene of unknown function; promoter bound by Fkh2p; null mutant is sensitive to expression of the top1-T722A allele; TDA7 has a paralog, YDL211C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR426W TDA5 Putative protein of unknown function; detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; proposed to be involved in resistance to mechlorethamine and streptozotocin; null mutant sensitive to expression of top1-T722A allele
YJR116W TDA4 Putative protein of unknown function; null mutant is sensitive to expression of the top1-T722A allele
YHR009C TDA3 BTN3 Putative oxidoreductase involved in late endosome to Golgi transport; physical and genetical interactions with Btn2p; null mutant is viable, has extended S phase, and sensitive to expression of top1-T722A allele; similar to human FOXRED1
YER071C TDA2 Subunit of a complex that associates with actin filaments; forms a complex with Aim21p that inhibits barbed end F-actin assembly; elevates actin monomer pools to increase endocytotic efficiency and to regulate the distribution of actin between cables and patches; Aim21p/Tda2p forms a larger complex with actin capping proteins Cap1p and Cap2p; TcTex1-type dynein light chain family member; null mutant is sensitive to expression of the top1-T722A allele
YHR159W TDA11 Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; potential Cdc28p substrate; null mutant is sensitive to expression of the top1-T722A allele
YGR205W TDA10 putative ATP-dependent kinase ATP-binding protein of unknown function; crystal structure resembles that of E.coli pantothenate kinase and other small kinases; null mutant is sensitive to expression of the top1-T722A allele
YMR291W TDA1 protein kinase TDA1 Protein kinase of unknown cellular role; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; null mutant is sensitive to expression of the top1-T722A allele; not an essential gene; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YPL180W TCO89 Subunit of TORC1 (Tor1p or Tor2p-Kog1p-Lst8p-Tco89p); regulates global H3K56ac; TORC1 complex regulates growth in response to nutrient availability; cooperates with Ssd1p in the maintenance of cellular integrity; deletion strains are hypersensitive to rapamycin
YKL027W TCD2 tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine dehydratase tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine dehydratase; required for the ct6A tRNA base modification, where an adenosine at position 37 is modified to form a cyclized active ester with an oxazolone ring; localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane; TCD2 has a paralog, TCD1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR003C TCD1 tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine dehydratase tRNA threonylcarbamoyladenosine dehydratase; required for the ct6A tRNA base modification, where an adenosine at position 37 is modified to form a cyclized active ester with an oxazolone ring; localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane; TCD1 has a paralog, TCD2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML072C TCB3 Cortical ER protein involved in ER-plasma membrane tethering; one of 6 proteins (Ist2p, Scs2p, Scs22p, Tcb1p, Tcb2p, Tcb3p) that connect ER to the plasma membrane (PM) and regulate PM phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) levels by controlling access of Sac1p phosphatase to its substrate PI4P in the PM; localized to the bud via specific mRNA transport; non-tagged protein detected in a phosphorylated state in mitochondria; C-termini of Tcb1p, Tcb2p and Tcb3p interact
YNL087W TCB2 tricalbin ER protein involved in ER-plasma membrane tethering; one of 6 proteins (Ist2p, Scs2p, Scs22p, Tcb1p, Tcb2p, Tcb3p) that connect ER to plasma membrane (PM) and regulate PM phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) levels by controlling access of Sac1p phosphatase to its substrate PI4P in the PM; contains 3 calcium and lipid binding domains; mRNA is targeted to bud; TCB2 has a paralog, TCB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR086C TCB1 tricalbin Lipid-binding ER protein involved in ER-plasma membrane tethering; one of 6 proteins (Ist2p, Scs2p, Scs22p, Tcb1p, Tcb2p, Tcb3p) that connect ER to plasma membrane and regulate PI4P levels by controlling access of Sac1p phosphatase to its substrate PI4P in PM; contains 3 calcium and lipid binding domains; non-tagged protein also localizes to mitochondria; C-termini of Tcb1p, Tcb2p and Tcb3p interact; TCB1 has a paralog, TCB2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL048C TCA17 Component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex II; TRAPPII is a multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating intra-Golgi and endosome-Golgi traffic; promotes association of TRAPPII-specific subunits with the TRAPP core complex; sedlin related; human Sedlin mutations cause SEDT, a skeletal disorder
YBR150C TBS1 Protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; TBS1 has a paralog, HAL9, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL128C TBF1 LPI16 Telobox-containing general regulatory factor; binds TTAGGG repeats within subtelomeric anti-silencing regions (STARs), blocking silent chromatin propagation; binds majority of snoRNA gene promoters, required for full snoRNA expression; caps DSB flanked by long T2AG3 repeats and blocks checkpoint activation
YPR140W TAZ1 lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase Lyso-phosphatidylcholine acyltransferase; required for normal phospholipid content of mitochondrial membranes; major determinant of the final acyl chain composition of the mitochondrial-specific phospholipid cardiolipin; mutations in human ortholog tafazzin (TAZ) cause Barth syndrome, a rare X-linked disease characterized by skeletal and cardiomyopathy and bouts of cyclic neutropenia; a specific splice variant of human TAZ can complement yeast null mutant
YOL020W TAT2 aromatic amino acid transmembrane transporter TAT2 | LTG3 | SAB2 | SCM2 | TAP2 High affinity tryptophan and tyrosine permease; overexpression confers FK506 and FTY720 resistance
YBR069C TAT1 amino acid transporter TAT1 | TAP1 | VAP1 Amino acid transporter for valine, leucine, isoleucine, and tyrosine; low-affinity tryptophan and histidine transporter; overexpression confers FK506 and FTY720 resistance; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YIL129C TAO3 PAG1 Component of the RAM signaling network; is involved in regulation of Ace2p activity and cellular morphogenesis, interacts with protein kinase Cbk1p and also with Kic1p
YGL232W TAN1 putative tRNA acetyltransferase Putative tRNA acetyltransferase; RNA-binding protein required for the formation of the modified nucleoside N(4)-acetylcytidine in serine and leucine tRNAs but not required for the same modification in 18S rRNA; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGR046W TAM41 MMP37 | putative phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase Mitochondrial phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (CDP-DAG synthase); required for cardiolipin biosynthesis; viability of null mutant is strain-dependent; mRNA is targeted to the bud; mutant displays defect in mitochondrial protein import, likely due to altered membrane lipid composition
YLR354C TAL1 sedoheptulose-7-phosphate:D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate transaldolase TAL1 Transaldolase, enzyme in the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway; converts sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to erythrose 4-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate; TAL1 has a paralog, NQM1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR046W TAH11 CDT1 | SID2 DNA replication licensing factor; required for pre-replication complex assembly
YCR060W TAH1 Component of conserved R2TP complex (Rvb1-Rvb2-Tah1-Pih1); R2TP complex interacts with Hsp90 (Hsp82p and Hsc82p) to mediate assembly of large protein complexes such as box C/D snoRNPs and RNA polymerase II; contains a single TPR domain with at least two TPR motifs; plays a role in determining prion variants
YMR236W TAF9 chromatin modification protein | TAF17 | TafII17 Subunit (17 kDa) of TFIID and SAGA complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification, similar to histone H3
YML114C TAF8 TAF65 | TafII65 TFIID subunit (65 kDa); involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation
YMR227C TAF7 TAF67 | TafII67 TFIID subunit (67 kDa); involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation
YGL112C TAF6 TAF60 | TafII60 Subunit (60 kDa) of TFIID and SAGA complexes; involved in transcription initiation of RNA polymerase II and in chromatin modification, similar to histone H4; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YBR198C TAF5 chromatin modification protein | TAF90 | TafII90 Subunit (90 kDa) of TFIID and SAGA complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification
YPL011C TAF3 TAF47 | TafII47 TFIID subunit (47 kDa); involved in promoter binding and RNA polymerase II transcription initiation
YCR042C TAF2 TAF150 | TafII150 | TSM1 TFIID subunit (150 kDa); involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation
YPL129W TAF14 ANC1 | SWP29 | TAF30 | TafII30 | TATA-binding protein-associated factor TAF14 | TFG3 Subunit of TFIID, TFIIF, INO80, SWI/SNF, and NuA3 complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification; contains a YEATS domain
YML098W TAF13 FUN81 | TAF19 | TafII19 TFIID subunit (19 kDa); involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation, similar to histone H4 with atypical histone fold motif of Spt3-like transcription factors
YDR145W TAF12 TAF61 | TAF68 | TafII61 | TafII68 Subunit (61/68 kDa) of TFIID and SAGA complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification, similar to histone H2A; overexpression of the human ortholog, TAF12, an oncogene involved in the formation of choroid plexus carcinomas, results in dosage chromosomal instability (dCIN) in a human cell line similar to the dCIN observed in yeast overexpressors
YDR167W TAF10 TAF23 | TAF25 | TafII25 Subunit (145 kDa) of TFIID and SAGA complexes; involved in RNA polymerase II transcription initiation and in chromatin modification
YGR274C TAF1 KAT4 | TAF130 | TAF145 | TafII130 | TafII145 TFIID subunit, involved in RNA pol II transcription initiation; possesses in vitro histone acetyltransferase activity but its role in vivo appears to be minor; involved in promoter binding and G1/S progression; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YBR261C TAE1 N-terminal protein methyltransferase | NTM1 AdoMet-dependent proline methyltransferase; catalyzes the dimethylation of ribosomal proteins Rpl12 and Rps25 at N-terminal proline residues; has a role in protein synthesis; fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YLR316C TAD3 Subunit of tRNA-specific adenosine-34 deaminase; forms a heterodimer with Tad2p that converts adenosine to inosine at the wobble position of several tRNAs
YJL035C TAD2 tRNA(adenine34) deaminase Subunit of tRNA-specific adenosine-34 deaminase; forms a heterodimer with Tad3p that converts adenosine to inosine at the wobble position of several tRNAs
YJL004C SYS1 Integral membrane protein of the Golgi; required for targeting of the Arf-like GTPase Arl3p to the Golgi; multicopy suppressor of ypt6 null mutation
YCR030C SYP1 YCR029C-A Negative regulator of WASP-Arp23 complex; involved in endocytic site formation; directly inhibits Las17p stimulation of Arp23 complex-mediated actin assembly in vitro; may regulate assembly and disassembly of the septin ring; colocalizes and interacts with septin subunits; potential role in actin cytoskeletal organization
YDL063C SYO1 Transport adaptor or symportin; facilitates synchronized nuclear coimport of the two 5S-rRNA binding proteins Rpl5p and Rpl11p; binds to nascent Rpl5p during translation; required for biogenesis of the large ribosomal subunit; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus
YAL014C SYN8 SLT2 | syntaxin | UIP2 Endosomal SNARE related to mammalian syntaxin 8
YPL105C SYH1 MYR1 Protein of unknown function that influences nuclear pore distribution; co-purifies with ribosomes; contains a GYF domain, which bind proline-rich sequences; deletion extends chronological lifespan; SYH1 has a paralog, SMY2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL047C SYG1 Plasma membrane protein of unknown function; truncation and overexpression suppresses lethality of G-alpha protein deficiency
YGR129W SYF2 NTC31 Member of the NineTeen Complex (NTC); NTC contains Prp19p and stabilizes U6 snRNA in catalytic forms of the spliceosome containing U2, U5, and U6 snRNAs; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; isy1 syf2 cells have defective spindles activiating cell cycle arrest
YDR416W SYF1 mRNA splicing protein SYF1 | NTC90 Member of the NineTeen Complex (NTC); that contains Prp19p and stabilizes U6 snRNA in catalytic forms of the spliceosome containing U2, U5, and U6 snRNAs; null mutant has splicing defect and arrests in G2/M; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; homologs in human and C. elegans
YOR179C SYC1 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit SYC1 Subunit of the APT subcomplex of cleavage and polyadenylation factor; may have a role in 3' end formation of both polyadenylated and non-polyadenylated RNAs; SYC1 has a paralog, YSH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR395W SXM1 KAP108 Nuclear transport factor (karyopherin); involved in protein transport between the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm; similar to Nmd5p, Cse1p, Lph2p, and the human cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein, CAS1
YNL081C SWS2 putative mitochondrial 37S ribosomal protein SWS2 | uS13m Putative mitochondrial ribosomal protein of the small subunit; has similarity to E. coli S13 ribosomal protein; participates in controlling sporulation efficiency; localizes to vacuole in response to H2O2
YDR334W SWR1 chromatin-remodeling protein SWR1 Swi2/Snf2-related ATPase; structural component of the SWR1 complex, which exchanges histone variant H2AZ (Htz1p) for chromatin-bound histone H2A; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; chronological aging factor that mediates lifespan extension by dietary restriction
YFL049W SWP82 Member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; has an as yet unidentified role in the complex; has identifiable counterparts in closely related yeast species; abundantly expressed in many growth conditions; paralog of Npl6p; relocates to the cytosol under hypoxic conditions
YMR149W SWP1 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycotransferase Delta subunit of the oligosaccharyl transferase glycoprotein complex; complex is required for N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum
YNR004W SWM2 Protein with a role in snRNA and snoRNA cap trimethylation; interacts with Tgs1p and shows similar phenotypes; required for trimethylation of the caps of spliceosomal snRNAs and the U3 snoRNA, and for efficient 3' end processing of U3 snoRNA; may act as a specificity factor for Tgs1p
YLR182W SWI6 PSL8 | SDS11 | transcriptional regulator SWI6 Transcription cofactor; forms complexes with Swi4p and Mbp1p to regulate transcription at the G1/S transition; involved in meiotic gene expression; also binds Stb1p to regulate transcription at START; cell wall stress induces phosphorylation by Mpk1p, which regulates Swi6p localization; required for the unfolded protein response, independently of its known transcriptional coactivators
YDR146C SWI5 DNA-binding transcription factor SWI5 Transcription factor that recruits Mediator and Swi/Snf complexes; activates transcription of genes expressed at the M/G1 phase boundary and in G1 phase; required for expression of the HO gene controlling mating type switching; localization to nucleus occurs during G1 and appears to be regulated by phosphorylation by Cdc28p kinase; SWI5 has a paralog, ACE2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER111C SWI4 ART1 | SBF complex DNA-binding subunit SWI4 DNA binding component of the SBF complex (Swi4p-Swi6p); a transcriptional activator that in concert with MBF (Mbp1-Swi6p) regulates late G1-specific transcription of targets including cyclins and genes required for DNA synthesis and repair; Slt2p-independent regulator of cold growth; acetylation at two sites, K1016 and K1066, regulates interaction with Swi6p
YJL176C SWI3 HAF2 | TYE2 Subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; SWI/SNF regulates transcription by remodeling chromosomes; contains SANT domain that is required for SWI/SNF assembly; is essential for displacement of histone H2A-H2B dimers during ATP-dependent remodeling; required for transcription of many genes, including ADH1, ADH2, GAL1, HO, INO1 and SUC2; relocates to the cytosol under hypoxic conditions
YPL016W SWI1 ADR6 | GAM3 | LPA1 | [SWI(+)] | [SWI+] Subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; regulates transcription by remodeling chromatin; required for transcription of many genes, including ADH1, ADH2, GAL1, HO, INO1 and SUC2; self-assembles to form [SWI+] prion and to alter expression pattern; human homolog ARID1A is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer
YAR042W SWH1 OSH1 | oxysterol-binding protein related protein SWH1 | YAR044W Protein similar to mammalian oxysterol-binding protein; contains ankyrin repeats and FFAT motif; interacts with ER anchor Scs2p at the nucleus-vacuole junction; regulated by sterol binding; SWH1 has a paralog, OSH2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR175W SWD3 CPS30 | SAF35 Essential subunit of the COMPASS (Set1C) complex; COMPASS methylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and is required in transcriptional silencing near telomeres; WD40 beta propeller superfamily member and ortholog of mammalian WDR5
YAR003W SWD1 COMPASS subunit protein SWD1 | CPS50 | FUN16 | SAF49 Subunit of the COMPASS (Set1C) complex; COMPASS methylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and is required in transcriptional silencing near telomeres; WD40 beta propeller superfamily member with similarity to mammalian Rbbp7
YLR385C SWC7 AWS1 Protein of unknown function; component of the Swr1p complex that incorporates Htz1p into chromatin
YBR231C SWC5 AOR1 Component of the SWR1 complex; complex exchanges histone variant H2AZ (Htz1p) for chromatin-bound histone H2A; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YGR002C SWC4 EAF2 | GOD1 Component of the Swr1p complex that incorporates Htz1p into chromatin; component of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex
YAL011W SWC3 SWC1 Protein of unknown function; component of the SWR1 complex, which exchanges histone variant H2AZ (Htz1p) for chromatin-bound histone H2A; required for formation of nuclear-associated array of smooth endoplasmic reticulum known as karmellae
YDR320C SWA2 AUX1 | BUD24 Auxilin-like protein involved in vesicular transport; clathrin-binding protein required for uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles
YPL163C SVS1 Cell wall and vacuolar protein; required for wild-type resistance to vanadate; SVS1 has a paralog, SRL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR181W SVP26 ERV26 Integral membrane protein of the early Golgi apparatus and ER; involved in COP II vesicle transport; may also function to promote retention of proteins in the early Golgi compartment
YPL032C SVL3 Protein of unknown function; mutant phenotype suggests a potential role in vacuolar function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery, cytoplasm, bud, and bud neck; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; SVL3 has a paralog, PAM1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR346C SVF1 SGI1 Protein with a potential role in cell survival pathways; required for the diauxic growth shift; expression in mammalian cells increases survival under conditions inducing apoptosis; mutant has increased aneuploidy tolerance
YPL029W SUV3 ATP-dependent RNA helicase SUV3 | LPB2 ATP-dependent RNA helicase; component of the mitochondrial degradosome along with the RNase Dss1p; the degradosome associates with the ribosome and mediates RNA turnover; also required during splicing of the COX1 AI5_beta intron; expression of a processed form of human homolog SUPV3L1 carrying an N-terminal deletion of 46 amino acids rescues yeast suv3 null mutant
YGL162W SUT1 Zn(II)2Cys6 family transcription factor; positively regulates sterol uptake genes under anaerobic conditions; involved in hypoxic gene expression; represses filamentation-inducing genes during vegetative growth; positively regulates mating with SUT2 by repressing expression of genes that act as mating inhibitors; repressed by STE12; relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; SUT1 has a paralog, SUT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML052W SUR7 Plasma membrane protein, component of eisosomes; long-lived protein that remains stable in eisosomes of mother cells while other eisosome proteins, Pil1p and Lsp1p, turn over; may function to anchor the eisosome in place; sporulation and plasma membrane sphingolipid content are altered in mutants; localizes to furrow-like invaginations (MCC patches)
YDR297W SUR2 sphingosine hydroxylase | SYR2 Sphinganine C4-hydroxylase; catalyses the conversion of sphinganine to phytosphingosine in sphingolipid biosyntheis
YPL057C SUR1 BCL21 | CSG1 | LPE15 | mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide synthase catalytic subunit SUR1 Mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) synthase catalytic subunit; forms a complex with regulatory subunit Csg2p; function in sphingolipid biosynthesis is overlapping with that of Csh1p; SUR1 has a paralog, CSH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR143C SUP45 eRF1 | SAL4 | SUP1 | SUP47 | translation termination factor eRF1 Polypeptide release factor (eRF1) in translation termination; mutant form acts as a recessive omnipotent suppressor; methylated by Mtq2p-Trm112p in ternary complex eRF1-eRF3-GTP; mutation of methylation site confers resistance to zymocin; has a role in cytokinesis through interaction with Mlc1p
YDR172W SUP35 eRF3 | GST1 | PNM2 | [PSI(+)] | [PSI] | SAL3 | SUF12 | SUP2 | SUP36 | translation termination factor GTPase eRF3 Translation termination factor eRF3; has a role in mRNA deadenylation and decay; altered protein conformation creates the [PSI(+)] prion that modifies cellular fitness, alters translational fidelity by affecting reading frame selection, and results in a nonsense suppressor phenotype; many stress-response genes are repressed in the presence of [PSI(+)]
YNL066W SUN4 putative glucosidase SUN4 | SCW3 Cell wall protein related to glucanases; possibly involved in cell wall septation; member of the SUN family; SUN4 has a paralog, SIM1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR310C SUM1 Transcriptional repressor that regulates middle-sporulation genes; required for mitotic repression of middle sporulation-specific genes; also acts as general replication initiation factor; involved in telomere maintenance, chromatin silencing; regulated by pachytene checkpoint
YJR007W SUI2 translation initiation factor eIF2 subunit alpha Alpha subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2; eIF2 is involved in identification of the start codon; phosphorylation of Ser51 is required for regulation of translation by inhibiting the exchange of GDP for GTP; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDL084W SUB2 ATP-dependent RNA helicase SUB2 Component of the TREX complex required for nuclear mRNA export; member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase superfamily and is involved in early and late steps of spliceosome assembly; homolog of the human splicing factor hUAP56; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YMR039C SUB1 chromatin-binding transcription coactivator SUB1 | TSP1 Transcriptional regulator; facilitates elongation through factors that modify RNAP II; role in peroxide resistance involving Rad2p; role in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) of ds breaks in plasmid DNA, but not chromosomal DNA; role in the hyperosmotic stress response through polymerase recruitment at RNAP II and RNAP III genes; negatively regulates sporulation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; functionally complemented by human SUB1 (PC4)
YPR086W SUA7 SOH4 | TFIIB | transcription factor TFIIB Transcription factor TFIIB; a general transcription factor required for transcription initiation and start site selection by RNA polymerase II
YGL169W SUA5 threonylcarbamoyladenylate synthase Protein involved in threonylcarbamoyl adenosine biosynthesis; Sua5p and Qri7p are necessary and sufficient for RNA t6A modification in vitro; null mutant lacks N6-threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t6A) modification in the anticodon loop of ANN-decoding tRNA; member of conserved YrdC/Sua5 family; binds single-stranded telomeric DNA and null mutant has abnormal telomere length
YMR054W STV1 H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit a Subunit a of the vacuolar-ATPase V0 domain; one of two isoforms (Stv1p and Vph1p); Stv1p is located in V-ATPase complexes of the Golgi and endosomes while Vph1p is located in V-ATPase complexes of the vacuole
YLR045C STU2 Microtubule-associated protein (MAP) of the XMAP215/Dis1 family; regulates microtubule dynamics during spindle orientation and metaphase chromosome alignment; interacts with spindle pole body component Spc72p
YBL034C STU1 Component of the mitotic spindle; binds to interpolar microtubules via its association with beta-tubulin (Tub2p); required for interpolar microtubules to provide an outward force on the spindle poles
YGL022W STT3 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycosyltransferase subunit STT3 Subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex of the ER lumen; complex catalyzes asparagine-linked glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins; forms a subcomplex with Ost3p and Ost4p and is directly involved in catalysis
YIR011C STS1 DBF8 | SSM5 Protein required for localizing proteasomes to the nucleus; involved in cotranslational protein degradation; mediates interaction between nuclear import factor Srp1p and the proteasome; Sts1p and Srp1p couple proteasomes to nascent polypeptides emerging from the ribosome for cotranslational degradation; involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
YGL184C STR3 cystathionine beta-lyase STR3 Peroxisomal cystathionine beta-lyase; converts cystathionine into homocysteine; may be redox regulated by Gto1p; involved in the release of the aromatic thiol 3-mercaptohexanol during wine fermentation
YJR130C STR2 cystathionine gamma-synthase Cystathionine gamma-synthase, converts cysteine into cystathionine; STR2 has a paralog, YML082W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL048C STP4 Protein containing a Kruppel-type zinc-finger domain; similar to Stp1p, Stp2p; predicted transcription factor; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; STP4 has a paralog, STP3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR375W STP3 Zinc-finger protein of unknown function; possibly involved in pre-tRNA splicing and in uptake of branched-chain amino acids; STP3 has a paralog, STP4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR006W STP2 Transcription factor; activated by proteolytic processing in response to signals from the SPS sensor system for external amino acids; activates transcription of amino acid permease genes; STP2 has a paralog, STP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR463W STP1 BAP1 | SSY2 Transcription factor; contains a N-terminal regulatory motif (RI) that acts as a cytoplasmic retention determinant and as an Asi dependent degron in the nucleus; undergoes proteolytic processing by SPS (Ssy1p-Ptr3p-Ssy5p)-sensor component Ssy5p in response to extracellular amino acids; activates transcription of amino acid permease genes and may have a role in tRNA processing; STP1 has a paralog, STP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR125W STO1 CBC1 | CBP80 | GCR3 | SUT1 Large subunit of the nuclear mRNA cap-binding protein complex; interacts with Npl3p to carry nuclear poly(A)+ mRNA to cytoplasm; also involved in nuclear mRNA degradation and telomere maintenance; orthologous to mammalian CBP80
YLR150W STM1 MPT4 Protein required for optimal translation under nutrient stress; perturbs association of Yef3p with ribosomes; involved in TOR signaling; binds G4 quadruplex and purine motif triplex nucleic acid; helps maintain telomere structure; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; serves as a ribosome preservation factor both during quiescence and recovery
YOR027W STI1 Hsp90 cochaperone STI1 Hsp90 cochaperone; regulates spatial organization of amyloid-like proteins in the cytosol, thereby buffering the proteotoxicity caused by amyloid-like proteins; interacts with the Ssa group of the cytosolic Hsp70 chaperones and activates Ssa1p ATPase activity; interacts with Hsp90 chaperones and inhibits their ATPase activity; homolog of mammalian Hop
YIL126W STH1 NPS1 | RSC chromatin remodeling complex ATPase subunit STH1 ATPase component of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex; required for expression of early meiotic genes; promotes base excision repair in chromatin; essential helicase-related protein homologous to Snf2p
YGR008C STF2 ATPase-stabilizing factor family protein Protein involved in resistance to desiccation stress; Stf2p exhibits antioxidant properties, and its overexpression prevents ROS accumulation and apoptosis; binds to F0 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATPase in vitro and may modulate the inhibitory action of Inh1p and Stf1p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; STF2 has a paralog, TMA10, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL130W-A STF1 AIS2 | ATPase-binding protein Protein involved in regulation of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase; Stf1p and Stf2p act as stabilizing factors that enhance inhibitory action of the Inh1p protein; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; STF1 has a paralog, INH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL159W STE7 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase STE7 Signal transducing MAP kinase kinase; involved in pheromone response where it phosphorylates Fus3p; involved in the pseudohyphal/invasive growth pathway where it phosphorylates of Kss1p; phosphorylated by Ste11p; degraded by ubiquitin pathway
YKL209C STE6 ATP-binding cassette a-factor transporter STE6 Plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter; required for the export of a-factor, catalyzes ATP hydrolysis coupled to a-factor transport; contains 12 transmembrane domains and two ATP binding domains; expressed only in MATa cells; human homolog ABCB1 mediates multidrug resistance in many chemotherapy-resistant tumors by effluxing toxic compounds from the cell
YCL032W STE50 Adaptor protein for various signaling pathways; involved in mating response, invasive/filamentous growth, osmotolerance; acts as an adaptor that links G protein-associated Cdc42p-Ste20p complex to the effector Ste11p to modulate signal transduction
YDR103W STE5 HMD3 | NUL3 Pheromone-responsive MAPK scaffold protein; couples activation of the G-protein-coupled pheromone receptor to MAPK activation; intramolecular interaction of PH and VWA domains blocks activation of assembled signaling cascade components (Ste11p, Ste7p and Fus3p) under basal conditions; Gbeta-gamma (Ste4p-Ste18p)-dependent docking at the plasma membrane and binding of PI(4,5)P2 by the PH domain relieves autoinhibition, resulting in pheromone-dependent pathway activation
YOR212W STE4 G protein subunit beta | HMD2 G protein beta subunit; forms a dimer with Ste18p to activate mating signaling pathway, forms heterotrimer with Gpa1p and Ste18p to dampen signaling; pheromone-induced phosphorylation plays critical role in chemotropism; may recruit Rho1p to polarized growth site during mating; contains WD40 repeats
YJR117W STE24 AFC1 | PIO2 | zinc metalloprotease Highly conserved zinc metalloprotease; functions in two steps of a-factor maturation, C-terminal CAAX proteolysis and the first step of N-terminal proteolytic processing; cleaves both isoprenylated and non-prenylated oligopeptides; contains multiple transmembrane spans; human homolog ZMPSTE24 implicated in mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD), and can complement yeast null mutant
YHL007C STE20 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase STE20 Cdc42p-activated signal transducing kinase; involved in pheromone response, pseudohyphal/invasive growth, vacuole inheritance, down-regulation of sterol uptake; GBB motif binds Ste4p; member of the PAK (p21-activated kinase) family
YFL026W STE2 alpha-factor pheromone receptor STE2 Receptor for alpha-factor pheromone; seven transmembrane-domain GPCR that interacts with both pheromone and a heterotrimeric G protein to initiate the signaling response that leads to mating between haploid a and alpha cells
YJR086W STE18 G protein gamma subunit; forms a dimer with Ste4p to activate the mating signaling pathway, forms a heterotrimer with Gpa1p and Ste4p to dampen signaling; C-terminus is palmitoylated and farnesylated, which are required for normal signaling
YDR410C STE14 protein-S-isoprenylcysteine carboxyl O-methyltransferase Farnesyl cysteine-carboxyl methyltransferase; mediates the carboxyl methylation step during C-terminal CAAX motif processing of a-factor and RAS proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, localizes to the ER membrane
YHR084W STE12 homeodomain family transcription factor STE12 Transcription factor that is activated by a MAPK signaling cascade; activates genes involved in mating or pseudohyphal/invasive growth pathways; cooperates with Tec1p transcription factor to regulate genes specific for invasive growth
YLR362W STE11 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase STE11 Signal transducing MEK kinase; involved in pheromone response and pseudohyphal/invasive growth pathways where it phosphorylates Ste7p, and the high osmolarity response pathway, via phosphorylation of Pbs2p; regulated by Ste20p and Ste50p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL072W STB6 Protein that binds Sin3p in a two-hybrid assay; STB6 has a paralog, STB2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR178W STB5 Transcription factor; involved in regulating multidrug resistance and oxidative stress response; forms a heterodimer with Pdr1p; contains a Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc finger domain that interacts with a pleiotropic drug resistance element in vitro
YMR019W STB4 Putative transcription factor; contains a Zn(II)2Cys6 zinc finger domain characteristic of DNA-binding proteins; computational analysis suggests a role in regulation of expression of genes encoding transporters; binds Sin3p in a two-hybrid assay;
YDR169C STB3 Ribosomal RNA processing element (RRPE)-binding protein; involved in the glucose-induced transition from quiescence to growth; restricted to nucleus in quiescent cells, released into cytoplasm after glucose repletion; binds Sin3p; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YNL309W STB1 Protein with role in regulation of MBF-specific transcription at Start; phosphorylated by Cln-Cdc28p kinases in vitro; unphosphorylated form binds Swi6p, which is required for Stb1p function; expression is cell-cycle regulated; STB1 has a paralog, YOL131W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR064C SSZ1 PDR13 Hsp70 protein that interacts with Zuo1p (a DnaJ homolog); interacts with Zuo1p to form a ribosome-associated complex that binds the ribosome via the Zuo1p subunit; also involved in pleiotropic drug resistance via sequential activation of PDR1 and PDR5; binds ATP
YLR452C SST2 GTPase-activating protein SST2 GTPase-activating protein for Gpa1p; regulates desensitization to alpha factor pheromone; also required to prevent receptor-independent signaling of the mating pathway; member of the RGS (regulator of G-protein signaling) family
YDR086C SSS1 translocon subunit SSS1 Subunit of the Sec61p translocation complex (Sec61p-Sss1p-Sbh1p); this complex forms a channel for passage of secretory proteins through the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, and of the Ssh1p complex (Ssh1p-Sbh2p-Sss1p); interacts with Ost4p and Wbp1p
YLR369W SSQ1 Hsp70 family ATPase SSQ1 | SSC2 | SSH1 Mitochondrial hsp70-type molecular chaperone; required for assembly of iron/sulfur clusters into proteins at a step after cluster synthesis, and for maturation of Yfh1p, which is a homolog of human frataxin implicated in Friedreich's ataxia
YLR250W SSP120 Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern
YMR183C SSO2 syntaxin Plasma membrane t-SNARE; involved in fusion of secretory vesicles at the plasma membrane; syntaxin homolog that is functionally redundant with Sso1p; SSO2 has a paralog, SSO1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL232W SSO1 syntaxin Plasma membrane t-SNARE; involved in fusion of secretory vesicles at the plasma membrane and in vesicle fusion during sporulation; forms a complex with Sec9p that binds v-SNARE Snc2p; syntaxin homolog; functionally redundant with Sso2p; SSO1 has a paralog, SSO2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL025C SSN8 CNC1 | CycC | cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator SSN8 | GIG3 | NUT9 | RYE2 | SRB11 | UME3 Cyclin-like component of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; involved in phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain; forms a kinase-cyclin pair in the RNAPII holoenzyme with Ssn3p; required for both entry into and execution of the meiotic program; involved in glucose repression and telomere maintenance; cyclin homolog 35% identical to human cyclin C
YDR443C SSN2 MED13 | NUT8 | RYE3 | SCA1 | SRB9 | SSX5 | UME2 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; required for stable association of Srb10p-Srb11p kinase; essential for transcriptional regulation
YIL030C SSM4 DOA10 | E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SSM4 | KIS3 Membrane-embedded ubiquitin-protein ligase; ER and inner nuclear membrane localized RING-CH domain E3 ligase involved in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD); targets misfolded cytosolic/nucleoplasmic domains of soluble and membrane embedded proteins (ERAD-C) and a transmembrane domain containing substrate (ERAD-M), Sbh2p; C-terminal element (CTE), conserved in human ortholog MARCH10/TEB4, determines substrate selectivity
YIL143C SSL2 LOM3 | RAD25 | TFIIH/NER complex ATPase/helicase subunit SSL2 Component of RNA polymerase transcription factor TFIIH holoenzyme; acts as dsDNA-dependent translocase in context of TFIIH, unwinds DNA strands during initiation and promotes transcription start site (TSS) scanning; has DNA-dependent ATPase/helicase activity; interacts functionally with TFIIB, has roles in TSS selection and gene looping to juxtapose initiation and termination regions; involved in DNA repair; relocalizes to cytosol under hypoxia; homolog of human ERCC3
YLR005W SSL1 TFIIH/NER complex subunit SSL1 Subunit of the core form of RNA polymerase transcription factor TFIIH; has both protein kinase and DNA-dependent ATPase/helicase activities; essential for transcription and nucleotide excision repair; interacts with Tfb4p
YNR031C SSK2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase SSK2 MAP kinase kinase kinase of HOG1 mitogen-activated signaling pathway; interacts with Ssk1p, leading to autophosphorylation and activation of Ssk2p which phosphorylates Pbs2p; also mediates actin cytoskeleton recovery from osmotic stress; a HOG-independent function of Ssk2p mediates the calcium-sensitive phenotype of the ptp2 msg5 double disruptant; SSK2 has a paralog, SSK22, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR006C SSK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase SSK1 Cytoplasmic phosphorelay intermediate osmosensor and regulator; part of a two-component signal transducer that mediates osmosensing via a phosphorelay mechanism; required for mitophagy; dephosphorylated form is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system; potential Cdc28p substrate
YBR283C SSH1 Subunit of the Ssh1 translocon complex; Sec61p homolog involved in co-translational pathway of protein translocation; not essential
YDR312W SSF2 rRNA-binding ribosome biosynthesis protein Protein required for ribosomal large subunit maturation; functionally redundant with Ssf1p; member of the Brix family; SSF2 has a paralog, SSF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR066W SSF1 rRNA-binding ribosome biosynthesis protein Constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; required for ribosomal large subunit maturation; functionally redundant with Ssf2p; member of the Brix family; SSF1 has a paralog, SSF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR169C SSE2 adenyl-nucleotide exchange factor SSE2 Member of Hsp110 subclass of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family; serves as nucleotide exchange factor to load ATP onto the SSA class of cytosolic Hsp70s; may be involved in protein folding; localized to the cytoplasm; SSE2 has a paralog, SSE1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL106C SSE1 adenyl-nucleotide exchange factor SSE1 | LPG3 | MSI3 ATPase component of heat shock protein Hsp90 chaperone complex; serves as nucleotide exchange factor to load ATP onto the SSA class of cytosolic Hsp70s; plays a role in prion propagation and determining prion variants; binds unfolded proteins; member of Hsp110 subclass of HSP70 proteins; deletion results in spindle elongation in S phase; SSE1 has a paralog, SSE2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR293C SSD1 CLA1 | MCS1 | mRNA-binding translational repressor SSD1 | RLT1 | SRK1 Translational repressor with a role in polar growth and wall integrity; regulated by Cbk1p phosphorylation to effect bud-specific translational control and localization of specific mRNAs; interacts with TOR pathway components; contains a functional N-terminal nuclear localization sequence and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling appears to be critical to Ssd1p function
YNL209W SSB2 Hsp70 family ATPase SSB2 | YG103 Cytoplasmic ATPase that is a ribosome-associated molecular chaperone; functions with J-protein partner Zuo1p; may be involved in the folding of newly-synthesized polypeptide chains; member of the HSP70 family; SSB2 has a paralog, SSB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL229W SSB1 Hsp70 family ATPase SSB1 | YG101 Cytoplasmic ATPase that is a ribosome-associated molecular chaperone; functions with J-protein partner Zuo1p; may be involved in folding of newly-made polypeptide chains; member of the HSP70 family; interacts with phosphatase subunit Reg1p; SSB1 has a paralog, SSB2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER103W SSA4 Hsp70 family chaperone SSA4 | YG107 Heat shock protein that is highly induced upon stress; plays a role in SRP-dependent cotranslational protein-membrane targeting and translocation; member of the HSP70 family; cytoplasmic protein that concentrates in nuclei upon starvation; SSA4 has a paralog, SSA3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL075C SSA3 Hsp70 family ATPase SSA3 | YG106 ATPase involved in protein folding and the response to stress; plays a role in SRP-dependent cotranslational protein-membrane targeting and translocation; member of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family; localized to the cytoplasm; SSA3 has a paralog, SSA4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLL024C SSA2 Hsp70 family chaperone SSA2 | YG102 HSP70 family ATP-binding protein; involved in protein folding, vacuolar import of proteins; required for ubiquitin-dependent degradation of short-lived proteins; associated with chaperonin-containing T-complex; 98% identical to paralog Ssa1p with distinct functional specificity in propagation of yeast [URE3] prions and vacuolar-mediated degradation of gluconeogenesis enzymes; binds tRNA, has role in tRNA nuclear import during starvation
YAL005C SSA1 Hsp70 family ATPase SSA1 | YG100 ATPase involved in protein folding and NLS-directed nuclear transport; member of HSP70 family; required for ubiquitin-dependent degradation of short-lived proteins; forms chaperone complex with Ydj1p; localized to nucleus, cytoplasm, cell wall; 98% identical to paralog Ssa2p with different functional specificity in propagation of yeast [URE3] prions, vacuolar-mediated degradations of gluconeogenesis enzymes; general targeting factor of Hsp104p to prion fibrils
YKL086W SRX1 sulfiredoxin Sulfiredoxin; contributes to oxidative stress resistance by reducing cysteine-sulfinic acid groups in the peroxiredoxin Tsa1p, which is formed upon exposure to oxidants; conserved in higher eukaryotes; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL138W SRV2 adenylate cyclase-binding protein | CAP CAP (cyclase-associated protein); N-terminus binds adenylate cyclase and facilitates activation by RAS; N-terminus forms novel hexameric star-shaped shuriken structures that directly catalyze cofilin-mediated severing of actin filaments; C-terminus binds and recycles cofilin bound, ADP-actin monomers, facilitating regulation of actin dynamics and cell morphogenesis; N- and C-termini can function as physically separate proteins; mCAP1 is the mouse homolog
YJL092W SRS2 DNA helicase SRS2 | HPR5 | RADH | RADH1 DNA helicase and DNA-dependent ATPase; role in DNA repair and checkpoint recovery, in the proper timing of commitment to meiotic recombination and the Meiosis I to II transition; blocks trinucleotide repeat expansion; affects genome stability; disassembles Rad51p nucleoprotein filaments during meiotic recombination; stimulates Mus81p-Mms4p endonuclease activity independent of catalytic activity; ATPase and ssDNA translocating motor activities inhibited by Dmc1p; functional homolog of human RTEL1
YPL210C SRP72 signal recognition particle subunit SRP72 Core component of the signal recognition particle (SRP); the SRP is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that functions in targeting nascent secretory proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane
YPL243W SRP68 signal recognition particle subunit SRP68 Core component of the signal recognition particle (SRP) complex; SRP complex functions in targeting nascent secretory proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane; relocalizes from cytoplasm to the nuclear periphery upon DNA replication stress
YKR092C SRP40 Nucleolar serine-rich protein; role in preribosome assembly or transport; may function as a chaperone of small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles (snoRNPs); immunologically and structurally to rat Nopp140
YKL122C SRP21 signal recognition particle subunit SRP21 Subunit of the signal recognition particle (SRP); SRP functions in protein targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane; not found in mammalian SRP; forms a pre-SRP structure in the nucleolus that is translocated to the cytoplasm
YDL092W SRP14 RNA-binding signal recognition particle subunit SRP14 Signal recognition particle (SRP) subunit; interacts with the RNA component of SRP to form the Alu domain, which is the region of SRP responsible for arrest of nascent chain elongation during membrane targeting; homolog of mammalian SRP14
YKL154W SRP102 Signal recognition particle receptor subunit beta Signal recognition particle (SRP) receptor beta subunit; involved in SRP-dependent protein targeting; anchors the alpha subunit, Srp101p to the ER membrane
YNL189W SRP1 KAP60 | karyopherin alpha | SCM1 Karyopherin alpha homolog; forms a dimer with karyopherin beta Kap95p to mediate import of nuclear proteins, binds the nuclear localization signal of the substrate during import; involved in cotranslational protein degradation; binds ribosome-bound nascent polypeptides; Srp1p and Sts1p couple proteasomes to nascent polypeptides emerging from the ribosome for cotranslational degradation
YCL037C SRO9 Cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein; shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm and is exported from the nucleus in an mRNA export-dependent manner; associates with translating ribosomes; involved in heme regulation of Hap1p as a component of the HMC complex, also involved in the organization of actin filaments; contains a La motif; SRO9 has a paralog, SLF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR032W SRO7 Rab GTPase-binding protein SRO7 | SNI1 | SOP1 Effector of Rab GTPase Sec4p; forms a complex with Sec4p and t-SNARE Sec9p; involved in exocytosis and docking and fusion of post-Golgi vesicles with plasma membrane; regulates cell proliferation and colony development via the Rho1-Tor1 pathway; homolog of Drosophila lgl tumor suppressor; SRO7 has a paralog, SRO77, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL097W SRM1 MTR1 | PRP20 | Ran guanyl-nucleotide exchange factor | TSM437 Nucleotide exchange factor for Gsp1p; localizes to the nucleus, required for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of macromolecules; suppressor of the pheromone response pathway; potentially phosphorylated by Cdc28p; human homolog of the RAN GEF, RCC1, can complement a temperature sensitive point mutant
YLR082C SRL2 Protein of unknown function; overexpression suppresses the lethality caused by a rad53 null mutation
YOR247W SRL1 Mannoprotein that exhibits a tight association with the cell wall; required for cell wall stability in the absence of GPI-anchored mannoproteins; has a high serine-threonine content; expression is induced in cell wall mutants; SRL1 has a paralog, SVS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR018C SRD1 Protein involved in the processing of pre-rRNA to mature rRNA; contains a C2/C2 zinc finger motif; srd1 mutation suppresses defects caused by the rrp1-1 mutation
YML034W SRC1 HEH1 | YML033W Inner nuclear membrane protein; highly enriched at telomeres and subtelomeric regions; functions in regulation of subtelomeric genes and is linked to TREX (transcription export) factors; SRC1 produces 2 splice variant proteins with different functions; alternative splicing of SRC1 pre-mRNA is promoted by Hub1p; mutant has aneuploidy tolerance; SEC1 has a paralog, HEH2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR081W SRB8 GIG1 | MED12 | NUT6 | SSN5 | YCR080W Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation; involved in glucose repression
YDR308C SRB7 MED21 | SSX1 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation; target of the global repressor Tup1p
YBR253W SRB6 MED22 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation
YGR104C SRB5 MED18 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; essential for transcriptional regulation; required for proper termination of transcription for some genes; involved in telomere maintenance
YER022W SRB4 MED17 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; required for basal RNA polymerase II transcription; homozygosity of the human MED17 L371P mutation is associated with infantile cerebral and cerebellar atrophy with poor myelination
YHR041C SRB2 HRS2 | MED20 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; general transcription factor involved in telomere maintenance
YIR012W SQT1 Specific chaperone for ribosomal protein Rpl10p; binds nascent Rpl10p during translation; contains multiple WD repeats; interacts with Qsr1p in a two-hybrid assay; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL224C SQS1 PFA1 Protein that stimulates the ATPase and helicase activities of Prp43p; acts with Prp43p to stimulate 18s rRNA maturation by Nob1p; overexpression antagonizes the suppression of splicing defects by spp382 mutants; component of pre-ribosomal particles; relocalizes from nucleus to nucleolus upon DNA replication stress
YLR055C SPT8 SAGA complex subunit SPT8 Subunit of the SAGA transcriptional regulatory complex; not present in SAGA-like complex SLIK/SALSA; required for SAGA-mediated inhibition at some promoters
YBR081C SPT7 GIT2 | SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex subunit SPT7 Subunit of the SAGA transcriptional regulatory complex; involved in proper assembly of the complex; also present as a C-terminally truncated form in the SLIK/SALSA transcriptional regulatory complex
YGR116W SPT6 chromatin-remodeling histone chaperone SPT6 | CRE2 | SSN20 Nucleosome remodeling protein; functions in various aspects of transcription, chromatin maintenance, and RNA processing; required for the maintenance of chromatin structure during transcription in order to inhibit transcription from promoters within the coding region; required for H3K36 trimethylation but not dimethylation by Set2p
YML010W SPT5 transcription elongation factor SPT5 Spt4p/5p (DSIF) transcription elongation factor complex subunit; the Spt4/5 complex binds to ssRNA in a sequence-specific manner, and in concert with RNAP I and II has multiple roles regulating transcriptional elongation, RNA processing, quality control, and transcription-coupled repair; interacts with DNA upstream of RNAPII and the non-template strand of the transcription bubble; Spt5p is the only transcription elongation factor conserved in all domains of life
YGR063C SPT4 transcription elongation factor SPT4 Spt4p/5p (DSIF) transcription elongation factor complex subunit; the Spt4/5 complex binds to ssRNA in a sequence-specific manner, and along with RNAP I and II has multiple roles regulating transcriptional elongation, RNA processing, quality control, and transcription-coupled repair; localizes to kinetochores and heterochromatin, influencing chromosomal dynamics and silencing; required for transcription through long trinucleotide repeats in ORFs and non-protein coding regions
YDR392W SPT3 transcriptional regulator SPT3 Subunit of the SAGA and SAGA-like transcriptional regulatory complexes; interacts with Spt15p to activate transcription of some RNA polymerase II-dependent genes, also functions to inhibit transcription at some promoters; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YKL020C SPT23 ER membrane protein involved in regulation of OLE1 transcription; inactive ER form dimerizes and one subunit is then activated by ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent processing followed by nuclear targeting; SPT23 has a paralog, MGA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR179W SPT21 Protein with a role in transcriptional silencing; required for normal transcription at several loci including HTA2-HTB2 and HHF2-HHT2, but not required at the other histone loci; functionally related to Spt10p; localizes to nuclear foci that become diffuse upon DNA replication stress
YOL148C SPT20 ADA5 Subunit of the SAGA transcriptional regulatory complex; involved in maintaining the integrity of the complex; mutant displays reduced transcription elongation in the G-less-based run-on (GLRO) assay
YER161C SPT2 EXA1 | SIN1 Protein involved in negative regulation of transcription; required for RNA polyadenylation; exhibits regulated interactions with both histones and SWI-SNF components; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; similar to mammalian HMG1 proteins
YGL207W SPT16 CDC68 | chromatin-remodeling protein SPT16 | SSF1 Subunit of the heterodimeric FACT complex (Spt16p-Pob3p); FACT associates with chromatin via interaction with Nhp6Ap and Nhp6Bp, and reorganizes nucleosomes to facilitate access to DNA by RNA and DNA polymerases; specifically required for diauxic shift-induced H2B deposition onto rDNA genes; mutations cause reduced nucleosome occupancy over highly transcribed regions; coregulates transcription with Mot1p through preinitiation complex assembly and nucleosome organization
YER148W SPT15 BTF1 | TATA-binding protein | TBP | TBP1 TATA-binding protein (TBP); general transcription factor that interacts with other factors to form the preinitiation complex at promoters; essential for viability, highly conserved; yeast gene can complement mutations in human homolog TBP
YPL175W SPT14 CWH6 | GPI3 | phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase SPT14 UDP-glycosyltransferase subunit of the GPI-GnT complex; UDP-GlcNAc-binding and catalytic subunit of the enzyme that mediates the first step in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis, mutations cause defects in transcription and in biogenesis of cell wall proteins
YJL127C SPT10 CRE1 | SUD1 Histone H3 acetylase with a role in transcriptional regulation; sequence-specific activator of histone genes, binds specifically and cooperatively to pairs of UAS elements in core histone promoters, functions at or near TATA box; involved in S phase-specific acetylation of H3K56 at histone promoters, which is required for recruitment of SWI/SNF nucleosome remodeling complex and subsequent transcription
YDR523C SPS1 putative serine/threonine protein kinase SPS1 Putative protein serine/threonine kinase; localizes to the nucleus and cytoplasm; required for efficient spore packaging, prospore membrane development and closure and localization of enzymes involved in spore wall synthesis; interacts with and required for Ssp1p phosphorylation and turnover; member of the GCKIII subfamily of STE20 kinases; multiply phosphorylated on S/T residues; interacts with 14-3-3 proteins, Bmh1p and Bmh2p; expressed at the end of meiosis
YOR214C SPR2 Putative spore wall protein; expression increases during sporulation; not an essential gene; YOR214C has a paralog, SPO19, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR464W SPP41 Protein of unknown function; involved in negative regulation of expression of spliceosome components PRP4 and PRP3; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YLR424W SPP382 CCF8 | mRNA splicing protein SPP382 | NTR1 Essential protein that forms a dimer with Ntr2p; also forms a trimer, with Ntr2p and Prp43p, that is involved in spliceosome disassembly; found also in a multisubunit complex with the splicing factor Clf1p; suppressor of prp38-1 mutation
YBR152W SPP381 U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex subunit SPP381 mRNA splicing factor, component of U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP; interacts genetically and physically with Prp38p; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YOR148C SPP2 Essential protein that promotes the first step of splicing; required for the final stages of spliceosome maturation and activation; interacts with Prp2p, which may release Spp2p from the spliceosome following the first cleavage reaction; stimulates Prp2p ATPase activity
YPL138C SPP1 CPS40 | SAF41 Subunit of COMPASS (Set1C); a complex which methylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and is required in telomeric transcriptional silencing; promotes meiotic DSB formation by interacting with H3K4me3 and Rec107p, a protein required for Spo11p-catalyzed DSB formation located on chromosome axes; interacts with Orc2p; PHD finger domain protein similar to human CGBP, an unmethylated CpG binding protein; relocalizes to cytosol in response to hypoxia
YAL009W SPO7 Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase regulatory subunit SPO7 Putative regulatory subunit of Nem1p-Spo7p phosphatase holoenzyme; regulates nuclear growth by controlling phospholipid biosynthesis, required for normal nuclear envelope morphology, premeiotic replication, and sporulation
YKR031C SPO14 phospholipase D | PLD1 Phospholipase D; catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine, producing choline and phosphatidic acid; involved in Sec14p-independent secretion; required for meiosis and spore formation; differently regulated in secretion and meiosis; participates in transcription initiation and/or early elongation of specific genes; interacts with "foot domain" of RNA polymerase II; deletion results in abnormal CTD-Ser5 phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II at specific promoter regions
YHR152W SPO12 SDB21 Nucleolar protein of unknown function; positive regulator of mitotic exit; involved in regulating release of Cdc14p from the nucleolus in early anaphase, may play similar role in meiosis; SPO12 has a paralog, BNS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR136C SPL2 Protein with similarity to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors; downregulates low-affinity phosphate transport during phosphate limitation by targeting Pho87p to the vacuole; upstream region harbors putative hypoxia response element (HRE) cluster; overproduction suppresses a plc1 null mutation; promoter shows an increase in Snf2p occupancy after heat shock; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YER150W SPI1 GPI-anchored cell wall protein involved in weak acid resistance; basal expression requires Msn2p/Msn4p; expression is induced under conditions of stress and during the diauxic shift; SPI1 has a paralog, SED1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR313C SPH1 YLR312C-B Protein involved in shmoo formation and bipolar bud site selection; localizes to sites of polarized growth in a cell cycle dependent- and Spa2p-dependent manner, interacts with MAPKKs Mkk1p, Mkk2p, and Ste7p; SPH1 has a paralog, SPA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL031W SPF1 COD1 | ion-transporting P-type ATPase SPF1 | PER9 | PIO1 P-type ATPase, ion transporter of the ER membrane; required to maintain normal lipid composition of intracellular compartments and proper targeting of mitochondrial outer membrane tail-anchored proteins; involved in ER function and Ca2+ homeostasis; required for regulating Hmg2p degradation; confers sensitivity to a killer toxin (SMKT) produced by Pichia farinosa KK1
YLR146C SPE4 spermine synthase Spermine synthase; required for the biosynthesis of spermine and also involved in biosynthesis of pantothenic acid
YPR069C SPE3 spermidine synthase Spermidine synthase; involved in biosynthesis of spermidine and also in biosynthesis of pantothenic acid; spermidine is required for growth of wild-type cells
YOL052C SPE2 adenosylmethionine decarboxylase SPE2 S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase; required for the biosynthesis of spermidine and spermine; cells lacking Spe2p require spermine or spermidine for growth in the presence of oxygen but not when grown anaerobically
YKL184W SPE1 ORD1 | ornithine decarboxylase SPE1 | SPE10 Ornithine decarboxylase; catalyzes the first step in polyamine biosynthesis; degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner in the presence of excess polyamines; deletion decreases lifespan, and increases necrotic cell death and ROS generation
YNL126W SPC98 Component of the microtubule-nucleating Tub4p (gamma-tubulin) complex; interacts with Spc110p at the spindle pole body (SPB) inner plaque and with Spc72p at the SPB outer plaque
YHR172W SPC97 Component of the microtubule-nucleating Tub4p (gamma-tubulin) complex; interacts with Spc110p at the spindle pole body (SPB) inner plaque and with Spc72p at the SPB outer plaque
YAL047C SPC72 gamma-tubulin complex subunit SPC72 | LDB4 Gamma-tubulin small complex (gamma-TuSC) receptor; recruits the gamma-TuSC complex to the cytoplasmic side of the SPB, connecting nuclear microtubules to the SPB; involved in astral microtubule formation, stabilization, and with Stu2p, anchoring astral MTs at the cytoplasmic face of the SPB, and regulating plus-end MT dynamics; regulated by Cdc5 kinase
YKL042W SPC42 Central plaque component of spindle pole body (SPB); involved in SPB duplication, may facilitate attachment of the SPB to the nuclear membrane
YKR037C SPC34 Essential subunit of the Dam1 complex (aka DASH complex); complex couples kinetochores to the force produced by MT depolymerization thereby aiding in chromosome segregation; also localized to nuclear side of spindle pole body
YLR066W SPC3 signal peptidase complex subunit SPC3 Subunit of signal peptidase complex; complex catalyzes cleavage of N-terminal signal sequences of proteins targeted to the secretory pathway; homologous to mammalian SPC22/23; other members of the complex are Spc1p, Spc2p, and Sec11p
YPL124W SPC29 LPH3 | NIP29 Inner plaque spindle pole body (SPB) component; links the central plaque component Spc42p to the inner plaque component Spc110p; required for SPB duplication
YER018C SPC25 kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex subunit SPC25 Component of the kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex; involved in chromosome segregation, spindle checkpoint activity, and kinetochore clustering; evolutionarily conserved; other members include Ndc80p, Nuf2p, Spc24p, and Spc25p
YMR117C SPC24 kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex subunit SPC24 Component of the kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex; involved in chromosome segregation, spindle checkpoint activity, and kinetochore clustering; evolutionarily conserved; other members include Ndc80p, Nuf2p, Spc24p, and Spc25p
YML055W SPC2 signal peptidase complex subunit SPC2 | SPY1 Subunit of signal peptidase complex; complex catalyzes cleavage of N-terminal signal sequences of proteins targeted to the secretory pathway; homologous to mammalian SPC25; other members of the complex are Spc1p, Spc1p, and Sec11p
YDR201W SPC19 Essential subunit of the Dam1 complex (aka DASH complex); complex couples kinetochores to the force produced by MT depolymerization thereby aiding in chromosome segregation; also localized to nuclear side of spindle pole body
YDR356W SPC110 NUF1 | XCM1 Inner plaque spindle pole body (SPB) component; ortholog of human kendrin; gamma-tubulin small complex (gamma-TuSC) receptor that interacts with Spc98p to recruit the complex to the nuclear side of the SPB, connecting nuclear microtubules to the SPB; promotes gamma-TuSC assembly and oligomerization to initiate microtubule nucleation; interacts with Tub4p-complex and calmodulin; phosphorylated by Mps1p in cell cycle-dependent manner
YGL093W SPC105 Subunit of a kinetochore-microtubule binding complex; complex bridges centromeric heterochromatin and kinetochore MAPs and motors; required for sister chromatid bi-orientation and kinetochore binding of SAC components; complex also includes Kre28p; modified by sumoylation
YJR010C-A SPC1 signal peptidase complex subunit SPC1 Subunit of the signal peptidase complex (SPC); SPC cleaves the signal sequence from proteins targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); homolog of the SPC12 subunit of mammalian signal peptidase complex; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YFL002C SPB4 putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase SPB4 Putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase; nucleolar protein required for synthesis of 60S ribosomal subunits at a late step in the pathway; sediments with 66S pre-ribosomes in sucrose gradients
YMR066W SOV1 Mitochondrial protein of unknown function
YJL192C SOP4 EMC7 ER-membrane protein; subunit of evolutionarily conserved EMC (Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Complex) implicated in ERAD (ER-associated degradation) and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane (TM) proteins; EMC acts in yeast as an ER-mitochondria tether that interacts with outer membrane protein Tom5 of TOM (Translocase of the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane) complex; suppressor of pma1-7, deletion of SOP4 slows down export of wild-type Pma1p and Pma1-7 from the ER
YEL059C-A SOM1 Subunit of the mitochondrial inner membrane peptidase (IMP); IMP is required for maturation of mitochondrial proteins of the intermembrane space; Som1p facilitates cleavage of a subset of substrates; contains twin cysteine-x9-cysteine motifs
YGR248W SOL4 6-phosphogluconolactonase SOL4 6-phosphogluconolactonase; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; SOL4 has a paralog, SOL3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR163W SOL3 6-phosphogluconolactonase SOL3 6-phosphogluconolactonase; catalyzes the second step of the pentose phosphate pathway; weak multicopy suppressor of los1-1 mutation; homologous to Sol2p and Sol1p; SOL3 has a paralog, SOL4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR073W-A SOL2 YCRX13W Protein with a possible role in tRNA export; shows similarity to 6-phosphogluconolactonase non-catalytic domains but does not exhibit this enzymatic activity; homologous to Sol3p and Sol4p; SOL2 has a paralog, SOL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNR034W SOL1 Protein with a possible role in tRNA export; shows similarity to 6-phosphogluconolactonase non-catalytic domains but does not exhibit this enzymatic activity; homologous to Sol3p and Sol4p; SOL1 has a paralog, SOL2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR016C SOK2 Nuclear protein that negatively regulates pseudohyphal differentiation; plays a regulatory role in the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signal transduction pathway; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; SOK2 has a paralog, PHD1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR006C SOK1 Protein of unknown function; overexpression suppresses the growth defect of mutants lacking protein kinase A activity; involved in cAMP-mediated signaling; localized to the nucleus; similar to the mouse testis-specific protein PBS13
YGL127C SOH1 MED31 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; involved in telomere maintenance; conserved with other metazoan MED31 subunits
YOR353C SOG2 Key component of the RAM signaling network; required for proper cell morphogenesis and cell separation after mitosis
YLL011W SOF1 rRNA-processing protein SOF1 Protein required for biogenesis of 40S (small) ribosomal subunit; has similarity to the beta subunit of trimeric G-proteins and the splicing factor Prp4p; essential gene
YHR008C SOD2 superoxide dismutase SOD2 Mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase; protects cells against oxygen toxicity and oxidative stress; human mitochondrial SOD2 can complement a yeast null mutant and human cytoplasmic SOD1 can also complement when targeted to the mitochondrial matrix
YJR104C SOD1 CRS4 | superoxide dismutase SOD1 Cytosolic copper-zinc superoxide dismutase; detoxifies superoxide; stabilizes Yck1p and Yck2p kinases in glucose to repress respiration; phosphorylated by Dun1p, enters nucleus under oxidative stress to promote transcription of stress response genes; human ortholog SOD1 implicated in ALS complements a null allele; abundance increases under DNA replication stress and during exposure to boric acid; localization to mitochondrial intermembrane space is modulated by MICOS complex
YDR425W SNX41 Sorting nexin; involved in the retrieval of late-Golgi SNAREs from the post-Golgi endosome to the trans-Golgi network; interacts with Snx4p
YJL036W SNX4 ATG24 | CVT13 Sorting nexin; involved in retrieval of late-Golgi SNAREs from post-Golgi endosomes to the trans-Golgi network and in cytoplasm to vacuole transport; contains a PX phosphoinositide-binding domain; forms complexes with Snx41p and with Atg20p
YOR357C SNX3 GRD19 Sorting nexin for late-Golgi enzymes; required to maintain late-Golgi resident enzymes in their proper location by recycling molecules from the prevacuolar compartment; contains a PX domain and sequence similarity to human Snx3p
YGR013W SNU71 Component of U1 snRNP required for mRNA splicing via spliceosome; yeast specific, no metazoan counterpart
YOR308C SNU66 U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex subunit SNU66 Component of the U4/U6.U5 snRNP complex; involved in pre-mRNA splicing via spliceosome; also required for pre-5S rRNA processing and may act in concert with Rnh70p; has homology to human SART-1
YDR240C SNU56 MUD10 Component of U1 snRNP required for mRNA splicing via spliceosome; yeast specific, no metazoan counterpart; interacts with mRNA in commitment complex
YDL098C SNU23 U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex subunit SNU23 Component of the U4/U6.U5 snRNP complex; involved in mRNA splicing via spliceosome
YKL173W SNU114 GIN10 | U5 snRNP GTPase SNU114 GTPase component of U5 snRNP involved in mRNA splicing via spliceosome; binds directly to U5 snRNA; proposed to be involved in conformational changes of the spliceosome; similarity to ribosomal translocation factor EF-2
YPR101W SNT309 NTC25 Member of the NineTeen Complex (NTC); this complex contains Prp19p and stabilizes U6 snRNA in catalytic forms of the spliceosome containing U2, U5, and U6 snRNAs; interacts physically and genetically with Prp19p
YGL131C SNT2 DNA-binding E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase SNT2 Subunit of Snt2C complex, RING finger ubiquitin ligase (E3); physically associates with Ecm5p and Rpd3p; along with Ecm5p, recruits Rpd3p to small number of promoters; colocalizes with Ecm5p, independently of Rpd3p, to promoters of stress response genes upon oxidative stress; involved in ubiquitination, degradation of excess histones; interacts with Ubc4p; role in regulating genes encoding amine transporters; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YCR033W SNT1 Subunit of the Set3C deacetylase complex; interacts directly with the Set3C subunit, Sif2p; putative DNA-binding protein; mutant has increased aneuploidy tolerance; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YDR011W SNQ2 ATP-binding cassette transporter SNQ2 Plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter; multidrug transporter involved in multidrug resistance and resistance to singlet oxygen species
YIL061C SNP1 U1-70K | U1 snRNP complex subunit SNP1 Component of U1 snRNP required for mRNA splicing via spliceosome; substrate of the arginine methyltransferase Hmt1p; may interact with poly(A) polymerase to regulate polyadenylation; homolog of human U1 70K protein; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR095C SNO1 putative pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase Protein of unconfirmed function; involved in pyridoxine metabolism; expression is induced during stationary phase; forms a putative glutamine amidotransferase complex with Snz1p, with Sno1p serving as the glutaminase
YNL086W SNN1 BLS1 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; interacts with Msb3p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to endosomes
YDR478W SNM1 Ribonuclease MRP complex subunit; ribonuclease (RNase) MRP cleaves pre-rRNA and has a role in cell cycle-regulated degradation of daughter cell-specific mRNAs; binds to the NME1 RNA subunit of RNase MRP
YIL016W SNL1 Ribosome-associated protein; proposed to act in protein synthesis and nuclear pore complex biogenesis and maintenance as well as protein folding; has similarity to the mammalian BAG-1 protein
YPL002C SNF8 ESCRT-II subunit protein SNF8 | VPL14 | VPS22 Component of the ESCRT-II complex; ESCRT-II is involved in ubiquitin-dependent sorting of proteins into the endosome; appears to be functionally related to SNF7; involved in glucose derepression
YLR025W SNF7 DID1 | ESCRT-III subunit protein SNF7 | RNS4 | VPL5 | VPS32 One of four subunits of the ESCRT-III complex; involved in the sorting of transmembrane proteins into the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway; recruited from the cytoplasm to endosomal membranes; ESCRT-III stands for endosomal sorting complex required for transport III
YHL025W SNF6 Subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; involved in transcriptional regulation; functions interdependently in transcriptional activation with Snf2p and Snf5p; relocates to the cytosol under hypoxic conditions
YBR289W SNF5 HAF4 | SWI10 | TYE4 Subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; involved in transcriptional regulation; functions interdependently in transcriptional activation with Snf2p and Snf6p; relocates to the cytosol under hypoxic conditions
YGL115W SNF4 AMP-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase regulatory subunit SNF4 | CAT3 | SCI1 Activating gamma subunit of the AMP-activated Snf1p kinase complex; additional subunits of the complex are Snf1p and a Sip1p/Sip2p/Gal83p family member; activates glucose-repressed genes, represses glucose-induced genes; role in sporulation, and peroxisome biogenesis; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR290C SNF2 GAM1 | HAF1 | SWI2 | SWI/SNF catalytic subunit SNF2 | TYE3 Catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; involved in transcriptional regulation; contains DNA-stimulated ATPase activity; functions interdependently in transcriptional activation with Snf5p and Snf6p
YNR023W SNF12 SWP73 73 kDa subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; involved in transcriptional regulation; relocates to the cytosol under hypoxic conditions; deletion mutants are temperature-sensitive; SNF12 has a paralog, RSC6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR073W SNF11 Subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; involved in transcriptional regulation; interacts with a highly conserved 40-residue sequence of Snf2p; relocates to the cytosol under hypoxic conditions
YDR477W SNF1 AMP-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase catalytic subunit SNF1 | CAT1 | CCR1 | GLC2 | HAF3 | PAS14 AMP-activated S/T protein kinase; complexes with Snf4p and a Sip1p/Sip2p/Gal83p family member; required for glucose-repressed gene transcription, heat shock, sporulation, and peroxisome biogenesis; active form involved in mitotic spindle alignment in non-limiting glucose; regulates Hxk2p nucleocytoplasmic shuttling; regulates filamentous growth and acts as a non-canonical GEF-activating Arf3p during invasive growth; sumoylation inhibits Snf1p, targeting it for Ub-ligase mediated destruction
YBR106W SND3 PHO88 Protein involved in SRP-independent targeting of substrates to the ER; component of an alternative ER targeting pathway that has partial functional redundancy with the GET pathway; preference for substrates with downstream transmembrane domains; interacts with Snd1p, Env10p/Snd2p, and Sec61p-translocon subunits; can compensate for loss of SRP; role in phosphate transport, interacting with pho88, and in the maturation of secretory proteins
YLR065C SND2 ENV10 Protein involved in SRP-independent targeting of substrates to the ER; component of an alternative ER targeting pathway that has partial functional redundancy with the GET pathway; preference for substrates with downstream transmembrane domains; interacts with Snd1p, Pho88p/Snd3p, and Sec61p-translocon subunits; can compensate for loss of SRP; role in the late endosome-vacuole interface; putative role in secretory protein quality control
YDR186C SND1 Protein involved in SRP-independent targeting of substrates to the ER; component of an alternative ER targeting pathway that has partial functional redundancy with the GET pathway; preference for substrates with downstream transmembrane domains; interacts with Env10p/Snd2p and Pho88p/Snd3p; can compensate for loss of SRP; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YDL123W SNA4 Protein of unknown function; localized to the vacuolar outer membrane; predicted to be palmitoylated
YJL151C SNA3 Protein involved in efficient MVB sorting of proteins to the vacuole; may function as an RSP5 adapter protein for MVB cargos; integral membrane protein localized to vacuolar intralumenal vesicles
YDR525W-A SNA2 Protein of unknown function; has similarity to Pmp3p, which is involved in cation transport; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern
YBR172C SMY2 GYF domain protein; involved in COPII vesicle formation; interacts with the Sec23p/Sec24p subcomplex; overexpression suppresses the temperature sensitivity of a myo2 mutant; similar to S. pombe Mpd2; SMY2 has a paralog, SYH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL079W SMY1 Kinesin-like myosin passenger-protein; interacts with Myo2p and enhances its interaction with Sec4p during transport of secretory vesicles; controls actin cable structure and dynamics
YPR182W SMX3 mRNA splicing protein SMX3 | SmF | Sm F Core Sm protein Sm F; part of heteroheptameric complex (with Smb1p, Smd1p, Smd2p, Smd3p, Sme1p, and Smx2p) that is part of the spliceosomal U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs; homolog of human Sm F
YFL017W-A SMX2 mRNA splicing protein SMX2 | SmG | Sm G | SNP2 | YFL018W-A Core Sm protein Sm G; part of heteroheptameric complex (with Smb1p, Smd1p, Smd2p, Smd3p, Sme1p, and Smx3p) that is part of the spliceosomal U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs; homolog of human Sm G
YDR510W SMT3 SUMO family protein SMT3 Ubiquitin-like protein of the SUMO family; conjugated to lysine residues of target proteins; associates with transcriptionally active genes; regulates chromatid cohesion, chromosome segregation, APC-mediated proteolysis, DNA replication and septin ring dynamics; human homolog SUMO1 can complement yeast null mutant
YJL147C SMT1 MRX5 Protein that associates with mitochondrial ribosome; homozygous diploid deletion strain has a sporulation defect characterized by elevated dityrosine in the soluble fraction; expression induced by calcium shortage; YJL147W is a non-essential gene
YNR015W SMM1 DUS2 Dihydrouridine synthase; member of a family of dihydrouridine synthases including Dus1p, Smm1p, Dus3p, and Dus4p; modifies uridine residues at position 20 of cytoplasmic tRNAs
YML058W SML1 ribonucleotide reductase inhibiting protein SML1 Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor; involved in regulating dNTP production; regulated by Mec1p and Rad53p during DNA damage and S phase; SML1 has a paralog, DIF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR229C SMI1 KNR4 Protein involved in the regulation of cell wall synthesis; proposed to be involved in coordinating cell cycle progression with cell wall integrity
YLR034C SMF3 putative divalent metal ion transporter SMF3 Putative divalent metal ion transporter involved in iron homeostasis; transcriptionally regulated by metal ions; member of the Nramp family of metal transport proteins; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR275W SMD2 mRNA splicing protein SMD2 | Sm D2 Core Sm protein Sm D2; part of heteroheptameric complex (with Smb1p, Smd1p, Smd3p, Sme1p, Smx3p, and Smx2p) that is part of the spliceosomal U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs; homolog of human Sm D2
YGR074W SMD1 mRNA splicing protein SMD1 | SPP92 Core Sm protein Sm D1; part of heteroheptameric complex (with Smb1p, Smd2p, Smd3p, Sme1p, Smx3p, and Smx2p) that is part of the spliceosomal U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; homolog of human Sm D1; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR383W SMC6 DNA repair protein SMC6 | RHC18 Component of the SMC5-SMC6 complex; this complex plays a key role in the removal of X-shaped DNA structures that arise between sister chromatids during DNA replication and repair; homologous to S. pombe rad18
YOL034W SMC5 DNA repair ATPase SMC5 Subunit of the SMC5-SMC6 complex; the SMC5-SMC6 complex plays a key role in the removal of X-shaped DNA structures that arise between sister chromatids during DNA replication and repair; binds single-stranded DNA and has ATPase activity; supports nucleolar function; S. pombe homolog forms a heterodimer with S. pombe Rad18p that is involved in DNA repair
YLR086W SMC4 condensin subunit SMC4 Subunit of the condensin complex; condensin reorganizes chromosomes during both mitosis and meiosis; forms a subcomplex with Smc2p that has ATP-hydrolyzing and DNA-binding activity, but other condensin subunits are required for chromatin binding; required for tRNA gene clustering at the nucleolus; potential Cdc28p substrate
YJL074C SMC3 cohesin subunit SMC3 Subunit of the multiprotein cohesin complex; required for sister chromatid cohesion in mitotic cells; also required, with Rec8p, for cohesion and recombination during meiosis; phylogenetically conserved SMC chromosomal ATPase family member
YFR031C SMC2 condensin subunit SMC2 Subunit of the condensin complex; condensin reorganizes chromosomes during both mitosis and meiosis; essential SMC chromosomal ATPase family member that forms a subcomplex with Smc2p that has ATP-hydrolyzing and DNA-binding activity, but other condensin subunits are required for chromatin binding; required for clustering of tRNA genes at the nucleolus
YFL008W SMC1 CHL10 | cohesin subunit SMC1 Subunit of the multiprotein cohesin complex; essential protein involved in chromosome segregation and in double-strand DNA break repair; SMC chromosomal ATPase family member, binds DNA with a preference for DNA with secondary structure
YER029C SMB1 mRNA splicing protein SMB1 | SmB | Sm B Core Sm protein Sm B; part of heteroheptameric complex (with Smd1p, Smd2p, Smd3p, Sme1p, Smx3p, and Smx2p) that is part of the spliceosomal U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs; homolog of human Sm B and Sm B'
YOR307C SLY41 Protein involved in ER-to-Golgi transport
YDR189W SLY1 syntaxin-binding protein Hydrophilic protein involved in ER/Golgi vesicle trafficking; SM (Sec1/Munc-18) family protein that binds the tSNARE Sed5p and stimulates its assembly into a trans-SNARE membrane-protein complex
YGR081C SLX9 Protein required for pre-rRNA processing; associated with the 90S pre-ribosome and 43S small ribosomal subunit precursor; interacts with U3 snoRNA; deletion mutant has synthetic fitness defect with an sgs1 deletion mutant
YER116C SLX8 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase complex subunit SLX8 Subunit of Slx5-Slx8 SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) complex; role in proteolysis of spindle positioning protein Kar9, DNA repair proteins Rad52p and Rad57p; stimulated by SUMO-modified substrates; contains a C-terminal RING domain; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress; required for maintenance of genome integrity like human ortholog RNF
YLR135W SLX4 Endonuclease involved in processing DNA; acts during recombination, repair; promotes template switching during break-induced replication (BIR), causing non-reciprocal translocations (NRTs); cleaves branched structures in complex with Slx1p; involved in interstrand cross-link repair, Rad1p/Rad10p-dependent removal of 3'-nonhomologous tails during DSBR via single-strand annealing; relative distribution to nuclear foci increases upon DNA replication stress; FANCP-related factor
YDR088C SLU7 mRNA splicing protein SLU7 | SLT17 RNA splicing factor; required for ATP-independent portion of 2nd catalytic step of spliceosomal RNA splicing; interacts with Prp18p; contains zinc knuckle domain
YHR030C SLT2 BYC2 | LYT2 | mitogen-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase SLT2 | MPK1 | SLK2 Serine/threonine MAP kinase; coordinates expression of all 19S regulatory particle assembly-chaperones (RACs) to control proteasome abundance; involved in regulating maintenance of cell wall integrity, cell cycle progression, nuclear mRNA retention in heat shock, septum assembly; required for mitophagy, pexophagy; affects recruitment of mitochondria to phagophore assembly site; plays role in adaptive response of cells to cold; regulated by the PKC1-mediated signaling pathway
YLR139C SLS1 Mitochondrial membrane protein; coordinates expression of mitochondrially-encoded genes; may facilitate delivery of mRNA to membrane-bound translation machinery
YOR154W SLP1 Glycosylated integral ER membrane protein of unknown function; forms an ER-membrane associated protein complex with Emp65p; member of the SUN-like family of proteins; genetic interactions suggest a role in folding of ER membrane proteins; required for nuclear envelope localization of Mps3p
YIL147C SLN1 YPD2 Transmembrane histidine phosphotransfer kinase and osmosensor; regulates MAP kinase cascade; transmembrane protein with an intracellular kinase domain that signals to Ypd1p and Ssk1p, thereby forming a phosphorelay system similar to bacterial two-component regulators
YCR024C SLM5 asparagine--tRNA ligase SLM5 Mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase
YBR077C SLM4 EGO3 | GSE1 | NIR1 Subunit of the EGO/GSE complex; the vacuolar/endosomal membrane associated EGO/GSE complex regulates exit from rapamycin-induced growth arrest, stimulating microautophagy and sorting of Gap1p from the endosome to the plasma membrane; essential for the integrity and function of EGO; gene exhibits synthetic genetic interaction with MSS4
YDL033C SLM3 MTO2 | MTU1 | tRNA-5-taurinomethyluridine 2-sulfurtransferase tRNA-specific 2-thiouridylase; responsible for 2-thiolation of the wobble base of mitochondrial tRNAs; human homolog TRMU is implicated in myoclonus epilepsy associated with ragged red fibers (MERRF), and can complement yeast null mutant
YIL105C SLM1 LIT2 | phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-binding protein Phosphoinositide PI4,5P(2) binding protein, forms a complex with Slm2p; acts downstream of Mss4p in a pathway regulating actin cytoskeleton organization in response to stress; TORC2 complex substrate and effector; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; SLM1 has a paralog, SLM2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR195W SLK19 Kinetochore-associated protein; required for chromosome segregation and kinetochore clustering; required for normal segregation of chromosomes in meiosis and mitosis; component of the FEAR regulatory network, which promotes Cdc14p release from the nucleolus during anaphase; potential Cdc28p substrate
YBR156C SLI15 Subunit of the conserved chromosomal passenger complex (CPC); complex regulates kinetochore-microtubule attachments, activation of the spindle tension checkpoint, and mitotic spindle disassembly; other complex members are Ipl1p, Bir1p, and Nbl1p
YGR271W SLH1 putative RNA helicase | RQT2 Putative RNA helicase related to Ski2p; involved in translation inhibition of non-poly(A) mRNAs; required for repressing propagation of dsRNA viruses
YOR008C SLG1 HCS77 | WSC1 Sensor-transducer of the stress-activated PKC1-MPK1 kinase pathway; involved in maintenance of cell wall integrity; required for mitophagy; involved in organization of the actin cytoskeleton; secretory pathway Wsc1p is required for the arrest of secretion response
YDR515W SLF1 SRO99 RNA binding protein that associates with polysomes; may be involved in regulating mRNA translation; involved in the copper-dependent mineralization of copper sulfide complexes on cell surface in cells cultured in copper salts; SLF1 has a paralog, SRO9, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR060C SLD7 YOR29-11 Protein with a role in chromosomal DNA replication; interacts with Sld3p and reduces its affinity for Cdc45p; deletion mutant has aberrant mitochondria
YGL113W SLD3 Protein involved in the initiation of DNA replication; required for proper assembly of replication proteins at the origins of replication; interacts with Cdc45p; localizes to nuclear foci that become diffuse upon DNA replication stress; homologous to the human Treslin/Ticrr protein
YKL108W SLD2 DRC1 Single-stranded DNA origin-binding and annealing protein; required for initiation of DNA replication; phosphorylated in S phase by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), promoting origin binding, DNA replication and Dpb11p complex formation; component of the preloading complex; binds the Mcm2-7p complex to prevent inappropriate Mcm2-7p interaction with the GINS complex in G1; required for S phase checkpoint; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YDL052C SLC1 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase SLC1 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase; catalyzes the acylation of lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in lipid metabolism; enzymatic activity detected in lipid particles and microsomes
YNL243W SLA2 END4 | MOP2 Adaptor protein that links actin to clathrin and endocytosis; involved in membrane cytoskeleton assembly and cell polarization; present in the actin cortical patch of the emerging bud tip; dimer in vivo
YBL007C SLA1 cytoskeletal protein-binding protein SLA1 Cytoskeletal protein binding protein; required for assembly of the cortical actin cytoskeleton; interacts with proteins regulating actin dynamics and proteins required for endocytosis; found in the nucleus and cell cortex; has 3 SH3 domains
YMR216C SKY1 serine/threonine protein kinase SKY1 SR protein kinase (SRPK); involved in regulating proteins involved in mRNA metabolism and cation homeostasis; similar to human SRPK1
YBL061C SKT5 CAL2 | CHS4 | CSD4 Activator of Chs3p (chitin synthase III) during vegetative growth; recruits Chs3p to the bud neck via interaction with Bni4p; SKT5 has a paralog, SHC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL026C SKS1 putative serine/threonine protein kinase SKS1 | SHA3 Putative serine/threonine protein kinase; involved in the adaptation to low concentrations of glucose independent of the SNF3 regulated pathway; SKS1 has a paralog, VHS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL311C SKP2 putative SCF ubiquitin ligase complex subunit SKP2 F-box protein of unknown function; predicted to be part of an SCF ubiquitin protease complex; involved in regulating protein levels of sulfur metabolism enzymes; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments
YDR328C SKP1 CBF3D | MGO1 | SCF ubiquitin ligase subunit SKP1 Evolutionarily conserved kinetochore protein; part of multiple protein complexes, including the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, the CBF3 complex that binds centromeric DNA, and the RAVE complex that regulates assembly of the V-ATPase; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL167C SKO1 ACR1 Basic leucine zipper transcription factor of the ATF/CREB family; forms a complex with Tup1p and Cyc8p to both activate and repress transcription; cytosolic and nuclear protein involved in osmotic and oxidative stress responses
YHR206W SKN7 BRY1 | kinase-regulated stress-responsive transcription factor SKN7 | POS9 Nuclear response regulator and transcription factor; physically interacts with the Tup1-Cyc8 complex and recruits Tup1p to its targets; part of a branched two-component signaling system; required for optimal induction of heat-shock genes in response to oxidative stress; involved in osmoregulation; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; SKN7 has a paralog, HMS2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL113W SKM1 putative serine/threonine protein kinase SKM1 Member of the PAK family of serine/threonine protein kinases; similar to Ste20p; involved in down-regulation of sterol uptake; proposed to be a downstream effector of Cdc42p during polarized growth; SKM1 has a paralog, CLA4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL213C SKI8 REC103 | SKI complex subunit WD repeat protein SKI8 Ski complex component and WD-repeat protein; mediates 3'-5' RNA degradation by the cytoplasmic exosome; also required for meiotic double-strand break recombination; null mutants have superkiller phenotype
YOR076C SKI7 YOR29-27 GTP-binding protein that couples the Ski complex and exosome; putative pseudo-translational GTPase involved in 3'-to-5' mRNA decay pathway; interacts with both the cytoplasmic exosome and the Ski complex; eRF3-like domain targets nonstop mRNA for degradation; null mutants have a superkiller phenotype; SKI7 has a paralog, HBS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR195W SKI6 ECM20 | exosome non-catalytic core subunit SKI6 | RRP41 Exosome non-catalytic core component; involved in 3'-5' RNA processing and degradation in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm; has similarity to E. coli RNase PH and to human hRrp41p (EXOSC4)
YPR189W SKI3 SKI5 | SKI complex subunit tetratricopeptide repeat protein SKI3 Ski complex component and TPR protein; mediates 3'-5' RNA degradation by the cytoplasmic exosome; null mutants have superkiller phenotype of increased viral dsRNAs and are synthetic lethal with mutations in 5'-3' mRNA decay; mutations in the human ortholog, TTC37, causes Syndromic diarrhea/Trichohepatoenteric (SD/THE) syndrome
YLR398C SKI2 SKI complex RNA helicase subunit SKI2 Ski complex component and putative RNA helicase; mediates 3'-5' RNA degradation by the cytoplasmic exosome; null mutants have superkiller phenotype of increased viral dsRNAs and are synthetic lethal with mutations in 5'-3' mRNA decay; mutations in the human ortholog, SKIV2L, causes Syndromic diarrhea/Trichohepatoenteric (SD/THE) syndrome
YHR149C SKG6 Integral membrane protein; localizes primarily to growing sites such as the bud tip or the cell periphery; potential Cdc28p substrate; Skg6p interacts with Zds1p and Zds2p; SKG6 has a paralog, TOS2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR187W SKG3 Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery, cytoplasm, bud, and bud neck; potential Cdc28p substrate; similar to Skg4p; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; SKG3 has a paralog, CAF120, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR100C SKG1 YKR099C-A Transmembrane protein with a role in cell wall polymer composition; localizes on inner surface of plasma membrane at bud and in daughter cell; SKG1 has a paralog, AIM20, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR409W SIZ1 SUMO ligase SIZ1 | ULL1 SUMO E3 ligase; promotes attachment of small ubiquitin-related modifier sumo (Smt3p) to primarily cytoplasmic proteins; regulates Rsp5p ubiquitin ligase activity and is in turn itself regulated by Rsp5p; required for sumoylation of septins and histone H3 variant Cse4p, a prerequisite for STUbL-mediated Ub-dependent degradation; localizes to the septin ring; acts as an adapter between E2, Ubc9p and substrates; tends to compensate for survival of DNA damage in absence of Nfi1p
YNL032W SIW14 OCA3 | putative tyrosine protein phosphatase SIW14 Tyrosine phosphatase involved in actin organization and endocytosis; localized to the cytoplasm
YDL047W SIT4 PPH1 | type 2A-related serine/threonine-protein phosphatase SIT4 Ceramide-activated, type 2A-related serine-threonine phosphatase; functions in G1/S transition of mitotic cycle; controls lifespan, mitochondrial function, cell cycle progression by regulating HXK2 phosphorylation; regulator of COPII coat dephosphorylation; required for ER to Golgi traffic; interacts with Hrr25p kinase; cytoplasmic and nuclear protein that modulates functions mediated by Pkc1p including cell wall and actin cytoskeleton organization; similar to human PP6
YEL065W SIT1 ARN3 | siderophore transporter Ferrioxamine B transporter; member of the ARN family of transporters that specifically recognize siderophore-iron chelates; transcription is induced during iron deprivation and diauxic shift; potentially phosphorylated by Cdc28p
YKR072C SIS2 HAL3 | phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase complex subunit SIS2 Negative regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (Ppz1p); involved in coenzyme A biosynthesis; subunit of phosphopant