ORF Standard name Aliases Description
YOL030W GAS5 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase; has similarity to Gas1p; localizes to the cell wall
YLR343W GAS2 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase; involved with Gas4p in spore wall assembly; has similarity to Gas1p
YER177W BMH1 14-3-3 family protein BMH1 | APR6 14-3-3 protein, major isoform; controls proteome at post-transcriptional level, binds proteins and DNA, involved in regulation of exocytosis, vesicle transport, Ras/MAPK and rapamycin-sensitive signaling, aggresome formation, spindle position checkpoint; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; antiapoptotic gene similar to human 14-3-3; BMH1 has a paralog, BMH2, that arose from whole genome duplication
YDR099W BMH2 14-3-3 family protein BMH2 | SCD3 14-3-3 protein, minor isoform; controls proteome at post-transcriptional level, binds proteins and DNA, involved in regulation of many processes including exocytosis, vesicle transport, Ras/MAPK signaling, and rapamycin-sensitive signaling; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; abundance relative to Bmh1p increases during sporulation
YIR022W SEC11 signal peptidase complex catalytic subunit SEC11 18kDa catalytic subunit of the Signal Peptidase Complex (SPC); the Signal Peptidase Complex cleaves the signal sequence of proteins targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum; other members are Spc1p, Spc2p, Spc3p, and Sec11p
YDR363W-A SEM1 DSS1 | HOD1 | proteasome regulatory particle lid subunit SEM1 19S proteasome regulatory particle lid subcomplex component; role in Ub-dependent proteolysis and proteasome stability; involved in TREX-2 mediated mRNA export, and in the prevention of transcription-associated genome instability; ubiquitinated by Nedd4-like E3-ligase, Rsp5p; human ortholog DSS1, a BRCA1 binding protein implicated in cancer, complements the yeast null; drives trinucleotide repeat expansion; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDL052C SLC1 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase SLC1 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase; catalyzes the acylation of lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in lipid metabolism; enzymatic activity detected in lipid particles and microsomes
YFR019W FAB1 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase | SVL7 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase; vacuolar membrane kinase that generates phosphatidylinositol (3,5)P2, which is involved in vacuolar sorting and homeostasis
YHR063C PAN5 2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase PAN5 2-dehydropantoate 2-reductase; part of the pantothenic acid pathway, structurally homologous to E. coli panE
YHR043C DOG2 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphatase 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase; member of a family of low molecular weight phosphatases, induced by oxidative and osmotic stress, confers 2-deoxyglucose resistance when overexpressed; DOG2 has a paralog, DOG1, that arose from a single-locus duplication; the last half of DOG1 and DOG2 are subject to gene conversions among S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus, and S. mikatae
YBR026C ETR1 MRF1 | MRF1' 2-enoyl thioester reductase; member of the medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase family; localized to mitochondria, where it has a probable role in fatty acid synthesis; human MECR functionally complements the respiratory growth defect of the null mutant
YML110C COQ5 2-hexaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone methyltransferase | DBI56 2-hexaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone methyltransferase; involved in ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) biosynthesis; localizes to the matrix face of the mitochondrial inner membrane in a large complex with other ubiquinone biosynthetic enzymes; respiratory defect of the null mutant is partially complemented by human COQ5
YEL071W DLD3 D-lactate dehydrogenase 2-hydroxyglutarate transhydrogenase, and minor D-lactate dehydrogenase; converts D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), an oncometabolite, to alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of FAD, with concomitant reduction of pyruvate to D-lactate; minor lactate dehydrogenase activity; component of the retrograde regulon that consists of genes whose expression are stimulated by damage to mitochondria and reduced in cells grown with glutamate as the sole nitrogen source; located in the cytoplasm
YPR006C ICL2 methylisocitrate lyase ICL2 2-methylisocitrate lyase of the mitochondrial matrix; functions in the methylcitrate cycle to catalyze the conversion of 2-methylisocitrate to succinate and pyruvate; ICL2 transcription is repressed by glucose and induced by ethanol
YOL125W TRM13 tRNA:m4X modification enzyme 2'-O-methyltransferase; responsible for modification of tRNA at position 4; C-terminal domain has similarity to Rossmann-fold (RFM) superfamily of RNA methyltransferases
YDL112W TRM3 tRNA (guanosine(18)-2'-O)-methyltransferase 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase; catalyzes the ribose methylation of the guanosine nucleotide at position 18 of tRNAs
YBR061C TRM7 tRNA methyltransferase TRM7 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase; methylates the 2'-O-ribose of tRNA-Phe, tRNA-Trp, and tRNA-Leu at positions C32 and N34 of tRNA anticodon loop; crucial biological role likely modification of tRNA-Phe; interacts with Trm732p and Rtt10p in 2'-O-methylation of C32 and N34 substrate tRNAs, respectively; yeast null mutant can be functionally complemented by human FTSJ1, mutations in which have been implicated in nonsyndromic X-linked intellectual disability (NSXLID)
YDR487C RIB3 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase RIB3 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (DHBP synthase); required for riboflavin biosynthesis from ribulose-5-phosphate, also has an unrelated function in mitochondrial respiration
YIR002C MPH1 3'-5' DNA helicase 3'-5' DNA helicase involved in error-free bypass of DNA lesions; binds flap DNA, stimulates activity of Rad27p and Dna2p; prevents crossovers between ectopic sequences by removing substrates for Mus81-Mms4 or Rad1-Rad10 cleavage; homolog of human FANCM Fanconi anemia protein that is involved in stabilizing and remodeling blocked replication forks; member of SF2 DExD/H superfamily of helicases; nonsense or missense mutations in FANCM can make people more likely to get cancer
YDR291W HRQ1 ATP-dependent 3'-5' DNA helicase 3'-5' DNA helicase that has DNA strand annealing activity; helicase activity is stimulated by fork structure and 3'-tail length of substrates; acts with Rad4p in nucleotide-excision repair; belongs to the widely conserved RecQ family of proteins which are involved in maintaining genomic integrity; similar to the human RecQ4p implicated in Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS)
YBL055C 3'-5'-exodeoxyribonuclease | Tat-D 3'-->5' exonuclease and endonuclease with a possible role in apoptosis; has similarity to mammalian and C. elegans apoptotic nucleases
YMR287C DSS1 MSU1 3'-5' exoribonuclease; component of the mitochondrial degradosome along with the ATP-dependent RNA helicase Suv3p; the degradosome associates with the ribosome and mediates turnover of aberrant or unprocessed RNAs
YLR059C REX2 YNT20 3'-5' RNA exonuclease; involved in 3'-end processing of U4 and U5 snRNAs, 5S and 5.8S rRNAs, and RNase P and RNase MRP RNA; localized to mitochondria and null suppresses escape of mtDNA to nucleus in yme1 yme2 mutants; RNase D exonuclease
YDR035W ARO3 3-deoxy-7-phosphoheptulonate synthase ARO3 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase; catalyzes the first step in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and is feedback-inhibited by phenylalanine or high concentration of tyrosine or tryptophan
YBR249C ARO4 3-deoxy-7-phosphoheptulonate synthase ARO4 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase; catalyzes the first step in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and is feedback-inhibited by tyrosine or high concentrations of phenylalanine or tryptophan; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YML126C ERG13 HMGS | hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase; catalyzes the formation of HMG-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA; involved in the second step in mevalonate biosynthesis
YJR025C BNA1 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase | HAD1 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase; required for the de novo biosynthesis of NAD from tryptophan via kynurenine; expression regulated by Hst1p
YDR036C EHD3 MRP5 | mS47 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase; member of a family of enoyl-CoA hydratase/isomerases; non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; phosphorylated; mutation affects fluid-phase endocytosis
YIL160C POT1 acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase | FOX3 | POX3 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase with broad chain length specificity; cleaves 3-ketoacyl-CoA into acyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA during beta-oxidation of fatty acids
YBR265W TSC10 3-dehydrosphinganine reductase 3-ketosphinganine reductase; catalyzes the second step in phytosphingosine synthesis; essential for growth in the absence of exogenous dihydrosphingosine or phytosphingosine; localized to lipid droplets; member of short chain dehydrogenase/reductase protein family
YLR100W ERG27 3-keto-steroid reductase 3-keto sterol reductase; catalyzes the last of three steps required to remove two C-4 methyl groups from an intermediate in ergosterol biosynthesis; mutants are sterol auxotrophs; mutation is functionally complemented by human HSD17B7
YER142C MAG1 MMS5 3-methyl-adenine DNA glycosylase; involved in protecting DNA against alkylating agents; initiates base excision repair by removing damaged bases to create abasic sites that are subsequently repaired; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOL151W GRE2 methylglyoxal reductase (NADPH-dependent) GRE2 3-methylbutanal reductase and NADPH-dependent methylglyoxal reductase; stress induced (osmotic, ionic, oxidative, heat shock and heavy metals); regulated by the HOG pathway; restores resistance to glycolaldehyde by coupling reduction of glycolaldehyde to ethylene glycol and oxidation of NADPH to NADP+; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; methylglyoxal reductase (NADPH-dependent) is also known as D-lactaldehyde dehydrogenase
YIL074C SER33 phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase SER33 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate reductase; 3PG dehydrogenase that catalyzes the first step in serine and glycine biosynthesis; also functions as an alpha-ketoglutarate reductase, converting alpha-ketoglutarate to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG); localizes to the cytoplasm; SER33 has a paralog, SER3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER081W SER3 phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase SER3 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate reductase; 3PG dehydrogenase that catalyzes the first step in serine and glycine biosynthesis; also functions as an alpha-ketoglutarate reductase, converting alpha-ketoglutarate to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG); localizes to the cytoplasm; SER3 has a paralog, SER33, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR012W PGK1 phosphoglycerate kinase 3-phosphoglycerate kinase; catalyzes transfer of high-energy phosphoryl groups from the acyl phosphate of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to ADP to produce ATP; key enzyme in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis
YOR184W SER1 ADE9 | O-phospho-L-serine:2-oxoglutarate transaminase 3-phosphoserine aminotransferase; catalyzes the formation of phosphoserine from 3-phosphohydroxypyruvate, required for serine and glycine biosynthesis; regulated by the general control of amino acid biosynthesis mediated by Gcn4p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YER183C FAU1 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate synthetase; involved in folic acid biosynthesis
YOR033C EXO1 DHS1 | Rad2 family nuclease EXO1 5'-3' exonuclease and flap-endonuclease; involved in recombination, double-strand break repair, MMS2 error-free branch of the post replication (PRR) pathway and DNA mismatch repair; role in telomere maintenance; member of the Rad2p nuclease family, with conserved N and I nuclease domains; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; EXO1 has a paralog, DIN7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR232W HEM1 5-aminolevulinate synthase | CYD1 | OLE3 5-aminolevulinate synthase; catalyzes the first step in the heme biosynthetic pathway; an N-terminal signal sequence is required for localization to the mitochondrial matrix; expression is regulated by Hap2p-Hap3p; has a pyridoxal phosphate cofactor whose insertion is mediated by Mcx1p
YAL027W SAW1 DNA-binding protein SAW1 5'- and 3'-flap DNA binding protein; recruits Rad1p-Rad10p to single-strand annealing intermediates with 3' non-homologous tails for removal during double-strand break repair; complexes with Rad1p-Rad10p and stimulates its endonuclease activity; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus
YPR118W MRI1 S-methyl-5-thioribose-1-phosphate isomerase MRI1 5'-methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase; catalyzes the isomerization of 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate to 5-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate in the methionine salvage pathway
YJR024C MDE1 methylthioribulose 1-phosphate dehydratase MDE1 5'-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate dehydratase; acts in the methionine salvage pathway; potential Smt3p sumoylation substrate; expression downregulated by caspofungin and deletion mutant is caspofungin resistant
YKL215C OXP1 5-oxoprolinase 5-oxoprolinase; enzyme is ATP-dependent and functions as a dimer; similar to mouse Oplah gene; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YHL011C PRS3 ribose phosphate diphosphokinase subunit PRS3 5-phospho-ribosyl-1(alpha)-pyrophosphate synthetase; synthesizes PRPP, which is required for nucleotide, histidine, and tryptophan biosynthesis; one of five related enzymes, which are active as heteromultimeric complexes
YOL061W PRS5 ribose phosphate diphosphokinase subunit PRS5 5-phospho-ribosyl-1(alpha)-pyrophosphate synthetase; synthesizes PRPP, which is required for nucleotide, histidine, and tryptophan biosynthesis; one of five related enzymes, which are active as heteromultimeric complexes; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YER099C PRS2 ribose phosphate diphosphokinase subunit PRS2 5-phospho-ribosyl-1(alpha)-pyrophosphate synthetase; synthesizes PRPP, which is required for nucleotide, histidine, and tryptophan biosynthesis; one of five related enzymes, which are active as heteromultimeric complexes; PRS2 has a paralog, PRS4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL068W PRS4 ribose phosphate diphosphokinase subunit PRS4 5-phospho-ribosyl-1(alpha)-pyrophosphate synthetase, synthesizes PRPP; which is required for nucleotide, histidine, and tryptophan biosynthesis; one of five related enzymes, which are active as heteromultimeric complexes; PRS4 has a paralog, PRS2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; a missense mutation in the conserved residue R196 of its human homolog PRPS1 is pathogenic
YKL181W PRS1 PRP1 | ribose phosphate diphosphokinase subunit PRS1 5-phospho-ribosyl-1(alpha)-pyrophosphate synthetase; synthesizes PRPP, which is required for nucleotide, histidine, and tryptophan biosynthesis; plays a key role in cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway; one of five related enzymes, which are active as heteromultimeric complexes; missense mutations in human homolog PRPS1 are associated with neuropathic Arts syndrome and Charcot-Marie Tooth (CMTX5) disease
YER171W RAD3 REM1 | TFIIH/NER complex ATP-dependent 5'-3' DNA helicase subunit RAD3 5' to 3' DNA helicase; involved in nucleotide excision repair and transcription; subunit of RNA polII initiation factor TFIIH and of Nucleotide Excision Repair Factor 3 (NEF3); homolog of human XPD protein; mutant has aneuploidy tolerance; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL113C RAD27 ERC11 | FEN1 | multifunctional nuclease RAD27 | RTH1 5' to 3' exonuclease, 5' flap endonuclease; required for Okazaki fragment processing and maturation, for long-patch base-excision repair and large loop repair (LLR), ribonucleotide excision repair; member of the S. pombe RAD2/FEN1 family; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YOL136C PFK27 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase | PFK-2 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase; catalyzes synthesis of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate; inhibited by phosphoenolpyruvate and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate, expression induced by glucose and sucrose, transcriptional regulation involves protein kinase A
YIL107C PFK26 PFK2 | PFK-2 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase; inhibited by phosphoenolpyruvate and sn-glycerol 3-phosphate; has negligible fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activity; transcriptional regulation involves protein kinase A
YHR183W GND1 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) GND1 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating); catalyzes an NADPH regenerating reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway; required for growth on D-glucono-delta-lactone and adaptation to oxidative stress; GND1 has a paralog, GND2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR256W GND2 phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) GND2 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating); catalyzes an NADPH regenerating reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway; required for growth on D-glucono-delta-lactone; GND2 has a paralog, GND1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR163W SOL3 6-phosphogluconolactonase SOL3 6-phosphogluconolactonase; catalyzes the second step of the pentose phosphate pathway; weak multicopy suppressor of los1-1 mutation; homologous to Sol2p and Sol1p; SOL3 has a paralog, SOL4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR248W SOL4 6-phosphogluconolactonase SOL4 6-phosphogluconolactonase; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; SOL4 has a paralog, SOL3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNR023W SNF12 SWP73 73 kDa subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; involved in transcriptional regulation; relocates to the cytosol under hypoxic conditions; deletion mutants are temperature-sensitive; SNF12 has a paralog, RSC6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR080C SEC18 AAA family ATPase SEC18 | ANU4 AAA ATPase and SNARE disassembly chaperone; required for vesicular transport between ER and Golgi, the 'priming' step in homotypic vacuole fusion, autophagy, and protein secretion; releases Sec17p from SNAP complexes; has similarity to mammalian N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF)
YPR173C VPS4 AAA family ATPase VPS4 | CSC1 | DID6 | END13 | GRD13 | VPL4 | VPT10 AAA-ATPase involved in multivesicular body (MVB) protein sorting; ATP-bound Vps4p localizes to endosomes and catalyzes ESCRT-III disassembly and membrane release; ATPase activity is activated by Vta1p; regulates cellular sterol metabolism
YDL126C CDC48 AAA family ATPase CDC48 AAA ATPase; subunit of polyUb-selective segregase complex involved in ERAD, INM-associated degradation (INMAD), mitotic spindle disassembly, macroautophagy, PMN, ribosome-associated degradation, ribophagy, homotypic ER membrane fusion, SCF complex disassembly, cell wall integrity during heat stress, and telomerase regulation; mobilizes membrane-anchored transcription factors by regulated Ub/proteasome-dependent processing (RUP); human ortholog VCP complements a cdc48 mutant
YNL329C PEX6 AAA family ATPase peroxin 6 | PAS8 AAA-peroxin; heterodimerizes with AAA-peroxin Pex1p and participates in the recycling of peroxisomal signal receptor Pex5p from the peroxisomal membrane to the cystosol; mutations in human PEX6 can lead to severe peroxisomal disorders and early death
YKL197C PEX1 AAA family ATPase peroxin 1 | PAS1 AAA-peroxin; heterodimerizes with AAA-peroxin Pex6p and participates in the recycling of peroxisomal signal receptor Pex5p from the peroxisomal membrane to the cystosol; induced by oleic acid and upregulated during anaerobiosis; mutations in human PEX1 can lead to severe peroxisomal disorders and early death
YLL015W BPT1 ATP-binding cassette bilirubin transporter BPT1 ABC type transmembrane transporter of MRP/CFTR family; found in vacuolar membrane, involved in the transport of unconjugated bilirubin and in heavy metal detoxification via glutathione conjugates, along with Ycf1p
YDL121C EXP1 A cargo receptor protein for Pma1p; works with Psg1p to promote the transport and maturation of Pma1p; localizes to the ER and COPII vesicles; a non-essential protein
YMR108W ILV2 acetolactate synthase catalytic subunit | SMR1 | THI1 Acetolactate synthase; catalyses the first common step in isoleucine and valine biosynthesis and is the target of several classes of inhibitors, localizes to the mitochondria; expression of the gene is under general amino acid control
YDR517W GRH1 Acetylated cis-Golgi protein, homolog of human GRASP65; forms a complex with the coiled-coil protein Bug1p; required for unconventional protein secretion (UPS) of Acb1p in response to starvation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL028W ERG10 acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase | LPB3 | TSM0115 Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase); cytosolic enzyme that transfers an acetyl group from one acetyl-CoA molecule to another, forming acetoacetyl-CoA; involved in the first step in mevalonate biosynthesis; human ACAT1 functionally complements the growth defect caused by repression of ERG10 expression
YNR016C ACC1 ABP2 | acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1 | FAS3 | MTR7 Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, biotin containing enzyme; catalyzes carboxylation of cytosolic acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA and regulates histone acetylation by regulating the availablity of acetyl-CoA; required for de novo biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids; ACC1 has a paralog, HFA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR153C ACS2 acetate--CoA ligase ACS2 Acetyl-coA synthetase isoform; along with Acs1p, acetyl-coA synthetase isoform is the nuclear source of acetyl-coA for histone acetylation; mutants affect global transcription; required for growth on glucose; expressed under anaerobic conditions
YAL054C ACS1 acetate--CoA ligase 1 | FUN44 Acetyl-coA synthetase isoform; along with Acs2p, acetyl-coA synthetase isoform is the nuclear source of acetyl-coA for histone acetylation; expressed during growth on nonfermentable carbon sources and under aerobic conditions
YER069W ARG5,6 argB | argC | bifunctional acetylglutamate kinase/N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase Acetylglutamate kinase and N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase; N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyzes the 2nd and N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase (NAGSA), the 3rd step in arginine biosynthesis; synthesized as a precursor which is processed in the mitochondrion to yield mature NAGK and NAGSA; enzymes form a metabolon complex with Arg2p; NAGK C-terminal domain stabilizes the enzymes, slows catalysis and is involved in feed-back inhibition by arginine
YJL071W ARG2 acetyl-CoA:L-glutamate N-acetyltransferase | HRB574 Acetylglutamate synthase (glutamate N-acetyltransferase); mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the arginine precursor ornithine; forms a complex with Arg5,6p
YOL140W ARG8 acetylornithine transaminase Acetylornithine aminotransferase; catalyzes the fourth step in the biosynthesis of the arginine precursor ornithine
YFR027W ECO1 CTF7 Acetyltransferase; required for establishment of sister chromatid cohesion; acetylates Mps3p to regulate nuclear organization; modifies Smc3p at replication forks and Mcd1p in response to dsDNA breaks; phosphorylated by three kinases (Cdc28p, Cdc7p, Mck1p) to generate pair of phosphates spaced precisely for recognition by ubiquitin ligase SCF-Cdc4; mutations in human homolog ESCO2 cause Roberts syndrome; relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YDR051C DET1 acid phosphatase DET1 Acid phosphatase; involved in the non-vesicular transport of sterols in both directions between the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane; deletion confers sensitivity to nickel
YMR009W ADI1 acireductone dioxygenase (Ni2+-requiring) Acireductone dioxygenease involved in methionine salvage pathway; transcribed as polycistronic mRNA with YMR010W and regulated post-transcriptionally by RNase III (Rnt1p) cleavage; ADI1 mRNA is induced in heat shock conditions; human ortholog ADI1 can complement yeast adi1 mutant
YLR319C BUD6 AIP3 Actin- and formin-interacting protein; participates in actin cable assembly and organization as a nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) for formins Bni1p and Bnr1p; a triple helical coiled-coil domain in the C-terminal region interacts with Bni1p; involved in polarized cell growth; isolated as bipolar budding mutant; potential Cdc28p substrate
YOR181W LAS17 actin-binding protein LAS17 | BEE1 Actin assembly factor; C-terminal WCA domain activates Arp2/3 complex-mediated nucleation of branched actin filaments, polyproline domain nucleates actin filaments independent of Arp2/3; mutants are defective in endocytosis, bud site selection, cytokinesis; human homolog WAS (Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome) implicated in severe immunodeficiency; human WAS complements yeast null mutant, but only in presence of WIPF1, which mediates localization of WAS to cortical patches
YCR088W ABP1 Actin-binding protein of the cortical actin cytoskeleton; important for activation of actin nucleation mediated by the Arp2/Arp3 complex; inhibits actin filament elongation at the barbed-end; phosphorylation within its proline-rich region, mediated by Cdc28p and Pho85p, protects Abp1p from PEST sequence-mediated proteolysis; mammalian homolog of HIP-55 (hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 [HPK1]-interacting protein of 55 kDa)
YMR092C AIP1 Actin cortical patch component; interacts with the actin depolymerizing factor cofilin; inhibits elongation of aged ADP-actin filaments decorated with cofilin to maintain a high level of assembly-competent actin species; required to restrict cofilin localization to cortical patches; putative regulator of cytokinesis; contains WD repeats; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from cytoplasm to plasma membrane upon DNA replication stress
YHR129C ARP1 ACT5 | actin-related protein 1 Actin-related protein of the dynactin complex; required for spindle orientation and nuclear migration; forms actin-like short filament composed of 9 or 10 Arp1p monomers; putative ortholog of mammalian centractin
YLR085C ARP6 Actin-related protein that binds nucleosomes; a component of the SWR1 complex, which exchanges histone variant H2AZ (Htz1p) for chromatin-bound histone H2A
YGL115W SNF4 AMP-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase regulatory subunit SNF4 | CAT3 | SCI1 Activating gamma subunit of the AMP-activated Snf1p kinase complex; additional subunits of the complex are Snf1p and a Sip1p/Sip2p/Gal83p family member; activates glucose-repressed genes, represses glucose-induced genes; role in sporulation, and peroxisome biogenesis; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGL116W CDC20 PAC5 | ubiquitin-protein transferase activating protein CDC20 Activator of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is required for metaphase/anaphase transition; directs ubiquitination of mitotic cyclins, Pds1p, and other anaphase inhibitors; cell-cycle regulated; potential Cdc28p substrate; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YFL034C-B MOB2 YFL035C | YFL035C-A Activator of Cbk1p kinase; component of the RAM signaling network that regulates cellular polarity and morphogenesis; activation of Cbk1p facilitates the Ace2p-dependent daughter cell-specific transcription of genes involved in cell separation; similar to Mob1p
YBL061C SKT5 CAL2 | CHS4 | CSD4 Activator of Chs3p (chitin synthase III) during vegetative growth; recruits Chs3p to the bud neck via interaction with Bni4p; SKT5 has a paralog, SHC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR037C ACB1 long-chain fatty acid transporter ACB1 Acyl-CoA-binding protein; transports newly synthesized acyl-CoA esters from fatty acid synthetase (Fas1p-Fas2p) to acyl-CoA-consuming processes; subject to starvation-induced, Grh1p-mediated unconventional secretion; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YCR048W ARE1 SAT2 | sterol acyltransferase Acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase; endoplasmic reticulum enzyme that contributes the major sterol esterification activity in the absence of oxygen; ARE1 has a paralog, ARE2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNR019W ARE2 SAT1 | sterol acyltransferase Acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase; endoplasmic reticulum enzyme that contributes the major sterol esterification activity in the presence of oxygen; ARE2 has a paralog, ARE1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR177C EHT1 medium-chain fatty acid ethyl ester synthase/esterase Acyl-coenzymeA:ethanol O-acyltransferase; plays a minor role in medium-chain fatty acid ethyl ester biosynthesis; possesses short-chain esterase activity; localizes to lipid particles and the mitochondrial outer membrane; EHT1 has a paralog, EEB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR118C TML25 APT1 | palmitoyl-(protein) hydrolase Acyl-protein thioesterase responsible for depalmitoylation of Gpa1p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YBR042C CST26 PSI1 | putative acyltransferase Acyltransferase; enzyme mainly responsible for the introduction of saturated very long chain fatty acids into neo-synthesized molecules of phosphatidylinositol; required for incorporation of stearic acid into phosphatidylinositol; affects chromosome stability when overexpressed; CST26 has a paralog, YDR018C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR049C ATG11 autophagy protein ATG11 | CVT3 | CVT9 Adapter protein for pexophagy and the Cvt targeting pathway; directs receptor-bound cargo to the phagophore assembly site (PAS) for packaging into vesicles; required for recruiting other proteins to the PAS; recruits Dnm1p to facilitate fission of mitochondria that are destined for removal by mitophagy
YPR171W BSP1 Adapter that links synaptojanins to the cortical actin cytoskeleton; the synaptojanins are Inp52p and Inp53p
YCL032W STE50 Adaptor protein for various signaling pathways; involved in mating response, invasive/filamentous growth, osmotolerance; acts as an adaptor that links G protein-associated Cdc42p-Ste20p complex to the effector Ste11p to modulate signal transduction
YDR323C PEP7 VAC1 | VPL21 | VPS19 | VPT19 Adaptor protein involved in vesicle-mediated vacuolar protein sorting; multivalent adaptor protein; facilitates vesicle-mediated vacuolar protein sorting by ensuring high-fidelity vesicle docking and fusion, which are essential for targeting of vesicles to the endosome; required for vacuole inheritance
YPL254W HFI1 ADA1 | GAN1 | SRM12 | SUP110 Adaptor protein required for structural integrity of the SAGA complex; a histone acetyltransferase-coactivator complex that is involved in global regulation of gene expression through acetylation and transcription functions
YNL243W SLA2 END4 | MOP2 Adaptor protein that links actin to clathrin and endocytosis; involved in membrane cytoskeleton assembly and cell polarization; present in the actin cortical patch of the emerging bud tip; dimer in vivo
YNL141W AAH1 adenine deaminase Adenine deaminase (adenine aminohydrolase); converts adenine to hypoxanthine; involved in purine salvage; transcriptionally regulated by nutrient levels and growth phase; Aah1p degraded upon entry into quiescence via SCF and the proteasome
YML022W APT1 adenine phosphoribosyltransferase APT1 Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase; catalyzes the formation of AMP from adenine and 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate; involved in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis; APT1 has a paralog, APT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL125C HNT1 adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidase Adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidase; interacts physically and genetically with Kin28p, a CDK and TFIIK subunit, and genetically with CAK1; member of histidine triad (HIT) superfamily of nucleotide-binding proteins; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human homolog HINT1 can complement yeast hnt1 mutant
YJR105W ADO1 adenosine kinase Adenosine kinase; required for the utilization of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet); may be involved in recycling adenosine produced through the methyl cycle
YJL005W CYR1 adenylate cyclase | CDC35 | FIL1 | HSR1 | SRA4 | TSM0185 Adenylate cyclase; required for cAMP production and cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling; the cAMP pathway controls a variety of cellular processes, including metabolism, cell cycle, stress response, stationary phase, and sporulation
YDR226W ADK1 adenylate kinase ADK1 | AKY1 | AKY2 Adenylate kinase, required for purine metabolism; localized to the cytoplasm and the mitochondria; lacks cleavable signal sequence; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; mutations affecting Adk1p catalytic activity deregulate expression of phosphate utilization genes PHO5 and PHO84; human homolog AK1 can complement yeast adk1 mutant
YNL220W ADE12 adenylosuccinate synthase | BRA9 Adenylosuccinate synthase; catalyzes the first step in synthesis of adenosine monophosphate from inosine 5'monophosphate during purine nucleotide biosynthesis; exhibits binding to single-stranded autonomously replicating (ARS) core sequence
YKL001C MET14 adenylyl-sulfate kinase Adenylylsulfate kinase; required for sulfate assimilation and involved in methionine metabolism; human homolog PAPSS2 complements yeast null mutant
YGL032C AGA2 Adhesion subunit of a-agglutinin of a-cells; C-terminal sequence acts as a ligand for alpha-agglutinin (Sag1p) during agglutination, modified with O-linked oligomannosyl chains, linked to anchorage subunit Aga1p via two disulfide bonds
YIL110W HPM1 MNI1 AdoMet-dependent methyltransferase; involved in a novel 3-methylhistidine modification of ribosomal protein Rpl3p; seven beta-strand MTase family member; null mutant exhibits a weak vacuolar protein sorting defect and caspofungin resistance
YBR261C TAE1 N-terminal protein methyltransferase | NTM1 AdoMet-dependent proline methyltransferase; catalyzes the dimethylation of ribosomal proteins Rpl12 and Rps25 at N-terminal proline residues; has a role in protein synthesis; fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YOL141W PPM2 tRNA methyltransferase PPM2 | TYW4 AdoMet-dependent tRNA methyltransferase; also involved in methoxycarbonylation; required for the synthesis of wybutosine (yW), a modified guanosine found at the 3'-position adjacent to the anticodon of phe-tRNA; similarity to Ppm1p
YOR239W ABP140 TRM140 | YOR240W AdoMet-dependent tRNA methyltransferase and actin binding protein; C-terminal domain is responsible for 3-methylcytidine modification of residue 32 of the tRNA anticodon loop of tRNA-Thr and tRNA-Ser and contains an S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) binding motif; N-terminal actin binding sequence interacts with actin filaments and localizes to actin patches and cables; N- and C-terminal domains are encoded in separate ORFs that are translated into one protein via a +1 frameshift
YNL083W SAL1 Ca(2+)-binding ATP:ADP antiporter SAL1 ADP/ATP transporter; member of the Ca2+-binding subfamily of mitochondrial carriers, with two EF-hand motifs; transport activity of either Sal1p or Pet9p is critical for viability; polymorphic in different S. cerevisiae strains
YDR524C AGE1 SAT1 ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase activating protein (GAP) effector; involved in the secretory and endocytic pathways; contains C2C2H2 cysteine/histidine motif
YIL044C AGE2 SAT2 ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase activating protein (GAP) effector; involved in Trans-Golgi-Network (TGN) transport; contains C2C2H2 cysteine/histidine motif
YDL226C GCS1 ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein (ARF GAP); involved in ER-Golgi transport; required for prospore membrane formation; regulates phospholipase Spo14p; shares functional similarity with Glo3p; GCS1 has a paralog, SPS18, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER122C GLO3 ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein (ARF GAP); involved in ER-Golgi transport; shares functional similarity with Gcs1p
YDL137W ARF2 Arf family GTPase ARF2 ADP-ribosylation factor; GTPase of the Ras superfamily involved in regulation of coated formation vesicles in intracellular trafficking within the Golgi; ARF2 has a paralog, ARF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; arf1 arf2 double null mutation is complemented by human ARF1, ARF4, ARF5, or ARF6
YDL192W ARF1 Arf family GTPase ARF1 ADP-ribosylation factor; GTPase of the Ras superfamily involved in regulation of coated vesicle formation in intracellular trafficking within the Golgi; ARF1 has a paralog, ARF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; arf1 arf2 double null mutation is complemented by human ARF1, ARF4, ARF5, or ARF6
YHR205W SCH9 HRM2 | KOM1 | serine/threonine protein kinase SCH9 AGC family protein kinase; functional ortholog of mammalian S6 kinase; phosphorylated by Tor1p and required for TORC1-mediated regulation of ribosome biogenesis, translation initiation, and entry into G0 phase; involved in transactivation of osmostress-responsive genes; regulates G1 progression, cAPK activity and nitrogen activation of the FGM pathway; integrates nutrient signals and stress signals from sphingolipids to regulate lifespan
YBR028C YPK3 putative protein kinase YPK3 AGC kinase; phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in a TORC1-dependent manner; directly phosphorylated by TORC1; phosphorylates ribosomal protein Rps6a/b (S6), in a TORC-dependent manner; undergoes autophosphorylation
YFL030W AGX1 alanine--glyoxylate transaminase Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT); catalyzes the synthesis of glycine from glyoxylate, which is one of three pathways for glycine biosynthesis in yeast; similar to mammalian and plant alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferases; human homolog AGXT complements yeast null mutant
YGR177C ATF2 alcohol O-acetyltransferase Alcohol acetyltransferase; may play a role in steroid detoxification; forms volatile esters during fermentation, which is important for brewing and winemaking
YOR377W ATF1 alcohol O-acetyltransferase Alcohol acetyltransferase; responsible for the major part of volatile acetate ester production during fermentation; main enzyme involved in terpenyl acetate synthesis; potential roles in lipid and sterol metabolism
YGL256W ADH4 alcohol dehydrogenase ADH4 | NRC465 | ZRG5 Alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme type IV; dimeric enzyme demonstrated to be zinc-dependent despite sequence similarity to iron-activated alcohol dehydrogenases; transcription is induced in response to zinc deficiency
YBR145W ADH5 alcohol dehydrogenase ADH5 Alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme V; involved in ethanol production; ADH5 has a paralog, ADH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL039W carbonyl reductase (NADPH-dependent) Aldehyde reductase; reduces aliphatic aldehyde substrates using NADH as cofactor; shown to reduce carbonyl compounds to chiral alcohols
YHR104W GRE3 trifunctional aldehyde reductase/xylose reductase/glucose 1-dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) Aldose reductase; involved in methylglyoxal, d-xylose, arabinose, and galactose metabolism; stress induced (osmotic, ionic, oxidative, heat shock, starvation and heavy metals); regulated by the HOG pathway; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL087W YDC1 alkaline dihydroceramidase Alkaline dihydroceramidase, involved in sphingolipid metabolism; preferentially hydrolyzes dihydroceramide to a free fatty acid and dihydrosphingosine; has a minor reverse activity; YDC1 has a paralog, YPC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR131W MNS1 mannosyl-oligosaccharide 1,2-alpha-mannosidase Alpha-1,2-mannosidase; involved in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD); catalyzes the removal of one mannose residue from a glycosylated protein, converting the modification from Man9GlcNAc to Man8GlcNAc; catalyzes the last step in glycoprotein maturation in the ER and is critical for ER protein degradation
YNL048W ALG11 alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase ALG11 Alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase; catalyzes sequential addition of the two terminal alpha 1,2-mannose residues to the Man5GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol intermediate during asparagine-linked glycosylation in the ER
YOR099W KTR1 alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase KTR1 Alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase; involved in O- and N-linked protein glycosylation; type II membrane protein; member of the KRE2/MNT1 mannosyltransferase family; relocalizes from vacuole to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YDR483W KRE2 alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase KRE2 | MNT1 Alpha1,2-mannosyltransferase of the Golgi; involved in protein mannosylation; KRE2 has a paralog, KTR6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR015C MNN2 alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase MNN2 | CRV4 | LDB8 | TTP1 Alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase; responsible for addition of the first alpha-1,2-linked mannose to form the branches on the mannan backbone of oligosaccharides, localizes to an early Golgi compartment
YJL186W MNN5 alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase MNN5 Alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase; responsible for addition of the second alpha-1,2-linked mannose of the branches on the mannan backbone of oligosaccharides, localizes to an early Golgi compartment
YHR204W MNL1 alpha-1,2-mannosidase MNL1 | HTM1 Alpha-1,2-specific exomannosidase of the endoplasmic reticulum; involved in glycan trimming of both folded and misfolded glycoproteins; complexes with Pdi1p, and trims a mannose from Man8GlcNac2 glycans to generate Man7GlcNac2, an oligosaccharide signal on glycoproteins destined for ER-associated protein degradation; requires Pdi1p for stability and substrate recognition; human homolog EDEM1 can complement yeast null mutant
YOR002W ALG6 dolichyl-P-Glc:Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol alpha-1,3-glucosyltransferase Alpha 1,3 glucosyltransferase; involved in transfer of oligosaccharides from dolichyl pyrophosphate to asparagine residues of proteins during N-linked protein glycosylation; C998T transition in human ortholog ALG6 causes carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type-Ic; wild-type human ortholog ALG6 can partially complement yeast alg6 mutant
YER001W MNN1 alpha-1,3-mannosyltransferase MNN1 Alpha-1,3-mannosyltransferase; integral membrane glycoprotein of the Golgi complex, required for addition of alpha1,3-mannose linkages to N-linked and O-linked oligosaccharides, one of five S. cerevisiae proteins of the MNN1 family
YJR075W HOC1 alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase Alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase; involved in cell wall mannan biosynthesis; subunit of a Golgi-localized complex that also contains Anp1p, Mnn9p, Mnn11p, and Mnn10p; identified as a suppressor of a cell lysis sensitive pkc1-371 allele
YNR030W ALG12 dolichyl-P-Man:Man(7)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase | ECM39 Alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase localized to the ER; responsible for addition of alpha-1,6 mannose to dolichol-linked Man7GlcNAc2; acts in the dolichol pathway for N-glycosylation; human homolog ALG12 complements yeast null mutant
YGL011C SCL1 PRC2 | proteasome core particle subunit alpha 1 Alpha 1 subunit of the 20S proteasome; involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated substrates; 20S proteasome is the core complex of the 26S proteasome; essential for growth; detected in the mitochondria
YML092C PRE8 proteasome core particle subunit alpha 2 Alpha 2 subunit of the 20S proteasome
YGR135W PRE9 proteasome core particle subunit alpha 3 Alpha 3 subunit of the 20S proteasome; the only nonessential 20S subunit; may be replaced by the alpha 4 subunit (Pre6p) under stress conditions to create a more active proteasomal isoform
YOL038W PRE6 proteasome core particle subunit alpha 4 Alpha 4 subunit of the 20S proteasome; may replace alpha 3 subunit (Pre9p) under stress conditions to create a more active proteasomal isoform; GFP-fusion protein relocates from cytosol to the mitochondrial surface upon oxidative stress
YGR253C PUP2 DOA5 | proteasome core particle subunit alpha 5 Alpha 5 subunit of the 20S proteasome; involved in ubiquitin-dependent catabolism; human homolog is subunit zeta
YMR314W PRE5 proteasome core particle subunit alpha 6 Alpha 6 subunit of the 20S proteasome; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR362C PRE10 proteasome core particle subunit alpha 7 Alpha 7 subunit of the 20S proteasome; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBL037W APL3 Alpha-adaptin; large subunit of the clathrin associated protein complex (AP-2); involved in vesicle mediated transport
YBR115C LYS2 L-aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase Alpha aminoadipate reductase; catalyzes the reduction of alpha-aminoadipate to alpha-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde, which is the fifth step in biosynthesis of lysine; activation requires posttranslational phosphopantetheinylation by Lys5p
YJL084C ALY2 ART3 Alpha arrestin; controls nutrient-mediated intracellular sorting of permease Gap1p; interacts with AP-1 subunit Apl4p; phosphorylated by Npr1p and also by cyclin-CDK complex Pcl7p-Pho85p; promotes endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins; ALY2 has a paralog, ALY1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR018W ROD1 ART4 Alpha-arrestin involved in ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis; activating dephosphorylation relays glucose signaling to transporter endocytosis; calcineurin dephosphorylation is required for Rsp5p-dependent internalization of agonist-occupied Ste2p, as part of signal desensitization; recruits Rsp5p to Ste2p via its 2 PPXY motifs; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; ROD1 has a paralog, ROG3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR322C LDB19 ART1 Alpha-arrestin involved in ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis; regulates endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins by recruiting the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p to its targets; involved in the basal internalization and turnover of alpha-factor receptor Ste2p; recruits ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p to Ste2p via its 2 PPXY motifs; inhibited by Npr1p-mediated phosphorylation, which affects translocation between the cytosol and the plasma membrane
YKR021W ALY1 ART6 Alpha arrestin, substrate of calcineurin; controls nutrient-mediated intracellular sorting of permease Gap1p; interacts with AP-1 subunit Apl4p; dephosphorylation of Aly1p required for the endocytosis of Dip5p; may regulate endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins by recruiting ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p to plasma membrane targets; ALY1 has a paralog, ALY2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL035C CKA1 casein kinase 2 catalytic subunit CKA1 Alpha catalytic subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2); a Ser/Thr protein kinase with roles in cell growth and proliferation; CK2, comprised of CKA1, CKA2, CKB1 and CKB2, has many substrates including transcription factors and all RNA polymerases; regulates Fkh1p-mediated donor preference during mating-type switching
YOR061W CKA2 casein kinase 2 catalytic subunit CKA2 | YOR29-12 Alpha' catalytic subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2); CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase with roles in cell growth and proliferation; CK2, comprised of CKA1, CKA2, CKB1 and CKB2, has many substrates including transcription factors and all RNA polymerases; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; regulates Fkh1p-mediated donor preference during mating-type switching
YIL172C IMA3 oligo-1,6-glucosidase IMA3 Alpha-glucosidase; weak, but broad substrate specificity for alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-glucosides; member of IMA isomaltase family; not required for isomaltose utilization, but Ima3p overexpression allows the ima1 null mutant to grow on isomaltose; lower activitiy and thermostability in vitro than Ima2p despite sequence difference of only 3 amino acids; cleaves alpha-1,3 linkage of nigerose and turanose, but not alpha-1,5 of leucrose; identical to IMA4
YNL104C LEU4 2-isopropylmalate synthase LEU4 Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase (2-isopropylmalate synthase); the main isozyme responsible for the first step in the leucine biosynthesis pathway; LEU4 has a paralog, LEU9, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR108W LEU9 2-isopropylmalate synthase LEU9 Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase II (2-isopropylmalate synthase); catalyzes the first step in the leucine biosynthesis pathway; the minor isozyme, responsible for the residual alpha-IPMS activity detected in a leu4 null mutant; LEU9 has a paralog, LEU4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL145C COP1 coatomer subunit alpha | RET1 | SEC33 | SOO1 Alpha subunit of COPI vesicle coatomer complex; complex surrounds transport vesicles in the early secretory pathway
YKL019W RAM2 bifunctional protein farnesyltransferase/protein geranylgeranyltransferase Alpha subunit of farnesyltransferase and geranylgeranyltransferase-I; farnesyltransferase (Ram2p-Ram1p heterodimer) catalyzes the addition of 15-carbon isoprenoid farnesyl to substrate proteins containing a CAAX consensus motif; type I geranylgeranyltransferase (Ram2p-Cdc43p heterodimer) catalyzes the addition of the 20-carbon isoprenoid geranylgeranyl to substrate proteins containing a CaaL consensus motif; required for membrane localization of Ras proteins and a-factor
YPL231W FAS2 trifunctional fatty acid synthase subunit FAS2 Alpha subunit of fatty acid synthetase; complex catalyzes the synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids; contains the acyl-carrier protein domain and beta-ketoacyl reductase, beta-ketoacyl synthase and self-pantetheinylation activities
YGR240C PFK1 6-phosphofructokinase subunit alpha Alpha subunit of heterooctameric phosphofructokinase; involved in glycolysis, indispensable for anaerobic growth, activated by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and AMP, mutation inhibits glucose induction of cell cycle-related genes
YOR142W LSC1 succinate--CoA ligase (GDP-forming) subunit alpha Alpha subunit of succinyl-CoA ligase; succinyl-CoA ligase is a mitochondrial enzyme of the TCA cycle that catalyzes the nucleotide-dependent conversion of succinyl-CoA to succinate; phosphorylated
YKL007W CAP1 Alpha subunit of the capping protein heterodimer (Cap1p and Cap2p); capping protein (CP) binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments preventing further polymerization; localized predominantly to cortical actin patches; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from bud neck to plasma membrane upon DNA replication stress
YBL099W ATP1 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit alpha Alpha subunit of the F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; which is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; F1 translationally regulates ATP6 and ATP8 expression to achieve a balanced output of ATP synthase genes encoded in nucleus and mitochondria; phosphorylated; N-terminally propionylated in vivo
YHR024C MAS2 MIF2 | mitochondrial-processing protease subunit alpha Alpha subunit of the mitochondrial processing protease (MPP); essential processing enzyme that cleaves the N-terminal targeting sequences from mitochondrially imported proteins
YHR193C EGD2 Alpha subunit of the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC); involved in protein sorting and translocation; associated with cytoplasmic ribosomes
YJL002C OST1 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide--protein glycotransferase subunit OST1 | NLT1 Alpha subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex of the ER lumen; complex catalyzes asparagine-linked glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins
YJR007W SUI2 translation initiation factor eIF2 subunit alpha Alpha subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2; eIF2 is involved in identification of the start codon; phosphorylation of Ser51 is required for regulation of translation by inhibiting the exchange of GDP for GTP; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKR026C GCN3 AAS2 | translation initiation factor eIF2B subunit alpha Alpha subunit of translation initiation factor eIF2B; guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2; activity subsequently regulated by phosphorylated eIF2; positive regulator of GCN4 expression; assembles into filaments with Gcd2p, Gcd6p, Gcd7p, and Sui2p as cells approach stationary phase and under cytosolic acidification and starvation conditions; human homolog EIF2B1 can complement yeast null mutant
YML124C TUB3 alpha-tubulin TUB3 Alpha-tubulin; associates with beta-tubulin (Tub2p) to form tubulin dimer, which polymerizes to form microtubules; expressed at lower level than Tub1p; TUB3 has a paralog, TUB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML085C TUB1 alpha-tubulin TUB1 Alpha-tubulin; associates with beta-tubulin (Tub2p) to form tubulin dimer, which polymerizes to form microtubules; relative distribution to nuclear foci increases upon DNA replication stress; TUB1 has a paralog, TUB3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL148C ALF1 Alpha-tubulin folding protein; similar to mammalian cofactor B; Alf1p-GFP localizes to cytoplasmic microtubules; required for the folding of alpha-tubulin and may play an additional role in microtubule maintenance
YDR422C SIP1 Alternate beta-subunit of the Snf1p kinase complex; may confer substrate specificity; vacuolar protein containing KIS (Kinase-Interacting Sequence) and ASC (Association with Snf1 kinase Complex) domains involved in protein interactions
YMR027W putative methyltransferase A metal-dependent phosphatase, part of the DUF89 protein family; dephosphorylates fructose-1-phosphate; human ortholog, C6orf211 is involved in response to DNA damage; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus and cytoplasm; YMR027W is not an essential gene
YJR062C NTA1 amidase | DEA1 Amidase; removes the amide group from N-terminal asparagine and glutamine residues to generate proteins with N-terminal aspartate and glutamate residues that are targets of ubiquitin-mediated degradation
YDR046C BAP3 amino acid transporter BAP3 | PAP1 Amino acid permease; involved in uptake of cysteine, leucine, isoleucine and valine; BAP3 has a paralog, BAP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR069C TAT1 amino acid transporter TAT1 | TAP1 | VAP1 Amino acid transporter for valine, leucine, isoleucine, and tyrosine; low-affinity tryptophan and histidine transporter; overexpression confers FK506 and FTY720 resistance; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR289W ABZ2 aminodeoxychorismate lyase ABZ2 Aminodeoxychorismate lyase (4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase); catalyzes the third step in para-aminobenzoic acid biosynthesis; involved in folic acid biosynthesis
YGL040C HEM2 OLE4 | porphobilinogen synthase HEM2 | SLU1 Aminolevulinate dehydratase; a homo-octameric enzyme, catalyzes the conversion of 5-aminolevulinate to porphobilinogen, the second step in heme biosynthesis; enzymatic activity is zinc-dependent; localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; human homolog ALAD can complement yeast hem2 mutant
YKL157W APE2 LAP1 | metallo-aminopeptidase | YKL158W Aminopeptidase yscII; may have a role in obtaining leucine from dipeptide substrates; APE2 has a paralog, AAP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER166W DNF1 aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type ATPase DNF1 Aminophospholipid translocase (flippase); type 4 P-type ATPase; involved in phospholipid translocation, contributing to endocytosis, protein transport, and cellular polarization; localizes primarily to the plasma membrane; localizes to the shmoo tip where it has a redundant role in the cellular response to mating pheromone; DNF1 has a paralog, DNF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR093W DNF2 aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type ATPase DNF2 Aminophospholipid translocase (flippase); type 4 P-type ATPase; involved in phospholipid translocation, contributing to endocytosis, protein transport, and cellular polarization; localizes primarily to the plasma membrane; localizes to the shmoo tip where it has a redundant role in the cellular response to mating pheromone; DNF2 has a paralog, DNF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR121C MEP1 ammonium permease MEP1 | AMT1 Ammonium permease; belongs to Mep-Amt-Rh family of well-conserved ammonium (NH4+) transporters that includes the human Rh factors; expression is under the nitrogen catabolite repression regulation; activity regulated by TORC1 effectors, Npr1p and Par32p; human homolog RHCG complements yeast null mutant; mutations in human homolog RHCG implicated in metabolic acidosis; MEP1 has a paralog, MEP3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL142W MEP2 ammonium permease MEP2 Ammonium permease involved in regulation of pseudohyphal growth; belongs to Mep-Amt-Rh family of well-conserved ammonium (NH4+) transporters that includes human Rh factors; expression is under the nitrogen catabolite repression regulation; activity is controlled by phospho-silencing; phosphorylation of Mep2 mediated by Npr1; dephosphorylation involves Psr1p and Psr2p
YPR138C MEP3 ammonium permease MEP3 Ammonium permease of high capacity and low affinity; belongs to Mep-Amt-Rh family of well-conserved ammonium (NH4+) transporters that includes the human Rh factors; expression is under the nitrogen catabolite repression regulation ammonia permease activity regulated by TORC1 effectors, Npr1p and Par32p; MEP3 has a paralog, MEP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR477W SNF1 AMP-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase catalytic subunit SNF1 | CAT1 | CCR1 | GLC2 | HAF3 | PAS14 AMP-activated S/T protein kinase; complexes with Snf4p and a Sip1p/Sip2p/Gal83p family member; required for glucose-repressed gene transcription, heat shock, sporulation, and peroxisome biogenesis; active form involved in mitotic spindle alignment in non-limiting glucose; regulates Hxk2p nucleocytoplasmic shuttling; regulates filamentous growth and acts as a non-canonical GEF-activating Arf3p during invasive growth; sumoylation inhibits Snf1p, targeting it for Ub-ligase mediated destruction
YML035C AMD1 AMD3 | AMP deaminase AMP deaminase; tetrameric enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to form IMP and ammonia; thought to be involved in regulation of intracellular purine (adenine, guanine, and inosine) nucleotide pools
YCR009C RVS161 amphiphysin-like protein RVS161 | END6 | FUS7 | SPE161 Amphiphysin-like lipid raft protein; N-BAR domain protein that interacts with Rvs167p and regulates polarization of the actin cytoskeleton, endocytosis, cell polarity, cell fusion and viability following starvation or osmotic stress
YOR052C TMC1 YOR29-03 AN1-type zinc finger protein, effector of proteotoxic stress response; stress-inducible transcriptional target of Rpn4p; induced by nitrogen limitation, weak acid, misfolded proteins; short-lived protein, degraded by proteasome; may protect cells from trivalent metalloid induced proteotoxicity; contains PACE promoter element; ortholog of human AIRAP, which stimulates proteasome activity in response to arsenic; protein abundance increases under DNA replication stress
YNR044W AGA1 Anchorage subunit of a-agglutinin of a-cells; highly O-glycosylated protein with N-terminal secretion signal and C-terminal signal for addition of GPI anchor to cell wall, linked to adhesion subunit Aga2p via two disulfide bonds; AGA1 has a paralog, FIG2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR092W BUD4 Anillin-like protein involved in bud-site selection; required for the axial budding pattern; required for the formation and disassembly of the double septin ring structure, and generally for septin organization; functions as a platform linking the cytokinesis tag septins to the axial landmark through its multiple domains; in vivo substrate of Cdc28p/Clb2p
YPL239W YAR1 Ankyrin-repeat containing, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling chaperone; prevents aggregation of Rps3p in the cytoplasm, associates with nascent Rps3p during its translation in the cytoplasm and delivers it to the 90S in the nucleus; required for 40S ribosomal subunit export, biogenesis and adaptation to osmotic and oxidative stress; expression repressed by heat shock
YOR034C AKR2 putative palmitoyltransferase AKR2 Ankyrin repeat-containing protein; member of a family of putative palmitoyltransferases containing an Asp-His-His-Cys-cysteine rich (DHHC-CRD) domain; possibly involved in constitutive endocytosis of Ste3p; AKR2 has a paralog, AKR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR354W TRP4 anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase Anthranilate phosphoribosyl transferase; transferase of the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway; catalyzes the phosphoribosylation of anthranilate; subject to the general control system of amino acid biosynthesis
YER090W TRP2 anthranilate synthase TRP2 Anthranilate synthase; catalyzes the initial step of tryptophan biosynthesis, forms multifunctional hetero-oligomeric anthranilate synthase:indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase enzyme complex with Trp3p
YDL197C ASF2 Anti-silencing protein; causes derepression of silent loci when overexpressed
YJL207C LAA1 AP-1 accessory protein; colocalizes with clathrin to the late-Golgi apparatus; involved in TGN-endosome transport; physically interacts with AP-1; similar to the mammalian p200; may interact with ribosomes; YJL207C is a non-essential gene
YDR423C CAD1 YAP2 AP-1-like basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcriptional activator; involved in stress responses, iron metabolism, and pleiotropic drug resistance; controls a set of genes involved in stabilizing proteins; binds consensus sequence TTACTAA; CAD1 has a paralog, YAP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCL050C APA1 bifunctional AP-4-A phosphorylase/ADP sulfurylase | DTP1 AP4A phosphorylase; bifunctional diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate phosphorylase and ADP sulfurylase involved in catabolism of bis(5'-nucleosidyl) tetraphosphates; catalyzes phosphorolysis of dinucleoside oligophosphates, cleaving substrates' alpha/beta-anhydride bond and introducing Pi into the beta-position of the corresponding NDP formed; protein abundance increases under DNA replication stress; APA1 has a paralog, APA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER005W YND1 APY1 | apyrase | YEJ5 Apyrase with wide substrate specificity; helps prevent inhibition of glycosylation by hydrolyzing nucleoside tri- and diphosphates that inhibit glycotransferases; partially redundant with Gda1p; mediates adenovirus E4orf4-induced toxicity
YLL043W FPS1 Aquaglyceroporin, plasma membrane channel; involved in efflux of glycerol and xylitol, and in uptake of acetic acid, arsenite, and antimonite; key factor in maintaining redox balance by mediating passive diffusion of glycerol; phosphorylated by Hog1p MAPK under acetate stress; deletion improves xylose fermentation; regulated by Rgc1p and Ask10p, which are regulated by Hog1p phosphorylation under osmotic stress; phosphorylation by Ypk1p required to maintain an open state
YOR129C AFI1 Arf3p polarization-specific docking factor; required for the polarized distribution of the ADP-ribosylation factor, Arf3p; participates in polarity development and maintenance of a normal haploid budding pattern; interacts with Cnm7p
YPL051W ARL3 Arf family GTPase ARL3 ARF-like small GTPase of the RAS superfamily; required for recruitment of Arl1p, a GTPase that regulates membrane traffic, to the Golgi apparatus; NatC-catalyzed N-terminal acetylation regulates Golgi membrane association mediated by interaction with membrane receptor, Sys1p; similar to ADP-ribosylation factor and orthologous to mammalian ARFRP1
YPL111W CAR1 arginase | cargA | LPH15 Arginase, catabolizes arginine to ornithine and urea; expression responds to both induction by arginine and nitrogen catabolite repression; disruption decreases production of carcinogen ethyl carbamate during wine fermentation and also enhances freeze tolerance
YHR047C AAP1 AAP1' | arginine/alanine aminopeptidase Arginine/alanine amino peptidase; overproduction stimulates glycogen accumulation; AAP1 has a paralog, APE2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR465C RMT2 protein-arginine N5-methyltransferase Arginine N5 methyltransferase; methylates ribosomal protein Rpl12 (L12) on Arg67; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YHR018C ARG4 argininosuccinate lyase ARG4 Argininosuccinate lyase; catalyzes the final step in the arginine biosynthesis pathway
YOL058W ARG1 ARG10 | argininosuccinate synthase Arginosuccinate synthetase; catalyzes the formation of L-argininosuccinate from citrulline and L-aspartate in the arginine biosynthesis pathway; potential Cdc28p substrate
YGL017W ATE1 arginyltransferase Arginyl-tRNA-protein transferase; catalyzes post-translational conjugation of arginine to the amino termini of acceptor proteins which are then subject to degradation via the N-end rule pathway
YHL040C ARN1 siderophore transporter ARN family transporter for siderophore-iron chelates; responsible for uptake of iron bound to ferrirubin, ferrirhodin, and related siderophores; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes to the vacuole upon DNA replication stress
YGL202W ARO8 bifunctional 2-aminoadipate transaminase/aromatic-amino-acid:2-oxoglutarate transaminase Aromatic aminotransferase I; expression is regulated by general control of amino acid biosynthesis
YHR137W ARO9 aromatic-amino-acid:2-oxoglutarate transaminase Aromatic aminotransferase II; catalyzes the first step of tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine catabolism
YDR505C PSP1 GIN5 Asn and gln rich protein of unknown function; high-copy suppressor of POL1 (DNA polymerase alpha) and partial suppressor of CDC2 (polymerase delta) and CDC6 (pre-RC loading factor) mutations; overexpression results in growth inhibition; PSP1 has a paralog, YLR177W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML017W PSP2 MRS15 Asn rich cytoplasmic protein that contains RGG motifs; high-copy suppressor of group II intron-splicing defects of a mutation in MRS2 and of a conditional mutation in POL1 (DNA polymerase alpha); possible role in mitochondrial mRNA splicing
YPR145W ASN1 asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) 1 Asparagine synthetase; catalyzes the synthesis of L-asparagine from L-aspartate in the asparagine biosynthetic pathway; ASN1 has a paralog, ASN2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR124W ASN2 asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) 2 Asparagine synthetase; catalyzes the synthesis of L-asparagine from L-aspartate in the asparagine biosynthetic pathway; ASN2 has a paralog, ASN1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER052C HOM3 aspartate kinase | BOR1 | SIL4 | THR3 Aspartate kinase (L-aspartate 4-P-transferase); cytoplasmic enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the common pathway for methionine and threonine biosynthesis; expression regulated by Gcn4p and the general control of amino acid synthesis
YDR158W HOM2 aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase | THR2 Aspartic beta semi-aldehyde dehydrogenase; catalyzes the second step in the common pathway for methionine and threonine biosynthesis; expression regulated by Gcn4p and the general control of amino acid synthesis
YLR120C YPS1 aspartyl protease | YAP3 Aspartic protease; hyperglycosylated member of the yapsin family of proteases, attached to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor; involved in nutrient limitation-induced cleavage of the extracellular inhibitory domain of signaling mucin Msb2p, resulting in activation of the filamentous growth MAPK pathway; involved with other yapsins in the cell wall integrity response; role in KEX2-independent processing of the alpha factor precursor
YLR121C YPS3 aspartyl protease | YPS4 Aspartic protease; member of the yapsin family of proteases involved in cell wall growth and maintenance; attached to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor
YIL015W BAR1 aspartyl protease BAR1 | SST1 Aspartyl protease; secreted into the periplasmic space of mating type a cell; helps cells find mating partners; cleaves and inactivates alpha factor allowing cells to recover from alpha-factor-induced cell cycle arrest
YLL018C DPS1 aspartate--tRNA ligase DPS1 | AspRS Aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, primarily cytoplasmic; homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes the specific aspartylation of tRNA(Asp); class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetase; binding to its own mRNA may confer autoregulation; shares five highly conserved amino acids with human that when mutated cause leukoencephalopathy characterized by hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL)
YJL180C ATP12 ATP synthase complex assembly protein ATP12 Assembly factor for F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; conserved protein; required for assembly of alpha and beta subunits into F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; human homolog ATPAF2 can complement yeast atp12 mutant; mutation of human homolog reduces active ATP synthase levels and is associated with the disorder ATPAF2 deficiency
YLR215C CDC123 cell proliferation protein CDC123 Assembly factor for the eIF2 translation initiation factor complex; regulates translational initiation; conserved residues of this ATP-Grasp protein that bind to ATP-Mg2+ in the pombe ortholog are required for complex assembly in budding yeast; interaction with eIF2 subunit Gcd11p facilitates complex assembly and activity; required for the START transition and timely progression through G2; regulated by nutrient availability; human ortholog complements the yeast mutant
YLR393W ATP10 Assembly factor for the F0 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; mitochondrial inner membrane protein; interacts genetically with ATP6
YGL150C INO80 chromatin-remodeling ATPase INO80 ATPase and nucleosome spacing factor; subunit of complex containing actin and actin-related proteins that has chromatin remodeling activity and 3' to 5' DNA helicase activity in vitro; promotes nucleosome shifts in the 3 prime direction; has a role in modulating stress gene transcription
YPL106C SSE1 adenyl-nucleotide exchange factor SSE1 | LPG3 | MSI3 ATPase component of heat shock protein Hsp90 chaperone complex; serves as nucleotide exchange factor to load ATP onto the SSA class of cytosolic Hsp70s; plays a role in prion propagation and determining prion variants; binds unfolded proteins; member of Hsp110 subclass of HSP70 proteins; deletion results in spindle elongation in S phase; SSE1 has a paralog, SSE2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL126W STH1 NPS1 | RSC chromatin remodeling complex ATPase subunit STH1 ATPase component of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex; required for expression of early meiotic genes; promotes base excision repair in chromatin; essential helicase-related protein homologous to Snf2p
YDL110C TMA17 ADC17 ATPase dedicated chaperone that adapts proteasome assembly to stress; Tma17p is induced upon stress; interacts with Rpt6p to assist its pairing to Rpt3p and early steps in proteasome biogenesis; associates with ribosomes; heterozygous deletion demonstrated increases in chromosome instability in a rad9 deletion background; protein abundance is decreased upon intracellular iron depletion
YAL005C SSA1 Hsp70 family ATPase SSA1 | YG100 ATPase involved in protein folding and NLS-directed nuclear transport; member of HSP70 family; required for ubiquitin-dependent degradation of short-lived proteins; forms chaperone complex with Ydj1p; localized to nucleus, cytoplasm, cell wall; 98% identical to paralog Ssa2p with different functional specificity in propagation of yeast [URE3] prions, vacuolar-mediated degradations of gluconeogenesis enzymes; general targeting factor of Hsp104p to prion fibrils
YBL075C SSA3 Hsp70 family ATPase SSA3 | YG106 ATPase involved in protein folding and the response to stress; plays a role in SRP-dependent cotranslational protein-membrane targeting and translocation; member of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family; localized to the cytoplasm; SSA3 has a paralog, SSA4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL034W KAR2 BIP | GRP78 | Hsp70 family ATPase KAR2 ATPase involved in protein import into the ER; also acts as a chaperone to mediate protein folding in the ER and may play a role in ER export of soluble proteins; regulates the unfolded protein response via interaction with Ire1p
YDR394W RPT3 proteasome regulatory particle base subunit RPT3 | YNT1 | YTA2 ATPase of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome; one of ATPases of the regulatory particle; involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated substrates; substrate of N-acetyltransferase B
YOR259C RPT4 CRL13 | PCS1 | proteasome regulatory particle base subunit RPT4 | SUG2 ATPase of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome; one of six ATPases of the regulatory particle; involved in degradation of ubiquitinated substrates; contributes preferentially to ERAD; required for spindle pole body duplication; mainly nuclear localization
YGL048C RPT6 CIM3 | CRL3 | proteasome regulatory particle base subunit RPT6 | SCB68 | SUG1 ATPase of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome; one of six ATPases of the regulatory particle; involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated substrates; bound by ubiquitin-protein ligases Ubr1p and Ufd4p; localized mainly to the nucleus throughout the cell cycle; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR117W RPT5 proteasome regulatory particle base subunit RPT5 | YTA1 ATPase of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome; one of six ATPases of the regulatory particle; involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated substrates; recruited to the GAL1-10 promoter region upon induction of transcription; similar to human TBP1
YKL145W RPT1 CIM5 | proteasome regulatory particle base subunit RPT1 | YTA3 ATPase of the 19S regulatory particle of the 26S proteasome; one of six ATPases of the regulatory particle; involved in the degradation of ubiquitinated substrates; required for optimal CDC20 transcription; interacts with Rpn12p and Ubr1p; mutant has aneuploidy tolerance
YER036C ARB1 ATP-binding cassette family ATPase ARB1 ATPase of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family; involved in 40S and 60S ribosome biogenesis, has similarity to Gcn20p; shuttles from nucleus to cytoplasm, physically interacts with Tif6p, Lsg1p; human homolog ABCF2 can complement yeast ARB1 mutant
YLR397C AFG2 AAA family ATPase AFG2 | DRG1 ATPase of the CDC48/PAS1/SEC18 (AAA) family, forms a hexameric complex; is essential for pre-60S maturation and release of several preribosome maturation factors; releases Rlp24p from purified pre-60S particles in vitro; target of the ribosomal biosynthesis inhibitor diazaborine; may be involved in degradation of aberrant mRNAs
YHR169W DBP8 ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP8 ATPase, putative RNA helicase of the DEAD-box family; component of 90S preribosome complex involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of 40S small ribosomal subunit; ATPase activity stimulated by association with Esf2p
YGL119W COQ8 ABC1 | protein kinase COQ8 ATPase required for ubiquinone biosynthesis and respiratory growth; maintains levels of CoQ biosynthetic proteins; binds to CoQ biosynthesis intermediates; UbiB protein kinase-like family member that lacks canonical protein kinase activity; similar to prokaryotic proteins involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis; human homolog ADCK3 complements a coq8 null, is associated with CoQ and respiratory-chain deficiencies, and is mutated in autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia type 2
YBR245C ISW1 chromatin-remodeling ATPase ISW1 | SGN2 ATPase subunit of imitation-switch (ISWI) class chromatin remodelers; with Ioc3p forms Isw1a complex involved in repression of transcription initiation; with Ioc2p and Ioc4p forms Isw1b complex involved in regulation of transcription elongation; Isw1b recruited to ORFs by H3K36 methylation and acts with Chd1p to prevent trans-histone exchange over coding regions; Isw1p import into nucleus depends on C-terminal bipartite nuclear targeting signal KRIR X19 KKAK
YPL226W NEW1 ATP binding cassette protein; cosediments with polysomes and is required for biogenesis of the small ribosomal subunit; Asn/Gln-rich rich region supports [NU+] prion formation and susceptibility to [PSI+] prion induction
YGR205W TDA10 putative ATP-dependent kinase ATP-binding protein of unknown function; crystal structure resembles that of E.coli pantothenate kinase and other small kinases; null mutant is sensitive to expression of the top1-T722A allele
YNL082W PMS1 ATP-binding mismatch repair protein ATP-binding protein required for mismatch repair; required for both mitosis and meiosis; functions as a heterodimer with Mlh1p; binds double- and single-stranded DNA via its N-terminal domain, similar to E. coli MutL
YLR396C VPS33 CLS14 | MET27 | PEP14 | SLP1 | tethering complex ATP-binding subunit VPS33 | VAM5 | VPL25 | VPT33 ATP-binding protein that is a subunit of the HOPS and CORVET complexes; essential for protein sorting, vesicle docking, and fusion at the vacuole; binds to SNARE domains
YER168C CCA1 TNT1 | tRNA adenylyltransferase ATP (CTP):tRNA-specific tRNA nucleotidyltransferase; different forms targeted to the nucleus, cytosol, and mitochondrion are generated via the use of multiple transcriptional and translational start sites; human homolog TRNT1 complements yeast null mutant
YJL050W MTR4 ATP-dependent RNA helicase MTR4 | DOB1 ATP-dependent 3'-5' RNA helicase of the DExD/H family; involved in nuclear RNA processing and degradation both as a component of TRAMP complex and in TRAMP-independent processes; TRAMP unwinds RNA duplexes, with Mtr4p unwinding activity stimulated by Pap2p/Air2p but not dependent on ongoing polyadenylation; contains an arch domain, with two coiled-coil arms/stalks and a globular fist/KOW domain, which has RNA binding activity and is required for 5.8S rRNA processing
YLR430W SEN1 CIK3 | NRD2 | putative DNA/RNA helicase SEN1 ATP-dependent 5' to 3' RNA/DNA and DNA helicase; subunit of the exosome-associated Nrd1p complex that mediates 3' end formation of snRNAs, snoRNAs, CUTs and some mRNAs; helicase-independent role in transcription-coupled repair; coordinates replication with transcription, associating with moving forks and preventing errors that occur when forks encounter transcribed regions; homolog of Senataxin, implicated in Ataxia-Oculomotor Apraxia 2 and a dominant form of juvenile ALS
YDR190C RVB1 RuvB family ATP-dependent DNA helicase pontin | TIH1 | TIP49 | TIP49A ATP-dependent DNA helicase, also known as pontin; member of the AAA+ and RuvB-like protein families; similar to Rvb2p; conserved component of multiple complexes including the INO80 complex, the Swr1 complex, and the R2TP complex (Rvb1-Rvb2-Tah1-Pih1); involved in multiple processes such as chromatin remodeling, box C/D snoRNP assembly, and RNA polymerase II assembly
YOR304W ISW2 DNA translocase ATP-dependent DNA translocase involved in chromatin remodeling; ATPase component that, with Itc1p, forms a complex required for repression of a-specific genes, INO1, and early meiotic genes during mitotic growth; the Isw2 complex exhibits basal levels of chromatin binding throughout the genome as well as target-specific chromatin interactions; targeted by Ume6p- and Sua7p-dependent DNA looping to many loci genome-wide
YBL022C PIM1 ATP-dependent Lon protease PIM1 | LON1 ATP-dependent Lon protease; involved in degradation of misfolded proteins in mitochondria; required for biogenesis and maintenance of mitochondria
YPL029W SUV3 ATP-dependent RNA helicase SUV3 | LPB2 ATP-dependent RNA helicase; component of the mitochondrial degradosome along with the RNase Dss1p; the degradosome associates with the ribosome and mediates RNA turnover; also required during splicing of the COX1 AI5_beta intron; expression of a processed form of human homolog SUPV3L1 carrying an N-terminal deletion of 46 amino acids rescues yeast suv3 null mutant
YNL112W DBP2 DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP2 ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DEAD-box protein family; has strong preference for dsRNA; interacts with YRA1; required for assembly of Yra1p, Nab2p and Mex67p onto mRNA and formation of nuclear mRNP; involved in mRNA decay and rRNA processing; may be involved in suppression of transcription from cryptic initiation sites
YMR080C NAM7 ATP-dependent RNA helicase NAM7 | IFS2 | MOF4 | SUP113 | SUT2 | UPF1 ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the SFI superfamily; involved in nonsense mediated mRNA decay; required for efficient translation termination at nonsense codons and targeting of NMD substrates to P-bodies; binds to the small ribosomal subunit via an interaction with Rps26; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YJR049C UTR1 NADH/NAD(+) kinase ATP-NADH kinase; phosphorylates both NAD and NADH; active as a hexamer; enhances the activity of ferric reductase (Fre1p); UTR1 has a paralog, YEF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR010W MET3 sulfate adenylyltransferase ATP sulfurylase; catalyzes the primary step of intracellular sulfate activation, essential for assimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide, involved in methionine metabolism; human homolog PAPSS2 complements yeast null mutant
YPL209C IPL1 aurora kinase | PAC15 Aurora kinase of chromosomal passenger complex; mediates release of mono-oriented kinetochores from microtubules in meiosis I, and kinetochore release from SPB clusters at meiotic exit; helps maintain condensed chromosomes during anaphase; required for SPB cohesion and prevention of multipolar spindle formation; promotes telomerase release at G2/M; Iocalizes to nuclear foci that diffuse upon DNA replication stress; required for inhibition of karyopherin Pse1p upon SAC arrest
YOR152C ATG40 Autophagy receptor with a role in endoplasmic reticulum degradation; involved specifically in autophagy of cortical and cytoplasmic ER in response to nitrogen starvation or rapamycin treatment; localizes to the cortical and cytoplasmic ER; similar to human FAM134B, which is also involved in ER autophagy and is associated with sensory neuropathy
YDR022C ATG31 CIS1 Autophagy-specific protein required for autophagosome formation; forms a complex with Atg17p and Atg29p that localizes other proteins to the pre-autophagosomal structure; constitutively phosphorylated, and phosphorylation of residue S174 is required for function; high-copy suppressor of CIK1 deletion
YPL166W ATG29 Autophagy-specific protein; required for recruiting other ATG proteins to the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS); interacts with Atg17p and localizas to the PAS in a manner interdependent with Atg17p and Cis1p; not conserved; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YOR363C PIP2 OAF2 | oleate-activated transcription factor PIP2 Autoregulatory, oleate-activated transcription factor; subunit of a heterodimeric complex with Oaf1p, which binds to oleate-response elements (ORE) in the promoter of genes involved in beta-oxidation of fatty acids, peroxisome organization and biogenesis, activating transcription in the presence of oleate; PIP2 has a paralog, OAF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR320C SWA2 AUX1 | BUD24 Auxilin-like protein involved in vesicular transport; clathrin-binding protein required for uncoating of clathrin-coated vesicles
YIL041W GVP36 BAR domain protein that localizes to early and late Golgi vesicles; required for adaptation to varying nutrient concentrations, fluid-phase endocytosis, polarization of the actin cytoskeleton, and vacuole biogenesis
YJR060W CBF1 CEP1 | CP1 | CPF1 | GFII Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein; forms homodimer to bind E-box consensus sequence CACGTG present at MET gene promoters and centromere DNA element I (CDEI); affects nucleosome positioning at this motif; associates with other transcription factors such as Met4p and Isw1p to mediate transcriptional activation or repression; associates with kinetochore proteins, required for chromosome segregation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YFR034C PHO4 phoD | phosphate-sensing transcription factor PHO4 Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor of the myc-family; activates transcription cooperatively with Pho2p in response to phosphate limitation; binding to 'CACGTG' motif is regulated by chromatin restriction, competitive binding of Cbf1p to the same DNA binding motif and cooperation with Pho2p; function is regulated by phosphorylation at multiple sites and by phosphate availability
YIR018W YAP5 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) iron-sensing transcription factor; involved in diauxic shift; YAP5 has a paralog, YAP7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHL009C YAP3 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor
YFL031W HAC1 ERN4 | IRE15 | transcription factor HAC1 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor (ATF/CREB1 homolog); regulates the unfolded protein response, via UPRE binding, and membrane biogenesis; ER stress-induced splicing pathway facilitates efficient Hac1p synthesis; two functional forms of Hac1p are produced; translation initiation is repressed under non-stress conditions; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YIL036W CST6 ACA2 | SHF1 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor from ATF/CREB family involved in stress-responsive regulatory network; mediates transcriptional activation of NCE103 in response to low CO2 levels; proposed to be a regulator of oleate responsive genes; involved in utilization of non-optimal carbon sources and chromosome stability; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; CST6 has a paralog, ACA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR028C CIN5 HAL6 | YAP4 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor of the yAP-1 family; physically interacts with the Tup1-Cyc8 complex and recruits Tup1p to its targets; mediates pleiotropic drug resistance and salt tolerance; nuclearly localized under oxidative stress and sequestered in the cytoplasm by Lot6p under reducing conditions; CIN5 has a paralog, YAP6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML007W YAP1 DNA-binding transcription factor YAP1 | PAR1 | PDR4 | SNQ3 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor; required for oxidative stress tolerance; activated by H2O2 through the multistep formation of disulfide bonds and transit from the cytoplasm to the nucleus; Yap1p is degraded in the nucleus after the oxidative stress has passed; mediates resistance to cadmium; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; YAP1 has a paralog, CAD1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL167C SKO1 ACR1 Basic leucine zipper transcription factor of the ATF/CREB family; forms a complex with Tup1p and Cyc8p to both activate and repress transcription; cytosolic and nuclear protein involved in osmotic and oxidative stress responses
YOR077W RTS2 YOR29-28 Basic zinc-finger protein; similar to human and mouse Kin17 proteins which are chromatin-associated proteins involved in UV response and DNA replication
YMR307W GAS1 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase GAS1 | CWH52 | GGP1 Beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase; required for cell wall assembly and also has a role in transcriptional silencing; localizes to cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor; also found at nuclear periphery; genetic interactions with histone H3 lysine acetyltransferases GCN5 and SAS3 indicate previously unsuspected functions for Gas1 in DNA damage response and cell cycle regulation
YJL001W PRE3 CRL21 | proteasome core particle subunit beta 1 Beta 1 subunit of the 20S proteasome; responsible for cleavage after acidic residues in peptides
YOR157C PUP1 proteasome core particle subunit beta 2 Beta 2 subunit of the 20S proteasome; endopeptidase with trypsin-like activity that cleaves after basic residues; synthesized as a proprotein before being proteolytically processed for assembly into 20S particle; human homolog is subunit Z
YGR261C APL6 YKS5 Beta3-like subunit of the yeast AP-3 complex; functions in transport of alkaline phosphatase to the vacuole via the alternate pathway; exists in both cytosolic and peripherally associated membrane-bound pools
YPR103W PRE2 DOA3 | PRG1 | proteasome core particle subunit beta 5 | SRR2 Beta 5 subunit of the 20S proteasome; responsible for the chymotryptic activity of the proteasome
YFR050C PRE4 proteasome core particle subunit beta 7 Beta 7 subunit of the 20S proteasome
YJR005W APL1 YAP80 Beta-adaptin; large subunit of the clathrin associated protein complex (AP-2); involved in vesicle mediated transport; similar to mammalian beta-chain of the clathrin associated protein complex
YKL135C APL2 Beta-adaptin subunit of the clathrin-associated protein (AP-1) complex; binds clathrin; involved in clathrin-dependent Golgi protein sorting; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR039W CKB2 casein kinase 2 regulatory subunit CKB2 Beta' regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2); a Ser/Thr protein kinase with roles in cell growth and proliferation; CK2, comprised of CKA1, CKA2, CKB1 and CKB2, has many substrates including transcription factors and all RNA polymerase
YGL019W CKB1 casein kinase 2 regulatory subunit CKB1 Beta regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2); a Ser/Thr protein kinase with roles in cell growth and proliferation; CK2, comprised of CKA1, CKA2, CKB1 and CKB2, has many substrates including transcription factors and all RNA polymerases
YLR060W FRS1 phenylalanine--tRNA ligase subunit beta Beta subunit of cytoplasmic phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase; forms a tetramer with Frs2p to generate active enzyme; able to hydrolyze mis-aminoacylated tRNA-Phe, which could contribute to translational quality control
YKL182W FAS1 tetrafunctional fatty acid synthase subunit FAS1 Beta subunit of fatty acid synthetase; complex catalyzes the synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids; contains acetyltransacylase, dehydratase, enoyl reductase, malonyl transacylase, and palmitoyl transacylase activities
YGL155W CDC43 CAL1 | protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I subunit CDC43 Beta subunit of geranylgeranyltransferase type I; subunit of the Ram2p-Cdc43p heterodimer that catalyzes the geranylgeranylation of the cysteine residue in proteins containing a C-terminal CaaX sequence ending in Leu or Phe; has substrates important for morphogenesis
YMR205C PFK2 6-phosphofructokinase subunit beta Beta subunit of heterooctameric phosphofructokinase; involved in glycolysis; indispensable for anaerobic growth; activated by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate and AMP; mutation inhibits glucose induction of cell cycle-related genes
YGR244C LSC2 succinate--CoA ligase (GDP-forming) subunit beta Beta subunit of succinyl-CoA ligase; succinyl-CoA ligase is a mitochondrial enzyme of the TCA cycle that catalyzes the nucleotide-dependent conversion of succinyl-CoA to succinate
YDL090C RAM1 DPR1 | FUS8 | protein farnesyltransferase | SCG2 | SGP2 | STE16 Beta subunit of the CAAX farnesyltransferase (FTase); this complex prenylates the a-factor mating pheromone and Ras proteins; required for the membrane localization of Ras proteins and a-factor; homolog of the mammalian FTase beta subunit
YIL034C CAP2 F-actin-capping protein subunit beta Beta subunit of the capping protein heterodimer (Cap1p and Cap2p); capping protein (CP) binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments preventing further polymerization; localized predominantly to cortical actin patches; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from bud neck to plasma membrane upon DNA replication stress
YJR121W ATP2 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit beta Beta subunit of the F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; which is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; F1 translationally regulates ATP6 and ATP8 expression to achieve a balanced output of ATP synthase genes encoded in nucleus and mitochondria; phosphorylated
YLR163C MAS1 MIF1 Beta subunit of the mitochondrial processing protease (MPP); essential processing enzyme that cleaves the N-terminal targeting sequences from mitochondrially imported proteins
YEL002C WBP1 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycotransferase Beta subunit of the oligosaccharyl transferase glycoprotein complex; required for N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum; human homolog DDOST can complement yeast growth defect during down-regulation of yeast gene
YLR291C GCD7 translation initiation factor eIF2B subunit beta Beta subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2B; the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2; activity subsequently regulated by phosphorylated eIF2; first identified as a negative regulator of GCN4 expression; human homolog EIF2B2 can complement yeast mutant, allows growth down-regulation of yeast gene
YBL103C RTG3 bHLH/Zip transcription factor for retrograde (RTG) and TOR pathways; forms a complex with another bHLH/Zip protein, Rtg1p, to activate the pathways; target of Hog1p
YDL168W SFA1 ADH5 | bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase/S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase Bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase; formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity is glutathione-dependent; functions in formaldehyde detoxification and formation of long chain and complex alcohols, regulated by Hog1p-Sko1p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YJL130C URA2 bifunctional carbamoylphosphate synthetase/aspartate transcarbamylase Bifunctional carbamoylphosphate synthetase/aspartate transcarbamylase; catalyzes the first two enzymatic steps in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines; both activities are subject to feedback inhibition by UTP
YGL148W ARO2 bifunctional chorismate synthase/riboflavin reductase [NAD(P)H] ARO2 Bifunctional chorismate synthase and flavin reductase; catalyzes the conversion of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) to form chorismate, which is a precursor to aromatic amino acids; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOL066C RIB2 bifunctional DRAP deaminase/tRNA pseudouridine synthase RIB2 | PUS8 Bifunctional DRAP deaminase tRNA:pseudouridine synthase; the deaminase catalyzes the third step in riboflavin biosynthesis and the synthase catalyzes formation of pseudouridine at position 32 in cytoplasmic tRNAs; RIB2 has a paralog, PUS9, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR081C TGL5 STC2 Bifunctional triacylglycerol lipase and LPA acyltransferase; lipid particle-localized triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase involved in triacylglycerol mobilization; catalyzes acylation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA); potential Cdc28p substrate; TGL5 has a paralog, TGL4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR313C TGL3 bifunctional triglyceride lipase/lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase Bifunctional triacylglycerol lipase and LPE acyltransferase; major lipid particle-localized triacylglycerol (TAG) lipase; catalyzes acylation of lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), a function which is essential for sporulation; protein level and stability of Tgl3p are markedly reduced in the absence of lipid droplets; required with Tgl4p for timely bud formation
YPR147C Bifunctional triacylglycerol lipase and short chain ester hydrolase; null mutant results in the accumulation of both triacylglycerol and fatty acids derived from neutral lipids and phospholipids as well as an increase in the quantity of lipid droplets; contains an alpha/beta hydrolase domain with a conserved GXSXG lipase motif; localizes to lipid droplets; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YDL141W BPL1 ACC2 | biotin--[acetyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase BPL1 Biotin:apoprotein ligase; covalently modifies proteins with the addition of biotin, required for acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc1p) holoenzyme formation; comparative analysis suggests that a mitochondrially targeted form may result from translation starting at a non-canonical codon upstream of the annotated start codon; human homolog HLCS can complement yeast BPL1 mutant
YGR286C BIO2 biotin synthase Biotin synthase; catalyzes the conversion of dethiobiotin to biotin, which is the last step of the biotin biosynthesis pathway; complements E. coli bioB mutant
YOL064C MET22 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase | HAL2 Bisphosphate-3'-nucleotidase; involved in salt tolerance and methionine biogenesis; dephosphorylates 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate and 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate, intermediates of the sulfate assimilation pathway; human homolog BPNT1 complements yeast null mutant
YNL275W BOR1 Boron efflux transporter of the plasma membrane; binds HCO3-, I-, Br-, NO3- and Cl-; has similarity to the characterized boron efflux transporter A. thaliana BOR1
YML013W UBX2 SEL1 Bridging factor involved in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD); bridges the cytosolic Cdc48p-Npl1p-Ufd1p ATPase complex and the membrane associated Ssm4p and Hrd1p ubiquitin ligase complexes; contains a UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X) domain and a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain; redistributes from the ER to lipid droplets during the diauxic shift and stationary phase; required for the maintenance of lipid homeostasis
YOR175C ALE1 LCA1 | LPT1 | lysophospholipid acyltransferase | SLC4 Broad-specificity lysophospholipid acyltransferase; part of MBOAT family of membrane-bound O-acyltransferases; key component of Lands cycle; may have role in fatty acid exchange at sn-2 position of mature glycerophospholipids
YBL035C POL12 DNA-directed DNA polymerase alpha subunit POL12 B subunit of DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex; required for initiation of DNA replication during mitotic and premeiotic DNA synthesis; also functions in telomere capping and length regulation
YLR210W CLB4 B-type cyclin CLB4 B-type cyclin involved in cell cycle progression; activates Cdc28p to promote the G2/M transition; may be involved in DNA replication and spindle assembly; accumulates during S phase and G2, then targeted for ubiquitin-mediated degradation; CLB4 has a paralog, CLB3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL155W CLB3 B-type cyclin CLB3 B-type cyclin involved in cell cycle progression; activates Cdc28p to promote the G2/M transition; may be involved in DNA replication and spindle assembly; accumulates during S phase and G2, then targeted for ubiquitin-mediated degradation; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; CLB3 has a paralog, CLB4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR108W CLB1 B-type cyclin CLB1 | SCB1 B-type cyclin involved in cell cycle progression; activates Cdc28p to promote the transition from G2 to M phase; accumulates during G2 and M, then targeted via a destruction box motif for ubiquitin-mediated degradation by the proteasome; CLB1 has a paralog, CLB2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR119W CLB2 B-type cyclin CLB2 B-type cyclin involved in cell cycle progression; activates Cdc28p to promote the transition from G2 to M phase; accumulates during G2 and M, then targeted via a destruction box motif for ubiquitin-mediated degradation by the proteasome; CLB2 has a paralog, CLB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR014W RTS1 protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit RTS1 | SCS1 B-type regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A); Rts1p and Cdc55p are alternative regulatory subunits for PP2A catalytic subunits, Pph21p and Pph22p; PP2A-Rts1p protects cohesin when recruited by Sgo1p to the pericentromere; highly enriched at centromeres in the absence of Cdc55p; required for maintenance of septin ring organization during cytokinesis, for ring disassembly in G1 and for dephosphorylation of septin, Shs1p; homolog of the mammalian B' subunit of PP2A
YIR017C MET28 bZIP transcriptional activator in the Cbf1p-Met4p-Met28p complex; participates in the regulation of sulfur metabolism
YEL009C GCN4 AAS101 | AAS3 | amino acid starvation-responsive transcription factor GCN4 | ARG9 bZIP transcriptional activator of amino acid biosynthetic genes; activator responds to amino acid starvation; expression is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and translational levels
YNL280C ERG24 delta(14)-sterol reductase C-14 sterol reductase; acts in ergosterol biosynthesis; mutants accumulate the abnormal sterol ignosterol (ergosta-8,14 dienol), and are viable under anaerobic growth conditions but inviable on rich medium under aerobic conditions
YMR015C ERG5 C-22 sterol desaturase | CYP61 C-22 sterol desaturase; a cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the C-22(23) double bond in the sterol side chain in ergosterol biosynthesis; may be a target of azole antifungal drugs
YGL012W ERG4 delta(24(24(1)))-sterol reductase C-24(28) sterol reductase; catalyzes the final step in ergosterol biosynthesis; mutants are viable, but lack ergosterol
YLR074C BUD20 C2H2-type zinc finger protein required for ribosome assembly; shuttling factor which associates with pre-60S particles in the nucleus, accompanying them to the cytoplasm; cytoplasmic dissociation of Bud20p requires Drg1p; N-terminus harbors a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES); cytoplasmic Bud20p is reimported by Kap123-dependent pathway; involved in bud-site selection; diploid mutants display a random budding pattern; similar to human ZNF593
YMR026C PEX12 PAS11 | ubiquitin-protein ligase peroxin 12 C3HC4-type RING-finger peroxin and E3 ubiquitin ligase; required for peroxisome biogenesis and peroxisomal matrix protein import; forms translocation subcomplex with Pex2p and Pex10p; mutations in human homolog cause peroxisomal disorder
YGL001C ERG26 sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) C-3 sterol dehydrogenase; catalyzes the second of three steps required to remove two C-4 methyl groups from an intermediate in ergosterol biosynthesis; human homolog NSDHL implicated in CK syndrome, and can complement yeast null mutant; molecular target of natural product and antifungal compound FR171456
YGR060W ERG25 methylsterol monooxygenase C-4 methyl sterol oxidase; catalyzes the first of three steps required to remove two C-4 methyl groups from an intermediate in ergosterol biosynthesis; mutants accumulate the sterol intermediate 4,4-dimethylzymosterol; human MSMO1 functionally complements the growth defect caused by repression of ERG25 expression
YLR056W ERG3 C-5 sterol desaturase | PSO6 | SYR1 C-5 sterol desaturase; glycoprotein that catalyzes the introduction of a C-5(6) double bond into episterol, a precursor in ergosterol biosynthesis; transcriptionally down-regulated when ergosterol is in excess; mutants are viable, but cannot grow on non-fermentable carbon sources; substrate of HRD ubiquitin ligase; mutation is functionally complemented by human SC5D
YMR202W ERG2 C-8 sterol isomerase ERG2 | END11 C-8 sterol isomerase; catalyzes isomerization of delta-8 double bond to delta-7 position at an intermediate step in ergosterol biosynthesis; transcriptionally down-regulated when ergosterol is in excess; mutation is functionally complemented by human EBP
YOR197W MCA1 Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease MCA1 | YCA1 Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease; may cleave specific substrates during the stress response; regulates apoptosis upon H2O2 treatment; required for clearance of insoluble protein aggregates during normal growth; implicated in cell cycle dynamics and lifespan extension; undergoes autocatalytic processing; similar to mammalian metacaspases, but exists as a monomer due to an extra pair of anti-parallel beta-strands that block potential dimerization
YML006C GIS4 CAAX box containing protein of unknown function; proposed to be involved in the RAS/cAMP signaling pathway
YLR433C CNA1 calcineurin catalytic subunit A | CMP1 Calcineurin A; one isoform (the other is Cmp2p) of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin, a Ca++/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase which regulates Crz1p (a stress-response transcription factor), the other calcineurin subunit is CNB1; regulates the function of Aly1p alpha-arrestin; CNA1 has a paralog, CMP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML057W CMP2 calcineurin catalytic subunit A | CNA2 Calcineurin A; one isoform (the other is Cna1p) of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin, a Ca++/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase which regulates Crz1p (a stress-response transcription factor), the other calcineurin subunit is CNB1; regulates the function of Aly1p alpha-arrestin; CMP2 has a paralog, CNA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL190W CNB1 calcineurin regulatory subunit B | CRV1 | YCN2 Calcineurin B; regulatory subunit of calcineurin, a Ca++/calmodulin-regulated type 2B protein phosphatase which regulates Crz1p (stress-response transcription factor); other calcineurin subunit encoded by CNA1 and/or CMP1; regulates function of Aly1p alpha-arrestin; myristoylation by Nmt1p reduces calcineurin activity in response to submaximal Ca signals, is needed to prevent constitutive phosphatase activity; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR187W GDT1 putative ribosome biosynthesis protein GDT1 Calcium and manganese transporter with higher affinity for Ca2+; involved in Ca2+ and Mn2+ homeostasis; localizes to the cis- and medial-Golgi apparatus; GFP-fusion localizes to the vacuole; required for the Mn2+-dependent function of glycosylation enzymes; TMEM165, a human ortholog linked to Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation, functionally complements the null allele; expression pattern and physical interactions suggest a possible role in ribosome biogenesis; expression regulated by Gcr1p
YDR388W RVS167 amphiphysin Calmodulin-binding actin-associated protein; roles in endocytic membrane tabulation and constriction, and exocytosis; N-BAR domain protein that interacts with Rvs161p to regulate actin cytoskeleton, endocytosis, and viability following starvation or osmotic stress; recruited to bud tips by Gyl1p and Gyp5p during polarized growth; homolog of mammalian amphiphysin
YBR109C CMD1 calmodulin | CaM Calmodulin; Ca2+ binding protein that regulates Ca2+ independent processes (mitosis, bud growth, actin organization, endocytosis, etc.) and Ca2+ dependent processes (stress-activated pathways), targets include Nuf1p, Myo2p and calcineurin; binds to the Hog1p MAPK in response to hyperosmotic stress; potentiates membrane tubulation and constriction mediated by the Rvs161p-Rvs167p complex; human CALM1 or CALM2 functionally complement repression induced inviability
YOL016C CMK2 calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CMK2 Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; may play a role in stress response, many CA++/calmodulan dependent phosphorylation substrates demonstrated in vitro, amino acid sequence similar to mammalian Cam Kinase II; CMK2 has a paralog, CMK1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFR014C CMK1 calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CMK1 Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; may play a role in stress response, many Ca++/calmodulin dependent phosphorylation substrates demonstrated in vitro, amino acid sequence similar to mammalian Cam Kinase II; CMK1 has a paralog, CMK2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YAL058W CNE1 calnexin | FUN48 Calnexin; integral membrane ER chaperone involved in folding and quality control of glycoproteins; chaperone activity is inhibited by Mpd1p, with which Cne1p interacts; 24% identical to mammalian calnexin; Ca+ binding not yet shown in yeast
YJL164C TPK1 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit TPK1 | PKA1 | SRA3 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit; promotes vegetative growth in response to nutrients via the Ras-cAMP signaling pathway; inhibited by regulatory subunit Bcy1p in the absence of cAMP; phosphorylates and inhibits Whi3p to promote G1/S phase passage; partially redundant with Tpk2p and Tpk3p; phosphorylates pre-Tom40p, which impairs its import into mitochondria under non-respiratory conditions; TPK1 has a paralog, TPK3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL166C TPK3 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit TPK3 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit; promotes vegetative growth in response to nutrients via the Ras-cAMP signaling pathway; partially redundant with Tpk1p and Tpk2p; localizes to P-bodies during stationary phase; TPK3 has a paralog, TPK1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL203W TPK2 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit TPK2 | PKA2 | PKA3 | YKR1 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit; promotes vegetative growth in response to nutrients via the Ras-cAMP signaling pathway; partially redundant with Tpk1p and Tpk3p; localizes to P-bodies during stationary phase; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YNL138W SRV2 adenylate cyclase-binding protein | CAP CAP (cyclase-associated protein); N-terminus binds adenylate cyclase and facilitates activation by RAS; N-terminus forms novel hexameric star-shaped shuriken structures that directly catalyze cofilin-mediated severing of actin filaments; C-terminus binds and recycles cofilin bound, ADP-actin monomers, facilitating regulation of actin dynamics and cell morphogenesis; N- and C-termini can function as physically separate proteins; mCAP1 is the mouse homolog
YNL036W NCE103 carbonate dehydratase NCE103 | NCE3 Carbonic anhydrase; metalloenzyme that catalyzes CO2 hydration to bicarbonate, which is an important metabolic substrate, and protons; not expressed under conditions of high CO2, such as inside a growing colony, but transcription is induced in response to low CO2 levels, such as on the colony surface in ambient air; poorly transcribed under aerobic conditions and at an undetectable level under anaerobic conditions; abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR216W ADR1 DNA-binding transcription factor ADR1 Carbon source-responsive zinc-finger transcription factor; required for transcription of the glucose-repressed gene ADH2, of peroxisomal protein genes, and of genes required for ethanol, glycerol, and fatty acid utilization
YMR277W FCP1 protein serine/threonine phosphatase Carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase; essential for dephosphorylation of the repeated C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II large subunit (Rpo21p); relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YDL142C CRD1 cardiolipin synthase | CLS1 Cardiolipin synthase; produces cardiolipin, which is a phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane that is required for normal mitochondrial membrane potential and function and for correct integration of membrane-multispanning proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane; required to maintain tubular mitochondrial morphology and functions in mitochondrial fusion; also required for normal vacuolar ion homeostasis
YOL062C APM4 AMP1 Cargo-binding mu subunit of AP-2; AP-2 is a heterotetrameric endocytic cargo-binding adaptor that facilitates uptake of membrane proteins during clathrin-mediated endocytosis; Apm4p is required for AP-2 function and localization, and binds cell wall stress receptor Mid2p; AP-2 is required for cell polarity responses to pheromone, nutritional status and cell wall damage in S. cerevisiae, and for hyphal growth in C. albicans; AP-2 complex is conserved in mammals
YGR198W YPP1 Cargo-transport protein involved in endocytosis; interacts with phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase Stt4p; is required, along with Efr3p, for the assembly and recruitment of multiple copies of the kinase into phosphoinositide kinase (PIK) patches at the plasma membrane; positively regulates Stt4p; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YGR198W is an essential gene
YER024W YAT2 carnitine O-acetyltransferase YAT2 Carnitine acetyltransferase; has similarity to Yat1p, which is a carnitine acetyltransferase associated with the mitochondrial outer membrane
YCL064C CHA1 L-serine/L-threonine ammonia-lyase CHA1 Catabolic L-serine (L-threonine) deaminase; catalyzes the degradation of both L-serine and L-threonine; required to use serine or threonine as the sole nitrogen source, transcriptionally induced by serine and threonine
YDR111C ALT2 alanine transaminase ALT2 Catalytically inactive alanine transaminase; expression is repressed in the presence of alanine and repression is mediated by Nrg1p; ALT2 has a paralog, ALT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL139W CTK1 cyclin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase CTK1 Catalytic (alpha) subunit of C-terminal domain kinase I (CTDK-I); phosphorylates both RNA pol II subunit Rpo21p to affect transcription and pre-mRNA 3' end processing, and ribosomal protein Rps2p to increase translational fidelity; required for H3K36 trimethylation but not dimethylation by Set2p; suggested stimulatory role in 80S formation during translation initiation; similar to the Drosophila dCDK12 and human CDK12 and probably CDK13
YGL047W ALG13 N-acetylglucosaminyldiphosphodolichol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase catalytic subunit ALG13 Catalytic component of UDP-GlcNAc transferase; required for the second step of dolichyl-linked oligosaccharide synthesis; anchored to the ER membrane via interaction with Alg14p; similar to bacterial and human glycosyltransferases; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; both human homologs ALG13 and ALG14 are required to complement yeast alg13 mutant
YDL008W APC11 anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 Catalytic core subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; contains a RING-H2 domain that is required for activity
YDR211W GCD6 translation initiation factor eIF2B catalytic subunit epsilon Catalytic epsilon subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2B; eIF2B is the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2; activity subsequently regulated by phosphorylated eIF2; first identified as a negative regulator of GCN4 expression; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YLR342W FKS1 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase | CND1 | CWH53 | ETG1 | GSC1 | PBR1 Catalytic subunit of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase; functionally redundant with alternate catalytic subunit Gsc2p; binds to regulatory subunit Rho1p; involved in cell wall synthesis and maintenance; localizes to sites of cell wall remodeling; FKS1 has a paralog, GSC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR252W GCN5 AAS104 | ADA4 | histone acetyltransferase GCN5 | KAT2 | SWI9 Catalytic subunit of ADA and SAGA histone acetyltransferase complexes; modifies N-terminal lysines on histones H2B and H3; acetylates Rsc4p, a subunit of the RSC chromatin-remodeling complex, altering replication stress tolerance; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; mutant displays reduced transcription elongation in the G-less-based run-on (GLRO) assay; greater involvement in repression of RNAPII-dependent transcription than in activation
YOL124C TRM11 tRNA (guanine-N2-)-methyltransferase Catalytic subunit of adoMet-dependent tRNA methyltransferase complex; required for the methylation of the guanosine nucleotide at position 10 (m2G10) in tRNAs; contains a THUMP domain and a methyltransferase domain; another complex member is Trm112p
YDL201W TRM8 tRNA (guanine46-N7)-methyltransferase Catalytic subunit of a tRNA methyltransferase complex; Trm8p and Trm82p comprise an enzyme that catalyzes a methyl-transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to the N(7) atom of guanine at position 46 in tRNA; Trm8 lacks catalytic activity if not bound to Trm82p
YNL118C DCP2 decapping enzyme complex catalytic subunit | PSU1 Catalytic subunit of Dcp1p-Dcp2p decapping enzyme complex; removes 5' cap structure from mRNAs prior to their degradation; also enters nucleus and positively regulates transcription initiation; nudix hydrolase family member; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress; human homolog DCP2 complements yeast dcp2 thermosensitive mutant
YDL102W POL3 CDC2 | DNA-directed DNA polymerase delta POL3 | HPR6 | TEX1 Catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta; required for chromosomal DNA replication during mitosis and meiosis, intragenic recombination, repair of double strand DNA breaks, and DNA replication during nucleotide excision repair (NER)
YNL262W POL2 DNA polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit | DUN2 Catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase (II) epsilon; a chromosomal DNA replication polymerase that exhibits processivity and proofreading exonuclease activity; participates in leading-strand synthesis during DNA replication; also involved in DNA synthesis during DNA repair; interacts extensively with Mrc1p
YPR024W YME1 i-AAA protease YME1 | OSD1 | YTA11 Catalytic subunit of i-AAA protease complex; complex is located in mitochondrial inner membrane; responsible for degradation of unfolded or misfolded mitochondrial gene products; serves as nonconventional translocation motor to pull PNPase into intermembrane space; also has role in intermembrane space protein folding; mutation causes elevated rate of mitochondrial turnover; human homolog YME1L1 can complement yeast null mutant
YDL188C PPH22 phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit PPH22 | PPH2 Catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, PP2A; functionally redundant with Pph21p; C-terminally methylated; forms alternate complexes with several regulatory subunits; involved in signal transduction and regulation of mitosis; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; dephosphorylates Tel1p/Mec1p-phosphorylated Cdc13p to promote telomerase release from telomeres at G2/M; PPH22 has a paralog, PPH21, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL134C PPH21 phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit PPH21 Catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, PP2A; functionally redundant with Pph22p; C-terminally methylated; forms alternate complexes with several regulatory subunits; involved in signal transduction and regulation of mitosis; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress; PPH21 has a paralog, PPH22, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR075W PPH3 phosphoprotein phosphatase PP4 catalytic subunit PPH3 Catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase PP4 complex; Pph3p and Psy2p form active complex, Psy4p may provide substrate specificity; regulates recovery from the DNA damage checkpoint, the gene conversion- and single-strand annealing-mediated pathways of meiotic double-strand break repair and efficient Non-Homologous End-Joining (NHEJ) pathway; involved in activation of Gln3p to alleviate nitrogen catabolite repression; Pph3p and Psy2p localize to foci on meiotic chromosomes
YDL216C RRI1 COP9 signalosome catalytic subunit RRI1 | CSN5 | JAB1 Catalytic subunit of the COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex; acts as an isopeptidase in cleaving the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 from SCF ubiquitin ligases; metalloendopeptidase involved in the adaptation to pheromone signaling; involved in modulation of genes controlling amino acid and lipid metabolism, and ergosterol biosynthesis
YNL102W POL1 CDC17 | CRT5 | DNA-directed DNA polymerase alpha catalytic subunit POL1 | HPR3 Catalytic subunit of the DNA polymerase I alpha-primase complex; required for the initiation of DNA replication during mitotic DNA synthesis and premeiotic DNA synthesis
YOR244W ESA1 KAT5 | NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex catalytic subunit ESA1 | TAS1 Catalytic subunit of the histone acetyltransferase complex (NuA4); acetylates four conserved internal lysines of histone H4 N-terminal tail and can acetylate histone H2A; master regulator of cellular acetylation balance; required for cell cycle progression and transcriptional silencing at the rDNA locus and regulation of autophagy; human ortholog TIP60/KAT5 is implicated in cancer and other diseases, functionally complements lethality of the esa1 null mutation
YPR131C NAT3 NAA20 | peptide alpha-N-acetyltransferase complex B subunit NAT3 | RAD56 Catalytic subunit of the NatB N-terminal acetyltransferase; NatB catalyzes acetylation of the amino-terminal methionine residues of all proteins beginning with Met-Asp or Met-Glu and of some proteins beginning with Met-Asn or Met-Met
YPR051W MAK3 NAA30 | peptide alpha-N-acetyltransferase MAK3 Catalytic subunit of the NatC type N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT); involved in subcellular targeting of select N-terminally acetylated substrates to the Golgi apparatus (Arl3p and Grh1p) and the inner nuclear membrane (Trm1p); required for replication of dsRNA virus; human NatC ortholog, Naa60, functionally complements the null, requiring either auxiliary subunit Mak10p or co-expression of human ortholog, Naa35; Naa60, the human NatF gene, also complements the null allele
YGL094C PAN2 poly(A)-specific ribonuclease Catalytic subunit of the Pan2p-Pan3p poly(A)-ribonuclease complex; complex acts to control poly(A) tail length and regulate the stoichiometry and activity of postreplication repair complexes
YOR290C SNF2 GAM1 | HAF1 | SWI2 | SWI/SNF catalytic subunit SNF2 | TYE3 Catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; involved in transcriptional regulation; contains DNA-stimulated ATPase activity; functions interdependently in transcriptional activation with Snf5p and Snf6p
YHL007C STE20 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase STE20 Cdc42p-activated signal transducing kinase; involved in pheromone response, pseudohyphal/invasive growth, vacuole inheritance, down-regulation of sterol uptake; GBB motif binds Ste4p; member of the PAK (p21-activated kinase) family
YNL298W CLA4 ERC10 | serine/threonine protein kinase CLA4 Cdc42p-activated signal transducing kinase; member of the PAK (p21-activated kinase) family, along with Ste20p and Skm1p; involved in septin ring assembly, vacuole inheritance, cytokinesis, sterol uptake regulation; phosphorylates Cdc3p and Cdc10p; CLA4 has a paralog, SKM1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL157C FAR1 cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibiting protein FAR1 CDK inhibitor and nuclear anchor; during the cell cycle Far1p sequesters the GEF Cdc24p in the nucleus; phosphorylation by Cdc28p-Cln results in SCFCdc4 complex-mediated ubiquitin-dependent degradation, releasing Cdc24p for export and activation of GTPase Cdc42p; in response to pheromone, phosphorylation of Far1p by MAPK Fus3p results in association with, and inhibition of Cdc28p-Cln, as well as Msn5p mediated nuclear export of Far1p-Cdc24p, targeting Cdc24p to polarity sites
YDL101C DUN1 serine/threonine protein kinase DUN1 Cell-cycle checkpoint S/T protein kinase; required for transient G2/M arrest after DNA damage, damage-induced transcription, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic redistribution of Rnr2p-Rnr4p after genotoxic stress and iron deprivation; phosphorylates repair protein Rad55p, transcriptional repressor Sml1p, superoxide dismutase, and ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors Crt1p and Dif1p; functions in the Mec1p pathway to regulate dNTP pools and telomere length; postreplicative repair role
YNL176C TDA7 Cell cycle-regulated gene of unknown function; promoter bound by Fkh2p; null mutant is sensitive to expression of the top1-T722A allele; TDA7 has a paralog, YDL211C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL203C KEX1 serine-type carboxypeptidase Cell death protease essential for hypochlorite-induced apoptosis; involved in the processing of killer toxin and alpha factor precursor; cleaves Lys and Arg residues from the C-terminus of peptides and proteins
YMR232W FUS2 Cell fusion regulator; cytoplasmic protein localized to shmoo tip; required for alignment of parental nuclei before nuclear fusion during mating; contains a Dbl-homology domain; binds specifically with activated Cdc42p
YPL163C SVS1 Cell wall and vacuolar protein; required for wild-type resistance to vanadate; SVS1 has a paralog, SRL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL078C PRY3 Cell wall-associated protein involved in export of acetylated sterols; member of the CAP protein superfamily (cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP), antigen 5, and pathogenesis related 1 proteins); role in mating efficiency; expression of full-length transcript is daughter cell-specific; in response to alpha factor, a short transcript starting at +452 is expressed and the long form is repressed by Ste12p
YNL322C KRE1 Cell wall glycoprotein involved in beta-glucan assembly; serves as a K1 killer toxin membrane receptor
YER011W TIR1 GPI-anchored mannoprotein | SRP1 Cell wall mannoprotein; expression is downregulated at acidic pH and induced by cold shock and anaerobiosis; abundance is increased in cells cultured without shaking; member of the Srp1p/Tip1p family of serine-alanine-rich proteins
YLR110C CCW12 Cell wall mannoprotein; plays a role in maintenance of newly synthesized areas of cell wall; localizes to periphery of small buds, septum region of larger buds, and shmoo tip; CCW12 has a paralog, YDR134C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL096W CWP1 YJU1 Cell wall mannoprotein that localizes to birth scars of daughter cells; linked to a beta-1,3- and beta-1,6-glucan heteropolymer through a phosphodiester bond; required for propionic acid resistance
YLR042C Cell wall protein of unknown function; localizes to the cytoplasm; deletion improves xylose fermentation in industrially engineered strains; YLR042C is not an essential gene
YNL066W SUN4 putative glucosidase SUN4 | SCW3 Cell wall protein related to glucanases; possibly involved in cell wall septation; member of the SUN family; SUN4 has a paralog, SIM1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR055W PST1 HPF2 Cell wall protein that contains a putative GPI-attachment site; secreted by regenerating protoplasts; up-regulated by activation of the cell integrity pathway, as mediated by Rlm1p; upregulated by cell wall damage via disruption of FKS1; PST1 has a paralog, ECM33, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL028C SCW11 putative glucan endo-1,3-beta-D-glucosidase Cell wall protein with similarity to glucanases; may play a role in conjugation during mating based on its regulation by Ste12p
YMR305C SCW10 putative family 17 glucosidase Cell wall protein with similarity to glucanases; may play a role in conjugation during mating based on mutant phenotype and its regulation by Ste12p; SWC10 has a paralog, SCW4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR279C SCW4 putative family 17 glucosidase Cell wall protein with similarity to glucanases; scw4 scw10 double mutants exhibit defects in mating; SCW4 has a paralog, SCW10, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL227W VID30 GID1 | glucose-induced degradation complex subunit VID30 Central component of GID Complex, involved in FBPase degradation; interacts strongly with Gid8p to serve as a scaffold for other GID Complex subunits; contains SPRY domain and 3 domains that are also found in Gid8p - LisH, CTLH, and CRA; required for association of Vid vesicles and actin patches in vacuole import and degradation pathway; shifts the balance of nitrogen metabolism toward glutamate production; localizes to the nucleus and the cytoplasm
YGL153W PEX14 Central component of the peroxisomal importomer complex; peroxisomal protein import machinery docking complex component; interacts with both PTS1 (Pex5p) and PTS2 (Pex7p) peroxisomal matrix protein signal recognition factors and membrane receptor Pex13p
YGL060W YBP2 YBH1 Central kinetochore associated protein; mediates mitotic progression; interacts with several central kinetochore proteins and centromeric histone Cse4p; role in resistance to oxidative stress; similar to Slk19p; YBP2 has a paralog, YBP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR315W NKP2 Central kinetochore protein and subunit of the Ctf19 complex; mutants have elevated rates of chromosome loss; orthologous to fission yeast kinetochore protein cnl2
YKL042W SPC42 Central plaque component of spindle pole body (SPB); involved in SPB duplication, may facilitate attachment of the SPB to the nuclear membrane
YLL003W SFI1 Centrin (Cdc31p)-binding protein required for SPB duplication; localizes to the half-bridge of the spindle pole body (SPB); required for progression through G(2)-M transition; phosphorylated by Cdc28p-Clb2p and by Cdc5p; dephosphorylated by Cdc14p; has similarity to Xenopus laevis XCAP-C
YKL089W MIF2 Centromeric CDEIII region binding protein; nucleates kinetochore assembly; required for the structural integrity of elongating spindles; copurifies with subunits of the MIND complex and centromeric nucleosome components (Cse4p and histones H2A, H2B, and H4); phosphorylated by Ipl1p; orthologous to human centromere constitutive-associated network (CCAN) subunit CENP-C and fission yeast cnp3; localizes to the kinetochore
YKL049C CSE4 centromeric DNA-binding histone H3-like protein CSE4 | CSL2 Centromeric histone H3-like protein; associates with promoters, accessible chromatin, and RNAPII-bound regions; phosphorylated Cse4p associates with centromeres; required for kinetochore function; Ipl1p-dependent phosphorylation destabilizes defective kinetochores promoting bi-orientation; increases association of Sgo1p with centromeric chromatin; proteolysis regulated by multiple E3 ligases, resulting in faithful chromosome segregation; CSE4 complements mutations in the human homolog CENPA
YDL047W SIT4 PPH1 | type 2A-related serine/threonine-protein phosphatase SIT4 Ceramide-activated, type 2A-related serine-threonine phosphatase; functions in G1/S transition of mitotic cycle; controls lifespan, mitochondrial function, cell cycle progression by regulating HXK2 phosphorylation; regulator of COPII coat dephosphorylation; required for ER to Golgi traffic; interacts with Hrr25p kinase; cytoplasmic and nuclear protein that modulates functions mediated by Pkc1p including cell wall and actin cytoskeleton organization; similar to human PP6
YHL003C LAG1 sphingosine N-acyltransferase LAG1 Ceramide synthase component; involved in synthesis of ceramide from C26(acyl)-coenzyme A and dihydrosphingosine or phytosphingosine, functionally equivalent to Lac1p; forms ER foci upon DNA replication stress; homolog of human CERS2, a tumor metastasis suppressor gene whose silencing enhances invasion/metastasis of prostate cancer cells; LAG1 has a paralog, LAC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL008C LAC1 DGT1 | sphingosine N-acyltransferase LAC1 Ceramide synthase component; involved in synthesis of ceramide from C26(acyl)-coenzyme A and dihydrosphingosine or phytosphingosine, functionally equivalent to Lag1p; LAC1 has a paralog, LAG1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL065C PEX19 PAS12 Chaperone and import receptor for newly-synthesized class I PMPs; binds peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs) in the cytoplasm and delivers them to the peroxisome for subsequent insertion into the peroxisomal membrane; interacts with Myo2p and contributes to peroxisome partitioning
YIL104C SHQ1 Hsp90 cochaperone SHQ1 Chaperone protein; required for the assembly of box H/ACA snoRNPs and thus for pre-rRNA processing; functions as an RNA mimic; forms a complex with Naf1p and interacts with H/ACA snoRNP components Nhp2p and Cbf5p; homology with known Hsp90p cochaperones; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YBR173C UMP1 RNS2 Chaperone required for correct maturation of the 20S proteasome; short-lived chaperone; may inhibit premature dimerization of proteasome half-mers; degraded by proteasome upon completion of its assembly
YDR079W PET100 Chaperone that facilitates the assembly of cytochrome c oxidase; integral to the mitochondrial inner membrane; interacts with a subcomplex of subunits VII, VIIa, and VIII (Cox7p, Cox9p, and Cox8p) but not with the holoenzyme
YLR090W XDJ1 Chaperone with a role in facilitating mitochondrial protein import; ascomycete-specific member of the DnaJ-like family, closely related to Ydj1p; predicted to be C-terminally prenylated; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YNL077W APJ1 Chaperone with a role in SUMO-mediated protein degradation; member of the DnaJ-like family; conserved across eukaryotes; overexpression interferes with propagation of the [Psi+] prion; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YER173W RAD24 RS1 Checkpoint protein; involved in the activation of the DNA damage and meiotic pachytene checkpoints; subunit of a clamp loader that loads Rad17p-Mec3p-Ddc1p onto DNA; homolog of human and S. pombe Rad17 protein
YBR023C CHS3 CAL1 | chitin synthase CHS3 | CSD2 | DIT101 | KTI2 Chitin synthase III; catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to chitin; required for synthesis of the majority of cell wall chitin, the chitin ring during bud emergence, and spore wall chitosan; contains overlapping di-leucine and di-acidic signals that mediate, respectively, intracellular trafficking by AP-1 and trafficking to plasma membrane by exomer complex; requires AP-3 complex for its intracellular retention
YGR189C CRH1 transglycosylase Chitin transglycosylase; functions in the transfer of chitin to beta(1-6) and beta(1-3) glucans in the cell wall; similar and functionally redundant to Utr2; localizes to sites of polarized growth; expression induced by cell wall stress
YEL040W UTR2 CRH2 Chitin transglycosylase; functions in the transfer of chitin to beta(1-6) and beta(1-3) glucans in the cell wall; similar to and functionally redundant with Crh1; glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein localized to bud neck
YLR133W CKI1 bifunctional choline kinase/ethanolamine kinase CKI1 Choline kinase; catalyzes the first step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the CDP-choline (Kennedy pathway); exhibits some ethanolamine kinase activity contributing to phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway; CKI1 has a paralog, EKI1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR202C PCT1 BSR2 | CCT1 | choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase Cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase; a rate-determining enzyme of the CDP-choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine synthesis, inhibited by Sec14p, activated upon lipid-binding; contains an element within the regulatory domain involved in both silencing and activation of enzymatic activity
YNL130C CPT1 diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase Cholinephosphotransferase; required for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and for inositol-dependent regulation of EPT1 transcription; CPT1 has a paralog, EPT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR060C ARO7 chorismate mutase ARO7 | HGS1 | OSM2 | TYR7 Chorismate mutase; catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to prephenate to initiate the tyrosine/phenylalanine-specific branch of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis
YDR174W HMO1 HSM2 Chromatin associated high mobility group (HMG) family member; involved in compacting, bending, bridging and looping DNA; rDNA-binding component that regulates transcription from RNA polymerase I promoters; regulates start site selection of ribosomal protein genes via RNA polymerase II promoters; role in genome maintenance; associates with a 5'-3' DNA helicase and Fpr1p, a prolyl isomerase; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YPR135W CTF4 CHL15 | chromatin-binding protein CTF4 | POB1 Chromatin-associated protein; required for sister chromatid cohesion; interacts with DNA polymerase alpha (Pol1p) and may link DNA synthesis to sister chromatid cohesion
YER164W CHD1 chromatin-remodeling ATPase CHD1 Chromatin remodeler that regulates various aspects of transcription; acts in in conjunction with Isw1b to regulate chromatin structure and maintain chromatin integrity during transcription elongation by RNAP II by preventing trans-histone exchange over coding regions; contains a chromo domain, a helicase domain and a DNA-binding domain; component of both the SAGA and SLIK complexes
YOR070C GYP1 YOR29-21 Cis-golgi GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for yeast Rabs; the Rab family members are Ypt1p (in vivo) and for Ypt1p, Sec4p, Ypt7p, and Ypt51p (in vitro); involved in vesicle docking and fusion
YDL010W GRX6 glutathione-disulfide reductase GRX6 Cis-golgi localized monothiol glutaredoxin, binds Fe-S cluster; more similar in activity to dithiol than other monothiol glutaredoxins; involved in the oxidative stress response; GRX6 has a paralog, GRX7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR014C GRX7 glutathione-disulfide reductase GRX7 Cis-golgi localized monothiol glutaredoxin; more similar in activity to dithiol than other monothiol glutaredoxins; involved in the oxidative stress response; does not bind metal ions; GRX7 has a paralog, GRX6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL099W BUG1 Cis-golgi localized protein involved in ER to Golgi transport; forms a complex with the mammalian GRASP65 homolog, Grh1p; mutants are compromised for the fusion of ER-derived vesicles with Golgi membranes
YMR241W YHM2 Citrate and oxoglutarate carrier protein; exports citrate from and imports oxoglutarate into the mitochondrion, causing net export of NADPH reducing equivalents; also associates with mt nucleoids and has a role in replication and segregation of the mt genome
YNR001C CIT1 citrate (Si)-synthase CIT1 | CS1 | LYS6 Citrate synthase; catalyzes the condensation of acetyl coenzyme A and oxaloacetate to form citrate; the rate-limiting enzyme of the TCA cycle; nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein; CIT1 has a paralog, CIT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR005C CIT2 citrate (Si)-synthase CIT2 Citrate synthase, peroxisomal isozyme involved in glyoxylate cycle; catalyzes condensation of acetyl coenzyme A and oxaloacetate to form citrate; expression is controlled by Rtg1p and Rtg2p transcription factors; SCF-Ucc1 regulates level of Cit2p to maintain citrate homeostasis; oxaloacetate-dependent positive feedback loop inhibits Cit2p ubiquitination; CIT2 has a paralog, CIT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR035W-A DID2 CHM1 | FTI1 | VPL30 | VPS46 Class E protein of the vacuolar protein-sorting (Vps) pathway; binds Vps4p and directs it to dissociate ESCRT-III complexes; forms a functional and physical complex with Ist1p; human ortholog may be altered in breast tumors
YKL002W DID4 CHM2 | ESCRT-III subunit protein DID4 | GRD7 | REN1 | VPL2 | VPS14 | VPS2 | VPT14 Class E Vps protein of the ESCRT-III complex; required for sorting of integral membrane proteins into lumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies, and for delivery of newly synthesized vacuolar enzymes to the vacuole, involved in endocytosis
YBL019W APN2 DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase APN2 | ETH1 Class II abasic (AP) endonuclease involved in repair of DNA damage; homolog of human HAP1 and E. coli exoIII
YDL091C UBX3 Clathrin-coated vesicle component, regulator of endocytosis; copurifies with the DSC ubiquitin ligase complex; UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X) domain-containing protein that interacts with Cdc48p; required for efficient clathrin-mediated endocytosis; ortholog of fission yeast Ucp10
YGL206C CHC1 clathrin heavy chain | SWA5 Clathrin heavy chain; subunit of the major coat protein involved in intracellular protein transport and endocytosis; the clathrin triskelion is a trimeric molecule composed of three heavy chains that radiate from a vertex and three light chains which bind noncovalently near the vertex of the triskelion; the light chain (CLC1) is thought to regulate function
YGR167W CLC1 SCD4 Clathrin light chain; subunit of the major coat protein involved in intracellular protein transport and endocytosis; regulates endocytic progression; thought to regulate clathrin function; the clathrin triskelion is a trimeric molecule composed of three heavy chains that radiate from a vertex and three light chains which bind noncovalently near the vertex of the triskelion
YLR223C IFH1 Coactivator, regulates transcription of ribosomal protein (RP) genes; recruited to RP gene promoters during optimal growth conditions via Fhl1p; subunit of CURI, a complex that coordinates RP production and pre-rRNA processing; regulated by acetylation and phosphorylation at different growth states via TORC1 signaling; IFH1 has a paralog, CRF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER091C MET6 5-methyltetrahydropteroyltriglutamate-homocysteine S-methyltransferase Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase; involved in methionine biosynthesis and regeneration; requires a minimum of two glutamates on the methyltetrahydrofolate substrate, similar to bacterial metE homologs
YMR161W HLJ1 type I HSP40 co-chaperone HLJ1 Co-chaperone for Hsp40p; anchored in the ER membrane; with its homolog Ydj1p promotes ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) of integral membrane substrates; similar to E. coli DnaJ
YOR057W SGT1 co-chaperone SGT1 | YOR29-08 Cochaperone protein; regulates activity of adenylyl cyclase Cyr1p; involved in kinetochore complex assembly; associates with the SCF (Skp1p/Cdc53p/F box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex; acts as a linker between Skp1p and HSP90 complexes; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL117W SBA1 CST18 | Hsp90 cochaperone SBA1 Co-chaperone that binds and regulates Hsp90 family chaperones; plays a role in determining prion variants; important for pp60v-src activity in yeast; homologous to the mammalian p23 proteins, and like p23 can regulate telomerase activity; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR214W AHA1 Co-chaperone that binds Hsp82p and activates its ATPase activity; plays a role in determining prion variants; similar to Hch1p; expression is regulated by stresses such as heat shock; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YFL016C MDJ1 Co-chaperone that stimulates HSP70 protein Ssc1p ATPase activity; involved in protein folding/refolding in the mitochodrial matrix; required for proteolysis of misfolded proteins; member of the HSP40 (DnaJ) family of chaperones
YNL227C JJJ1 Co-chaperone that stimulates the ATPase activity of Ssa1p; required for a late step of ribosome biogenesis; associated with the cytosolic large ribosomal subunit; contains a J-domain; mutation causes defects in fluid-phase endocytosis
YMR076C PDS5 Cohesion maintenance factor; involved in sister chromatid condensation and cohesion; colocalizes with cohesin on chromosomes; performs its cohesin maintenance function in pre-anaphase cells by protecting the integrity of the cohesion complex; also required during meiosis; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YER149C PEA2 DFG9 | PPF2 Coiled-coil 12S polarisome subunit; required for polarity establishment, apical bud growth, shmoo formation, filamentous differentiation; involved in Bni1p localization at sites of polarized growth, controlling polarized assembly of actin cables; role in apical growth affects diploid-specific bipolar bud site selection; retains Slt2p at bud tip to regulate ER inheritance; role in Ca2+ influx, cell fusion; S288C allele encoding Leu409 rather than Met linked with non-invasion
YMR255W GFD1 Coiled-coiled protein of unknown function; identified as a high-copy suppressor of a dbp5 mutation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGL086W MAD1 coiled-coil domain-containing protein MAD1 Coiled-coil protein involved in spindle-assembly checkpoint; required for inhibition of karyopherin/importin Pse1p (aka Kap121p) upon spindle assembly checkpoint arrest; phosphorylated by Mps1p upon checkpoint activation which leads to inhibition of anaphase promoting complex activity; forms a complex with Mad2p; gene dosage imbalance between MAD1 and MAD2 leads to chromosome instability
YDR049W VMS1 Component of a Cdc48p-complex involved in protein quality control; exhibits cytosolic and ER-membrane localization, with Cdc48p, during normal growth, and contributes to ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of specific substrates at a step after their ubiquitination; forms a mitochondrially-associated complex with Cdc48p and Npl4p under oxidative stress that is required for ubiquitin-mediated mitochondria-associated protein degradation (MAD); conserved in C. elegans and humans
YGL128C CWC23 U2-type spliceosomal complex subunit CWC23 Component of a complex containing Cef1p; putatively involved in pre-mRNA splicing; has similarity to E. coli DnaJ and other DnaJ-like proteins and to S. pombe Cwf23p
YPL064C CWC27 putative peptidylprolyl isomerase CWC27 Component of a complex containing Cef1p; putatively involved in pre-mRNA splicing; has similarity to S. pombe Cwf27p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL144W POC4 DMP1 | PBA4 Component of a heterodimeric Poc4p-Irc25p chaperone; involved in assembly of alpha subunits into the 20S proteasome; may regulate formation of proteasome isoforms with alternative subunits under different conditions; upregulates proteasome assembly in response to the unfolded protein response activated by mistargeting of proteins (UPRam)
YOL004W SIN3 CPE1 | GAM2 | RPD1 | SDI1 | SDS16 | transcriptional regulator SIN3 | UME4 Component of both the Rpd3S and Rpd3L histone deacetylase complexes; involved in transcriptional repression and activation of diverse processes, including mating-type switching and meiosis; involved in the maintenance of chromosomal integrity
YPL139C UME1 WTM3 Component of both the Rpd3S and Rpd3L histone deacetylase complexes; negative regulator of meiosis; required for repression of a subset of meiotic genes during vegetative growth, binding of histone deacetylase Rpd3p required for activity, contains a NEE box and a WD repeat motif; homologous with Wtm1p; UME1 has a paralog, WTM2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR034W ARP7 RSC11 | SWP61 Component of both the SWI/SNF and RSC chromatin remodeling complexes; actin-related protein involved in transcriptional regulation
YGR275W RTT102 Component of both the SWI/SNF and RSC chromatin remodeling complexes; suggested role in chromosome maintenance; possible weak regulator of Ty1 transposition; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR116W MSL5 BBP | mRNA splicing protein MSL5 Component of commitment complex; which defines first step in splicing pathway; essential protein that interacts with Mud2p and Prp40p, forming a bridge between the intron ends; also involved in nuclear retention of pre-mRNA; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YCR060W TAH1 Component of conserved R2TP complex (Rvb1-Rvb2-Tah1-Pih1); R2TP complex interacts with Hsp90 (Hsp82p and Hsc82p) to mediate assembly of large protein complexes such as box C/D snoRNPs and RNA polymerase II; contains a single TPR domain with at least two TPR motifs; plays a role in determining prion variants
YDR495C VPS3 CORVET complex subunit VPS3 | PEP6 | VPL3 | VPT17 Component of CORVET membrane tethering complex; cytoplasmic protein required for the sorting and processing of soluble vacuolar proteins, acidification of the vacuolar lumen, and assembly of the vacuolar H+-ATPase
YLR148W PEP3 tethering complex subunit PEP3 | VAM8 | VPS18 | VPT18 Component of CORVET membrane tethering complex; vacuolar peripheral membrane protein that promotes vesicular docking/fusion reactions in conjunction with SNARE proteins, required for vacuolar biogenesis
YIL128W MET18 MMS19 Component of cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly (CIA) machinery; acts at a late step of Fe-S cluster assembly; forms the CIA targeting complex with Cia1p and Cia2p that directs Fe-S cluster incorporation and maturation of a subset of cytosolic and nuclear proteins involved in methionine biosynthesis, DNA replication and repair, transcription, and telomere maintenance; ortholog of human MMS19
YHR122W CIA2 iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein CIA2 Component of cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly (CIA) machinery; acts at a late step of Fe-S cluster assembly; forms the CIA targeting complex with Cia1p and Met18p that directs Fe-S cluster incorporation and maturation of a subset of proteins involved in methionine biosynthesis, DNA replication and repair, transcription, and telomere maintenance; ortholog of human FAM96B
YDR267C CIA1 iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein CIA1 Component of cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly (CIA) machinery; acts at late step of Fe-S cluster assembly; forms CIA targeting complex with Cia2p and Met18p that directs Fe-S cluster incorporation and maturation of a subset of cytosolic and nuclear proteins involved in methionine biosynthesis, DNA replication and repair, transcription and telomere maintenance; contains WD40 repeats; human homolog CIAO1 complements the yeast cia1 null mutant
YMR086W SEG1 Component of eisosome required for proper eisosome assembly; precedes Pil1p/Lsp1p during eisosome formation, controls eisosome length and shape; diffusely distributed, forms heterogeneous patches at plasma membrane in small buds, also found in medium and large buds; expression repressed by cAMP; similar to A. gossypii SEG gene and to S. pombe Sle1p, important for generating eisosomes; SEG1 has a paralog, SEG2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR178C PBP1 MRS16 Component of glucose deprivation induced stress granules; involved in P-body-dependent granule assembly; similar to human ataxin-2; interacts with Pab1p to regulate mRNA polyadenylation; interacts with Mkt1p to regulate HO translation; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YNL191W DUG3 glutamine amidotransferase subunit DUG3 Component of glutamine amidotransferase (GATase II); forms a complex with Dug2p to degrade glutathione (GSH) and other peptides containing a gamma-glu-X bond in an alternative pathway to GSH degradation by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (Ecm38p)
YBR281C DUG2 glutamine amidotransferase subunit DUG2 Component of glutamine amidotransferase (GATase II); forms a complex with Dug3p to degrade glutathione (GSH) and other peptides containing a gamma-glu-X bond in an alternative pathway to GSH degradation by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (Ecm38p)
YCL052C PBN1 Component of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-mannosyltransferase I; essential component; required for the autocatalytic post-translational processing of the protease B precursor Prb1p; localizes to ER in lumenal orientation; homolog of mammalian PIG-X
YDR367W KEI1 Component of inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase; forms a complex with Aur1p and regulates its activity; required for IPC synthase complex localization to the Golgi; post-translationally processed by Kex2p; KEI1 is an essential gene
YOR198C BFR1 Component of mRNP complexes associated with polyribosomes; involved in localization of mRNAs to P bodies; implicated in secretion and nuclear segregation; multicopy suppressor of BFA (Brefeldin A) sensitivity
YOR112W CEX1 Component of nuclear aminoacylation-dependent tRNA export pathway; cytoplasmic; interacts with nuclear pore component Nup116p; copurifies with tRNA export receptors Los1p and Msn5p, as well as eIF-1a; required for activation of RAN GTPase Gsp1p and dissociation of receptor-tRNA-Gsp1p export complex; recruits Rna1p from cytoplasm to NPC, facilitates Rna1p activation of Gsp1p GTPase activity by enabling Rna1p to gain access to Gsp1p-GTP bound to export receptor tRNA complex
YDR079C-A TFB5 TFIIH complex subunit TFB5 Component of RNA polymerase II general transcription factor TFIIH; involved in transcription initiation and in nucleotide-excision repair; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; homolog of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii REX1-S protein involved in DNA repair
YIL143C SSL2 LOM3 | RAD25 | TFIIH/NER complex ATPase/helicase subunit SSL2 Component of RNA polymerase transcription factor TFIIH holoenzyme; acts as dsDNA-dependent translocase in context of TFIIH, unwinds DNA strands during initiation and promotes transcription start site (TSS) scanning; has DNA-dependent ATPase/helicase activity; interacts functionally with TFIIB, has roles in TSS selection and gene looping to juxtapose initiation and termination regions; involved in DNA repair; relocalizes to cytosol under hypoxia; homolog of human ERCC3
YMR263W SAP30 Component of Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex; involved in silencing at telomeres, rDNA, and silent mating-type loci; involved in telomere maintenance
YPL009C RQC2 TAE2 Component of RQC, which mediates nascent chain degradation; RQC (ribosome quality control complex) is a ribosome-bound complex required for degradation of polypeptides arising from stalled translation; recruits alanine- and threonine-charged tRNA to the A site and directs the elongation of nascent chains independently of mRNA or 40S subunits; monitors translation stress and signals this to Hsf1p
YDR062W LCB2 SCS1 | serine C-palmitoyltransferase LCB2 | TSC1 Component of serine palmitoyltransferase; responsible along with Lcb1p for the first committed step in sphingolipid synthesis, which is the condensation of serine with palmitoyl-CoA to form 3-ketosphinganine
YMR296C LCB1 END8 | serine C-palmitoyltransferase LCB1 | TSC2 Component of serine palmitoyltransferase; responsible along with Lcb2p for the first committed step in sphingolipid synthesis, which is the condensation of serine with palmitoyl-CoA to form 3-ketosphinganine
YGR103W NOP7 mRNA-binding ribosome synthesis protein NOP7 | YPH1 Component of several different pre-ribosomal particles; forms a complex with Ytm1p and Erb1p that is required for maturation of the large ribosomal subunit; required for exit from G<sub>0</sub> and the initiation of cell proliferation
YIL132C CSM2 Component of Shu complex (aka PCSS complex); Shu complex also includes Psy3, Shu1, Shu2, and promotes error-free DNA repair,; Shu complex mediates inhibition of Srs2p function; promotes formation of Rad51p filaments; Psy3p and Csm2p contain similar DNA-binding regions which work together to form a single DNA binding site; required for accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis
YLR376C PSY3 Component of Shu complex (aka PCSS complex); Shu complex also includes Shu1, Csm2, Shu2, and promotes error-free DNA repair; promotes Rad51p filament assembly; Shu complex mediates inhibition of Srs2p function; Psy3p and Csm2p contain similar DNA-binding regions which work together to form a single DNA binding site; deletion of PSY3 results in a mutator phenotype; deletion increases sensitivity to anticancer drugs oxaliplatin and cisplatin but not mitomycin C
YOR078W BUD21 UTP16 | YOR29-29 Component of small ribosomal subunit (SSU) processosome; this complex contains U3 snoRNA; required at post-transcriptional step for efficient retrotransposition; absence results in decreased Ty1 Gag:GFP protein levels; originally isolated as bud-site selection mutant that displays a random budding pattern
YCR082W AHC2 Component of the ADA histone acetyltransferase complex; Ahc2p and Ahc1p are unique to the ADA complex and not shared with the related SAGA and SLIK complexes; may tether Ahc1p to the complex
YNL164C IBD2 Component of the BUB2-dependent spindle checkpoint pathway; interacts with Bfa1p and functions upstream of Bub2p and Bfa1p
YIL038C NOT3 CCR4-NOT core subunit NOT3 Component of the CCR4-NOT core complex, involved in mRNA decapping; involved in transcription initiation and elongation and in mRNA degradation; conserved lysine in human homolog of Not3p and Not5p is mutated in cancers
YPR072W NOT5 CCR4-NOT core subunit NOT5 Component of the CCR4-NOT core complex, involved in mRNA decapping; involved intranscription initiation and elongation and in mRNA degradation; conserved lysine in human homolog of Not5p and Not3p is mutated in cancers
YDL165W CDC36 CCR4-NOT core subunit CDC36 | DNA19 | NOT2 Component of the CCR4-NOT core complex, involved in mRNA decapping; this complex has multiple roles in regulating mRNA levels including regulation of transcription and destabilizing mRNAs through deadenylation; basal transcription factor
YAL021C CCR4 CCR4-NOT core exoribonuclease subunit CCR4 | FUN27 | NUT21 Component of the CCR4-NOT transcriptional complex; CCR4-NOT is involved in regulation of gene expression; component of the major cytoplasmic deadenylase, which is involved in mRNA poly(A) tail shortening
YNL288W CAF40 CCR4-NOT core subunit CAF40 Component of the CCR4-NOT transcriptional complex; evolutionarily conserved; involved in controlling mRNA initiation, elongation, and degradation; binds Cdc39p
YMR061W RNA14 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit RNA14 Component of the cleavage and polyadenylation factor I (CF I); CF 1, composed of the CF 1A complex (Rna14p, Rna15p, Clp1p, Pcf11p) and Hrp1, is involved in cleavage and polyadenylation of mRNA 3' ends; bridges interaction between Rna15p and Hrp1p in the CF I complex; mutant displays reduced transcription elongation in the G-less-based run-on (GLRO) assay; required for gene looping and maintenance of genome stability; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YGL005C COG7 COD5 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG7 Component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YML071C COG8 DOR1 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG8 Component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YNL041C COG6 COD2 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG6 | SEC37 Component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YNL051W COG5 API4 | COD4 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG5 Component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YHR034C PIH1 NOP17 Component of the conserved R2TP complex (Rvb1-Rvb2-Tah1-Pih1); R2TP complex interacts with Hsp90 (Hsp82p and Hsc82p) to mediate assembly large protein complexes such as box C/D snoRNPs and RNA polymerase II
YBL014C RRN6 Component of the core factor (CF) rDNA transcription factor complex; CF is required for transcription of 35S rRNA genes by RNA polymerase I and is composed of Rrn6p, Rrn7p, and Rrn11p
YJL025W RRN7 Component of the core factor (CF) rDNA transcription factor complex; CF is required for transcription of 35S rRNA genes by RNA polymerase I and is composed of Rrn6p, Rrn7p, and Rrn11p
YML043C RRN11 Component of the core factor (CF) rDNA transcription factor complex; CF is required for transcription of 35S rRNA genes by RNA polymerase I and is composed of Rrn6p, Rrn7p, and Rrn11p
YPR046W MCM16 Component of the Ctf19 complex and the COMA subcomplex; involved in kinetochore-microtubule mediated chromosome segregation; binds to centromere DNA; orthologous to human centromere constitutive-associated network (CCAN) subunit CENP-H and fission yeast fta3
YKR071C DRE2 electron carrier DRE2 Component of the cytosolic Fe-S protein assembly (CIA) machinery; contains an Fe-S cluster that receives electrons from NADPH via the action of Tah18p in an early step in the CIA pathway; ortholog of human Ciapin1; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; inviability of the null mutant is functionally complemented by human CIAPIN1
YGL090W LIF1 Component of the DNA ligase IV complex; this complex mediates nonhomologous end joining in DNA double-strand break repair; physically interacts with Dnl4p and Nej1p; homologous to mammalian XRCC4 protein
YLR440C SEC39 DSL3 Component of the Dsl1p tethering complex; this complex interacts with ER SNAREs Sec20p and Use1p; mediates Sey1p-independent homotypic ER fusion; proposed to be involved in protein secretion; localizes to the ER and nuclear envelope
YMR031C EIS1 Component of the eisosome required for proper eisosome assembly; similar to Uso1p; authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in a phosphorylated state in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from plasma membrane to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; EIS1 has a paralog, YKL050C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR130C Component of the eisosome with unknown function; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; specifically phosphorylated in vitro by mammalian diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7)
YPL065W VPS28 ESCRT-I subunit protein VPS28 | VPL13 | VPT28 Component of the ESCRT-I complex; complex is involved in ubiquitin-dependent sorting of proteins into the endosome; conserved C-terminal domain interacts with ESCRT-III subunit Vps20p; other members include Stp22p, Srn2p, Vps28p, and Mvb12p
YLR417W VPS36 ESCRT-II subunit protein VPS36 | GRD12 | VAC3 | VPL11 Component of the ESCRT-II complex; contains the GLUE (GRAM Like Ubiquitin binding in EAP45) domain which is involved in interactions with ESCRT-I and ubiquitin-dependent sorting of proteins into the endosome; plays a role in the formation of mutant huntingtin (Htt) aggregates in yeast
YPL002C SNF8 ESCRT-II subunit protein SNF8 | VPL14 | VPS22 Component of the ESCRT-II complex; ESCRT-II is involved in ubiquitin-dependent sorting of proteins into the endosome; appears to be functionally related to SNF7; involved in glucose derepression
YLR330W CHS5 CAL3 Component of the exomer complex; the exomer which also contains Csh6p, Bch1p, Bch2p, and Bud7, is involved in the export of select proteins, such as chitin synthase Chs3p, from the Golgi to the plasma membrane; interacts selectively with the activated, GTP-bound form of Arf1p; Chs5p is the only protein with a BRCT domain that is not localized to the nucleus
YDR484W VPS52 SAC2 Component of the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein) complex; GARP is required for the recycling of proteins from endosomes to the late Golgi, and for mitosis after DNA damage induced checkpoint arrest; involved in localization of actin and chitin; members of the GARP complex are Vps51p-Vps52p-Vps53p-Vps54p
YKR020W VPS51 API3 | VPS67 | WHI6 Component of the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein) complex; GARP is required for the recycling of proteins from endosomes to the late Golgi, and for mitosis after DNA damage induced checkpoint arrest; links the (VFT/GARP) complex to the SNARE Tlg1p; members of the GARP complex are Vps51p-Vps52p-Vps53p-Vps54p
YDR027C VPS54 CGP1 | LUV1 | TCS3 Component of the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein) complex; GARP is required for the recycling of proteins from endosomes to the late Golgi, and for mitosis after DNA damage induced checkpoint arrest; potentially phosphorylated by Cdc28p; members of the GARP complex are Vps51p-Vps52p-Vps53p-Vps54p
YJL029C VPS53 Component of the GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde protein) complex; GARP is required for the recycling of proteins from endosomes to the late Golgi, and for mitosis after DNA damage induced checkpoint arrest; required for vacuolar protein sorting; members of the GARP complex are Vps51p-Vps52p-Vps53p-Vps54p; human ortholog is implicated in progressive cerebello-cerebral atrophy type 2 (PCCA2)
YCL010C SGF29 Component of the HAT/Core module of the SAGA, SLIK, and ADA complexes; HAT/Core module also contains Gcn5p, Ngg1p, and Ada2p; binds methylated histone H3K4; involved in transcriptional regulation through SAGA and TBP recruitment to target promoters and H3 acetylation
YBR095C RXT2 RAF60 Component of the histone deacetylase Rpd3L complex; possibly involved in cell fusion and invasive growth; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YOR189W IES4 Component of the INO80 chromatiin remodeling complex; target of the Mec1p/Tel1p DNA damage signaling pathway; proposed to link chromatin remodeling to replication checkpoint responses
YEL044W IES6 Component of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex; critical for INO80 function; involved in regulation of chromosome segregation and maintenance of normal centromeric chromatin structure; human ortholog INO80C is a member of the human INO80 complex; implicated in DNA repair based on genetic interactions with RAD52 epistasis genes
YIL144W NDC80 HEC1 | kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex subunit NDC80 | TID3 Component of the kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex; conserved coiled-coil protein involved in chromosome segregation, spindle checkpoint activity, and kinetochore assembly and clustering; evolutionarily conserved; complex members include Ndc80p, Nuf2p, Scp24p, and Spc25p; modified by sumoylation
YER018C SPC25 kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex subunit SPC25 Component of the kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex; involved in chromosome segregation, spindle checkpoint activity, and kinetochore clustering; evolutionarily conserved; other members include Ndc80p, Nuf2p, Spc24p, and Spc25p
YOL069W NUF2 kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex subunit NUF2 Component of the kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex; involved in chromosome segregation, spindle checkpoint activity, and kinetochore clustering; evolutionarily conserved; other members include Ndc80p, Nuf2p, Spc24p, and Spc25p
YMR117C SPC24 kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex subunit SPC24 Component of the kinetochore-associated Ndc80 complex; involved in chromosome segregation, spindle checkpoint activity, and kinetochore clustering; evolutionarily conserved; other members include Ndc80p, Nuf2p, Spc24p, and Spc25p
YDR318W MCM21 CTF5 Component of the kinetochore sub-complex COMA; COMA (Ctf19p, Okp1p, Mcm21p, Ame1p) bridges kinetochore subunits in contact with centromeric DNA with subunits bound to microtubules during kinetochore assembly; involved in minichromosome maintenance; modified by sumoylation; orthologous to human centromere constitutive-associated network (CCAN) subunit CENP-O and fission yeast mal2
YML115C VAN1 LDB13 | VRG7 | VRG8 Component of the mannan polymerase I; complex contains Van1p and Mnn9p and is involved in the first steps of mannan synthesis; mutants are vanadate-resistant
YBR202W MCM7 CDC47 | mini-chromosome maintenance complex protein 7 Component of the Mcm2-7 hexameric helicase complex; MCM2-7 primes origins of DNA replication in G1 and becomes an active ATP-dependent helicase that promotes DNA melting and elongation in S-phase; forms an Mcm4p-6p-7p subcomplex
YNL100W MIC27 AIM37 | MCS27 Component of the MICOS complex; MICOS (formerly MINOS or MitOS) is a mitochondrial inner membrane complex that extends into the intermembrane space and has a role in the maintenance of crista junctions, inner membrane architecture, and formation of contact sites to the outer membrane; forms a subcomplex with Mic10p and Mic12p whose assembly and stability requires cardiolipin
YBR262C MIC12 AIM5 | FMP51 | MCS12 Component of the MICOS complex; MICOS (formerly MINOS or MitOS) is a mitochondrial inner membrane complex that extends into the intermembrane space and has a role in the maintenance of crista junctions, inner membrane architecture, and formation of contact sites to the outer membrane; forms a subcomplex with Mic10p and Mic27p whose assembly and stability requires cardiolipin
YFR011C MIC19 AIM13 | MCS19 Component of the MICOS complex; MICOS (formerly MINOS or MitOS) is a mitochondrial inner membrane complex that extends into the intermembrane space and has a role in the maintenance of crista junctions, inner membrane architecture, and formation of contact sites to the outer membrane; Mic19p is peripheral to the inner membrane and may connect Mic60p with the Mic10p-Mic12p-Mic27p subcomplex; both yeast and human Mic19p become oxidized, and oxidation may regulate MICOS
YGR235C MIC26 MCS29 | MIO27 | MOS2 Component of the MICOS complex; MICOS (formerly MINOS or MitOS) is a mitochondrial inner membrane complex that extends into the intermembrane space and has a role in the maintenance of crista junctions, inner membrane architecture, and formation of contact sites to the outer membrane; Mic26p is a non-essential component of the complex
YKR016W MIC60 AIM28 | FCJ1 | FMP13 Component of the MICOS complex; MICOS (formerly MINOS or MitOS) is a mitochondrial inner membrane complex that extends into the intermembrane space and has a role in the maintenance of crista junctions, inner membrane architecture, and formation of contact sites to the outer membrane; Mic60p is also involved in import of intermembrane space (IMS) proteins, probably by positioning Mia40p relative to the TOM complex to receive incoming proteins; ortholog of mammalian mitofilin
YHR172W SPC97 Component of the microtubule-nucleating Tub4p (gamma-tubulin) complex; interacts with Spc110p at the spindle pole body (SPB) inner plaque and with Spc72p at the SPB outer plaque
YNL126W SPC98 Component of the microtubule-nucleating Tub4p (gamma-tubulin) complex; interacts with Spc110p at the spindle pole body (SPB) inner plaque and with Spc72p at the SPB outer plaque
YJL054W TIM54 Component of the mitochondrial TIM22 complex; involved in insertion of polytopic proteins into the inner membrane
YOR297C TIM18 Component of the mitochondrial TIM22 complex; involved in insertion of polytopic proteins into the inner membrane; may mediate assembly or stability of the complex
YIL106W MOB1 Component of the mitotic exit network; associates with and is required for the activation and Cdc15p-dependent phosphorylation of the Dbf2p kinase; required for cytokinesis and cell separation; component of the CCR4 transcriptional complex; relocalizes from cytoplasm to the nuclear periphery upon DNA replication stress
YBL034C STU1 Component of the mitotic spindle; binds to interpolar microtubules via its association with beta-tubulin (Tub2p); required for interpolar microtubules to provide an outward force on the spindle poles
YGR072W UPF3 SUA6 | SUP112 Component of the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway; along with Nam7p and Nmd2p; involved in decay of mRNA containing nonsense codons; involved in telomere maintenance
YLR455W PDP3 Component of the NuA3b histone acetyltransferase complex; regulates interaction between NuA3b and H3K36me3 at the transcribed regions of genes; contains PWWP domain; deletion confers sensitivity to 4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino) phenylarsenoxide (GSAO); protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YGL200C EMP24 BST2 Component of the p24 complex; role in misfolded protein quality control; binds to GPI anchor proteins and mediates their efficient transport from the ER to the Golgi; integral membrane protein that associates with endoplasmic reticulum-derived COPII-coated vesicles
YOR123C LEO1 Component of the Paf1 complex; which associates with RNA polymerase II and is involved in histone methylation; plays a role in regulating Ty1 transposition; involved in transcription elongation as demonstrated by the G-less-based run-on (GLRO) assay
YLR418C CDC73 Component of the Paf1p complex; binds to and modulates the activity of RNA polymerases I and II; required for expression of certain genes, modification of some histones, and telomere maintenance; involved in transcription elongation as demonstrated by the G-less-based run-on (GLRO) assay; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human homolog, parafibromin, is a tumour suppressor linked to breast, renal and gastric cancers
YBR279W PAF1 Component of the Paf1p complex involved in transcription elongation; binds to and modulates the activity of RNA polymerases I and II; required for expression of a subset of genes, including cell cycle-regulated genes; involved in SER3 repression by helping to maintain SRG1 transcription-dependent nucleosome occupancy; homolog of human PD2/hPAF1
YOL145C CTR9 CDP1 Component of the Paf1p complex involved in transcription elongation; binds to and modulates the activity of RNA polymerases I and II; required for expression of a subset of genes, including cyclin genes; involved in SER3 repression by helping to maintain SRG1 transcription-dependent nucleosome occupancy; contains TPR repeats
YDR412W RRP17 Component of the pre-60S pre-ribosomal particle; required for cell viability under standard (aerobic) conditions but not under anaerobic conditions; exonuclease required for 5' end processing of pre-60S ribosomal RNA
YKL189W HYM1 Component of the RAM signaling network; is involved in regulation of Ace2p activity and cellular morphogenesis, interacts with Kic1p and Sog2p, localizes to sites of polarized growth during budding and during the mating response
YIL129C TAO3 PAG1 Component of the RAM signaling network; is involved in regulation of Ace2p activity and cellular morphogenesis, interacts with protein kinase Cbk1p and also with Kic1p
YDR333C RQC1 Component of the ribosome quality control complex (RQC); RQC (Rqc1p-Rkr1p-Tae2p-Cdc48p-Npl4p-Ufd1p) is a ribosome-bound complex required for the degradation of polypeptides arising from stalled translation; required along with Rkr1p for recruitment of the Cdc48p-Npl4p-Ufd1p AAA ATPase complex to the RQC
YHR085W IPI1 Component of the Rix1 complex and possibly pre-replicative complexes; required for processing of ITS2 sequences from 35S pre-rRNA; component of the pre-60S ribosomal particle with the dynein-related AAA-type ATPase Mdn1p; required for pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) formation and maintenance during DNA replication licensing; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; essential gene
YHR197W RIX1 IPI2 Component of the Rix1 complex and possibly pre-replicative complexes; required for processing of ITS2 sequences from 35S pre-rRNA; component of the pre-60S ribosomal particle with the dynein-related AAA-type ATPase Mdn1p; required for pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) formation and maintenance during DNA replication licensing; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; essential gene
YGL151W NUT1 MED5 | SSX4 Component of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; mediator is required for transcriptional activation and also has a role in basal transcription
YDL076C RXT3 Component of the Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex; involved in histone deacetylation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL097C PHO23 Component of the Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex; involved in transcriptional regulation of PHO5; affects termination of snoRNAs and cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs); C-terminus shares significant sequence identity with the human candidate tumor suppressor p33-ING1 and its isoform ING3
YPL181W CTI6 RXT1 Component of the Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex; relieves transcriptional repression by binding to the Cyc8p-Tup1p corepressor and recruiting the SAGA complex to the repressed promoter; contains a PHD finger domain
YIL084C SDS3 Component of the Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex; required for its structural integrity and catalytic activity, involved in transcriptional silencing and required for sporulation; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; cells defective in SDS3 display pleiotropic phenotypes
YKL185W ASH1 DNA-binding transcription repressor ASH1 Component of the Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex; zinc-finger inhibitor of HO transcription; mRNA is localized and translated in the distal tip of anaphase cells, resulting in accumulation of Ash1p in daughter cell nuclei and inhibition of HO expression; potential Cdc28p substrate
YPR023C EAF3 Component of the Rpd3S histone deacetylase complex; Esa1p-associated factor, nonessential component of the NuA4 acetyltransferase complex, homologous to Drosophila dosage compensation protein MSL3; plays a role in regulating Ty1 transposition
YML127W RSC9 Component of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex; DNA-binding protein involved in the synthesis of rRNA and in transcriptional repression and activation of genes regulated by the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway
YFR037C RSC8 SWH3 Component of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex; essential for viability and mitotic growth; homolog of SWI/SNF subunit Swi3p, but unlike Swi3p, does not activate transcription of reporters
YLR321C SFH1 Component of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex; essential gene required for cell cycle progression and maintenance of proper ploidy; phosphorylated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle; Snf5p paralog; hSNF5 tumor suppressor ortholog
YDR303C RSC3 Component of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex; essential gene required for maintenance of proper ploidy and regulation of ribosomal protein genes and the cell wall/stress response; RSC3 has a paralog, RSC30, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR008W RSC4 Component of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex; found in close proximity to nucleosomal DNA; displaced from the surface of nucleosomal DNA after chromatin remodeling; acetylated (K25) by Gcn5p, altering replication stress tolerance; contains tandem bromodomains that recognize histone H3 acetylated on K14 (H3K14ac) by Gcn5p
YMR091C NPL6 RSC7 Component of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex; interacts with Rsc3p, Rsc30p, Ldb7p, and Htl1p to form a module important for a broad range of RSC functions
YLR357W RSC2 Component of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex; required for expression of mid-late sporulation-specific genes; involved in telomere maintenance; RSC2 has a paralog, RSC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR020W-B HTL1 Component of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex; RSC functions in transcriptional regulation and elongation, chromosome stability, and establishing sister chromatid cohesion; involved in telomere maintenance
YLR033W RSC58 Component of the RSC chromatin remodeling complex; RSC functions in transcriptional regulation and elongation, chromosome stability, and establishing sister chromatid cohesion; involved in telomere maintenance
YML111W BUL2 ubiquitin-ubiquitin ligase BUL2 Component of the Rsp5p E3-ubiquitin ligase complex; involved in intracellular amino acid permease sorting, functions in heat shock element mediated gene expression, essential for growth in stress conditions; BUL2 has a paralog, BUL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL195W SEC31 WEB1 Component of the Sec13p-Sec31p complex of the COPII vesicle coat; COPII coat is required for vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport; mutant has increased aneuploidy tolerance
YIL109C SEC24 ANU1 | COPII subunit SEC24 Component of the Sec23p-Sec24p heterodimer of the COPII vesicle coat; required for cargo selection during vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport; homologous to Sfb3p; SEC24 has a paralog, SFB2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL049C SFB2 COPII subunit SFB2 | ISS1 Component of the Sec23p-Sfb2p heterodimer of the COPII vesicle coat; required for cargo selection during vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport; homologous to Sfb3p; SFB2 has a paralog, SEC24, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR098C SFB3 LST1 Component of the Sec23p-Sfb3p heterodimer of the COPII vesicle coat; COPII coat is required for cargo selection during vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport; scaffolding function of Lst1p required to generate vesicles that can accommodate difficult cargo proteins that include large oligomeric assemblies and asymmetrically distributed membrane proteins; homologous to Sec24p and Sfb2p
YCR002C CDC10 septin CDC10 Component of the septin ring, required for cytokinesis; septins are GTP-binding proteins that assemble into rod-like hetero-oligomers that can associate to form filaments; septin rings at the mother-bud neck act as scaffolds for recruiting cell division factors and as barriers to prevent diffusion of specific proteins between mother and daughter cells; N-terminus interacts with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate; protein abundance increases under DNA damage stress
YJR076C CDC11 PSL9 | septin CDC11 Component of the septin ring that is required for cytokinesis; present at the ends of rod-like septin hetero-oligomers; C-terminal extension is important for recruitment of Bni5p to the mother-bud neck, which in turn is required for Myo1p recruitment and cytokinesis; septin rings at the mother-bud neck act as scaffolds for recruiting cell division factors and as barriers to prevent diffusion of specific proteins between mother and daughter cells
YDL225W SHS1 SEP7 | septin SHS1 Component of the septin ring that is required for cytokinesis; present at the ends of rod-like septin hetero-oligomers; C-terminal extension is important for recruitment of Bni5p to the mother-bud neck, which in turn is required for Myo1p recruitment and cytokinesis; undergoes sumoylation and phosphorylation during mitosis; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YHR107C CDC12 CLA10 | PSL7 | septin CDC12 Component of the septin ring that is required for cytokinesis; septins are GTP-binding proteins that assemble into rod-like hetero-oligomers that can associate with other rods to form filaments; septin rings at the mother-bud neck act as scaffolds for recruiting cell division factors and as barriers to prevent diffusion of specific proteins between mother and daughter cells
YCR063W BUD31 CWC14 | U2 snRNP complex subunit BUD31 Component of the SF3b subcomplex of the U2 snRNP; increases efficiency of first and second step pre-mRNA splicing; diploid mutants display a random budding pattern instead of the wild-type bipolar pattern; facilitates passage through G1/S Start, but is not required for G2/M transition or exit from mitosis
YOR004W UTP23 rRNA-binding ribosome biosynthesis protein UTP23 Component of the small subunit processome; involved in 40S ribosomal subunit biogenesis; interacts with snR30 and is required for dissociation of snR30 from large pre-ribosomal particles; has homology to PINc domain protein Fcf1p, although the PINc domain of Utp23p is not required for function; essential protein
YGR090W UTP22 rRNA-processing protein UTP22 Component of the small-subunit processome; required for nuclear export of tRNAs; may facilitate binding of Utp8p to aminoacylated tRNAs and their delivery to Los1p for export; conserved from yeast to mammals
YBL004W UTP20 Component of the small-subunit (SSU) processome; SSU processome is involved in the biogenesis of the 18S rRNA
YDL105W NSE4 QRI2 | Smc5-Smc6 complex subunit NSE4 Component of the SMC5-SMC6 complex; this complex plays a key role in the removal of X-shaped DNA structures that arise between sister chromatids during DNA replication and repair
YML023C NSE5 Smc5-Smc6 complex subunit NSE5 Component of the SMC5-SMC6 complex; this complex plays a key role in the removal of X-shaped DNA structures that arise between sister chromatids during DNA replication and repair
YLR383W SMC6 DNA repair protein SMC6 | RHC18 Component of the SMC5-SMC6 complex; this complex plays a key role in the removal of X-shaped DNA structures that arise between sister chromatids during DNA replication and repair; homologous to S. pombe rad18
YDR288W NSE3 Smc5-Smc6 complex subunit NSE3 Component of the SMC5-SMC6 complex; this complex plays a key role in the removal of X-shaped DNA structures that arise between sister chromatids during DNA replication and repair; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR060C SAM37 MAS37 | PET3027 | SAM complex subunit SAM37 | TOM37 Component of the Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) complex; the SAM (or TOB) complex is located in the mitochondrial outer membrane; binds precursors of beta-barrel proteins and facilitates their outer membrane insertion; contributes to SAM complex stability
YHR083W SAM35 FMP20 | SAM complex subunit SAM35 | TOB38 | TOM38 Component of the sorting and assembly machinery (SAM) complex; the SAM (or TOB) complex is located in the mitochondrial outer membrane; the complex binds precursors of beta-barrel proteins and facilitates their insertion into the outer membrane
YJL030W MAD2 spindle checkpoint protein MAD2 Component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint complex; delays onset of anaphase in cells with defects in mitotic spindle assembly; forms a complex with Mad1p; regulates APC/C activity during prometaphase and metaphase of meiosis I; gene dosage imbalance between MAD1 and MAD2 leads to chromosome instability
YOR073W SGO1 YOR29-24 Component of the spindle checkpoint; involved in sensing lack of tension on mitotic chromosomes; protects centromeric Rec8p at meiosis I; required for accurate chromosomal segregation at meiosis II and for mitotic chromosome stability; recruits condensin to the pericentric region of chromosomes during meiosis; dissociates from pericentromeres when sister kinetochores are under tension
YOR373W NUD1 Component of the spindle pole body outer plaque; acts through the mitotic exit network to specify asymmetric spindle pole body inheritance
YNL225C CNM67 Component of the spindle pole body outer plaque; required for spindle orientation and mitotic nuclear migration; CNM67 has a paralog, ADY3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR299W BFR2 rRNA-processing protein BFR2 Component of the SSU and 90S preribosomes; involved in pre-18S rRNA processing; binds to U3 snoRNA and Mpp10p; multicopy suppressor of sensitivity to Brefeldin A; expression is induced during lag phase and also by cold shock
YOR279C RFM1 Component of the Sum1p-Rfm1p-Hst1p complex; Rfm1p tethers the Hst1p histone deacetylase to the DNA-binding protein Sum1p; complex is involved in transcriptional repression of middle sporulation genes and in initiation of DNA replication
YBR231C SWC5 AOR1 Component of the SWR1 complex; complex exchanges histone variant H2AZ (Htz1p) for chromatin-bound histone H2A; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YGR002C SWC4 EAF2 | GOD1 Component of the Swr1p complex that incorporates Htz1p into chromatin; component of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex
YNL121C TOM70 MAS70 | MOM72 | OMP1 | protein channel TOM70 Component of the TOM (translocase of outer membrane) complex; involved in the recognition and initial import steps for all mitochondrially directed proteins; acts as a receptor for incoming precursor proteins; TOM70 has a paralog, TOM71, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL131W TOM22 MAS17 | MAS22 | MOM22 Component of the TOM (Translocase of Outer Membrane) complex; responsible for initial import of mitochondrially directed proteins; mediates interaction between TOM and TIM complexes and acts as a receptor for precursor proteins
YGR082W TOM20 MAS20 | MOM19 Component of the TOM (translocase of outer membrane) complex; responsible for recognition and initial import steps for all mitochondrially directed proteins; acts as a receptor for incoming precursor proteins
YOR045W TOM6 ISP6 | MOM8B Component of the TOM (translocase of outer membrane) complex; responsible for recognition and initial import steps for all mitochondrially directed proteins; promotes assembly and stability of the TOM complex
YDL084W SUB2 ATP-dependent RNA helicase SUB2 Component of the TREX complex required for nuclear mRNA export; member of the DEAD-box RNA helicase superfamily and is involved in early and late steps of spliceosome assembly; homolog of the human splicing factor hUAP56; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YLR298C YHC1 U1C | U1-C Component of the U1 snRNP complex required for pre-mRNA splicing; putative ortholog of human U1C protein, which is involved in formation of a complex between U1 snRNP and the pre-mRNA 5' splice site
YIR005W IST3 SNU17 | U2 snRNP complex subunit IST3 Component of the U2 snRNP; required for the first catalytic step of splicing and for spliceosomal assembly; interacts with Rds3p and is required for Mer1p-activated splicing; diploid mutants have a specific defect in MATa1 pre-mRNA splicing which leads to haploid gene expression in diploids
YDL098C SNU23 U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex subunit SNU23 Component of the U4/U6.U5 snRNP complex; involved in mRNA splicing via spliceosome
YOR308C SNU66 U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex subunit SNU66 Component of the U4/U6.U5 snRNP complex; involved in pre-mRNA splicing via spliceosome; also required for pre-5S rRNA processing and may act in concert with Rnh70p; has homology to human SART-1
YBL074C AAR2 U5 snRNP complex subunit AAR2 Component of the U5 snRNP complex; required for splicing of U3 precursors; originally described as a splicing factor specifically required for splicing pre-mRNA of the MATa1 cistron
YDR108W TRS85 GSG1 | MUM1 Component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex III; TRAPPIII is a multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating endosome-Golgi traffic and required for membrane expansion during autophagy and the CVT pathway; directs Ypt1p to the PAS; late post-replication meiotic role
YDR407C TRS120 Component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex II; TRAPPII is a multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating intra-Golgi and endosome-Golgi traffic
YMR218C TRS130 transport protein particle complex II subunit TRS130 Component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex II; TRAPPII is a multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating intra-Golgi and endosome-Golgi traffic
YEL048C TCA17 Component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex II; TRAPPII is a multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating intra-Golgi and endosome-Golgi traffic; promotes association of TRAPPII-specific subunits with the TRAPP core complex; sedlin related; human Sedlin mutations cause SEDT, a skeletal disorder
YGR166W TRS65 KRE11 Component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complex II; TRAPPII is a multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating intra-Golgi and endosome-Golgi traffic; role in cell wall beta-glucan biosynthesis and the stress response
YIL061C SNP1 U1-70K | U1 snRNP complex subunit SNP1 Component of U1 snRNP required for mRNA splicing via spliceosome; substrate of the arginine methyltransferase Hmt1p; may interact with poly(A) polymerase to regulate polyadenylation; homolog of human U1 70K protein; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGR013W SNU71 Component of U1 snRNP required for mRNA splicing via spliceosome; yeast specific, no metazoan counterpart
YDR240C SNU56 MUD10 Component of U1 snRNP required for mRNA splicing via spliceosome; yeast specific, no metazoan counterpart; interacts with mRNA in commitment complex
YPL213W LEA1 U2 snRNP complex subunit LEA1 Component of U2 snRNP complex; disruption causes reduced U2 snRNP levels; physically interacts with Msl1p; putative homolog of human U2A' snRNP protein
YHR165C PRP8 DBF3 | DNA39 | RNA8 | SLT21 | U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex subunit PRP8 | USA2 Component of U4/U6-U5 snRNP complex; involved in second catalytic step of splicing; participates in spliceosomal assembly through its interaction with U1 snRNA; largest and most evolutionarily conserved protein of the spliceosome; mutations in human ortholog, PRPF8, cause Retinitis pigmentosa and missplicing in Myelodysplastic syndrome; mouse ortholog interacts with androgen receptor and may have a role in prostate cancer
YBR070C ALG14 N-acetylglucosaminyldiphosphodolichol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase anchoring subunit ALG14 Component of UDP-GlcNAc transferase; required for second step of dolichyl-linked oligosaccharide synthesis; anchors catalytic subunit Alg13p to ER membrane; similar to bacterial and human glycosyltransferases; both human homologs ALG13 and ALG14 are required to complement yeast alg14 mutant
YOR367W SCP1 Component of yeast cortical actin cytoskeleton; binds and cross links actin filaments; originally identified by its homology to calponin (contains a calponin-like repeat) but the Scp1p domain structure is more similar to transgelin
YCR057C PWP2 snoRNA-binding rRNA-processing protein PWP2 | UTP1 | YCR055C | YCR058C Conserved 90S pre-ribosomal component; essential for proper endonucleolytic cleavage of the 35 S rRNA precursor at A0, A1, and A2 sites; contains eight WD-repeats; PWP2 deletion leads to defects in cell cycle and bud morphogenesis
YPL204W HRR25 KTI14 | serine/threonine protein kinase HRR25 Conserved casein kinase; regulates diverse events including: vesicular traffic, DNA repair, the CVT pathway, monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores at meiosis I, and ribosomal subunit biogenesis; monopolin subunit; binds the RNAPII CTD; phosphorylates COPII coat subunits; interacts with Sit4p phosphatase; antagonizes calcineurin signaling, reducing nuclear accumulation of Crz1p; phosphorylates Dsn1p, the kinetochore receptor for monopolin; homolog of mammalian CK1delta
YNL223W ATG4 APG4 | AUT2 | cysteine protease ATG4 Conserved cysteine protease required for autophagy; cleaves Atg8p to a form required for autophagosome and Cvt vesicle generation
YLR378C SEC61 translocon subunit SEC61 Conserved ER protein translocation channel; essential subunit of Sec61 complex (Sec61p, Sbh1p, and Sss1p); forms channel for SRP-dependent protein import; with Sec63 complex allows SRP-independent protein import into ER; involved in posttranslational soluble protein import into the ER, ERAD of soluble substrates, and misfolded soluble protein export from the ER
YPL260W CUB1 Conserved fungal gene linked to DNA repair and proteasome function; putative substrate of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA); green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; YPL260W is not an essential gene; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGR031W IMO32 Conserved mitochondrial protein of unknown function; processed by both mitochondrial processing peptidase and mitochondrial octapeptidyl aminopeptidase; gene contains the nested antisense gene NAG1
YDL042C SIR2 MAR1 | NAD-dependent histone deacetylase SIR2 Conserved NAD+ dependent histone deacetylase of the Sirtuin family; deacetylation targets are primarily nuclear proteins; required for telomere hypercluster formation in quiescent yeast cells; involved in regulation of lifespan; plays roles in silencing at HML, HMR, telomeres, and rDNA; negatively regulates initiation of DNA replication; functions as regulator of autophagy like mammalian homolog SIRT1, and also of mitophagy
YHR179W OYE2 NADPH dehydrogenase Conserved NADPH oxidoreductase containing flavin mononucleotide (FMN); responsible for geraniol reduction into citronellol during fermentation; homologous to Oye3p with different ligand binding and catalytic properties; may be involved in sterol metabolism, oxidative stress response, and programmed cell death; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YJR074W MOG1 Ran GTPase-binding protein MOG1 Conserved nuclear protein that interacts with GTP-Gsp1p; stimulates nucleotide release from Gsp1p; involved in nuclear protein import; nucleotide release is inhibited by Yrb1p
YER063W THO1 Conserved nuclear RNA-binding protein; specifically binds to transcribed chromatin in a THO- and RNA-dependent manner, genetically interacts with shuttling hnRNP NAB2; overproduction suppresses transcriptional defect caused by hpr1 mutation
YPL096W PNG1 peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase Conserved peptide N-glycanase; deglycosylating enzyme that cleaves N-glycans that are attached to misfolded ERAD substrate glycoproteins prior to proteasome-dependent degradation; localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; activity is enhanced by interaction with Rad23p; human ortholog NGLY1 is associated with a syndrome characterized by developmental delays, epilepsy, absence of tears and liver disease
YDL236W PHO13 4-nitrophenylphosphatase Conserved phosphatase acting as a metabolite repair enzyme; shows specific dephosphorylating activity on two side-products of central carbohydrate metabolism, 2-phosphoglycolate and 4-phosphoerythronate; alkaline phosphatase specific for p-nitrophenyl phosphate; also has protein phosphatase activity; human ortholog PGP shows similar substrate specificity, deletion causes similar metabolite accumulation phenotypes, suggesting conserved role in eliminating glycolytic byproducts
YMR159C ATG16 APG15 | APG16 | CVT11 | SAP18 Conserved protein involved in autophagy; interacts with Atg12p-Atg5p conjugates to form Atg12p-Atg5p-Atg16p multimers, which binds to membranes and localizes to the pre-autophagosomal structure and are required for autophagy; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YLR114C AVL9 Conserved protein involved in exocytic transport from the Golgi; mutation is synthetically lethal with apl2 vps1 double mutation; member of a protein superfamily with orthologs in diverse organisms; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YPL135W ISU1 iron-binding protein ISU1 | NUA1 Conserved protein of the mitochondrial matrix; performs a scaffolding function during assembly of iron-sulfur clusters, interacts physically and functionally with yeast frataxin (Yfh1p); ISU1 has a paralog, ISU2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; isu1 isu2 double mutant is inviable; human homolog ISCU implicated in mitochondrial myopathy, can complement isu1 isu2 double mutant
YFR005C SAD1 mRNA splicing protein SAD1 Conserved zinc-finger domain protein involved in pre-mRNA splicing; critical for splicing of nearly all intron-containing genes; required for assembly of U4 snRNA into the U4/U6 particle
YMR049C ERB1 Constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; forms a complex with Nop7p and Ytm1p that is required for maturation of the large ribosomal subunit; required for maturation of the 25S and 5.8S ribosomal RNAs; homologous to mammalian Bop1
YPR016C TIF6 CDC95 | translation initiation factor 6 Constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; has similarity to human translation initiation factor 6 (eIF6); may be involved in the biogenesis and or stability of 60S ribosomal subunits
YER002W NOP16 Constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; involved in 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis
YGL111W NSA1 ribosome biosynthesis protein NSA1 Constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; involved in 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis
YNL110C NOP15 rRNA-binding ribosome biosynthesis protein NOP15 Constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; involved in 60S ribosomal subunit biogenesis; localizes to both nucleolus and cytoplasm
YDR060W MAK21 NOC1 | RNA-binding ribosome biosynthesis protein MAK21 Constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; required for large (60S) ribosomal subunit biogenesis; acts as part of a Mak21p-Noc2p-Rrp5p module that associates with nascent pre-rRNA during transcription and has a role in bigenesis of the large ribosomal subunit; involved in nuclear export of pre-ribosomes; required for maintenance of dsRNA virus; homolog of human CAATT-binding protein
YHR066W SSF1 rRNA-binding ribosome biosynthesis protein Constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; required for ribosomal large subunit maturation; functionally redundant with Ssf2p; member of the Brix family; SSF1 has a paralog, SSF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL328C MDJ2 Constituent of the mitochondrial import motor; associated with the presequence translocase; function overlaps with that of Pam18p; stimulates the ATPase activity of Ssc1p to drive mitochondrial import; contains a J domain
YKR065C PAM17 FMP18 Constituent of the TIM23 complex; proposed alternatively to be a component of the import motor (PAM complex) or to interact with and modulate the core TIM23 (Translocase of the Inner mitochondrial Membrane) complex; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR092C PHO3 acid phosphatase PHO3 | phoC Constitutively expressed acid phosphatase similar to Pho5p; brought to the cell surface by transport vesicles; hydrolyzes thiamin phosphates in the periplasmic space, increasing cellular thiamin uptake; expression is repressed by thiamin
YIL053W GPP1 glycerol-1-phosphatase RHR2 | RHR2 Constitutively expressed DL-glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase; also known as glycerol-1-phosphatase; involved in glycerol biosynthesis, induced in response to both anaerobic and osmotic stress; GPP1 has a paralog, GPP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL054C ERV14 cornichon family protein COPII-coated vesicle protein; involved in vesicle formation and incorporation of specific secretory cargo; required for the delivery of bud-site selection protein Axl2p and Nha1p antiporter to cell surface; related to Drosophila cornichon; ERV14 has a paralog, ERV15, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL085W SEC16 LPF1 COPII vesicle coat protein required for ER transport vesicle budding; essential factor in endoplasmic reticulum exit site (ERES) formation, as well as in COPII-mediated ER-to-Golgi traffic; bound to periphery of ER membranes and may act to stabilize initial COPII complexes; interacts with Sec23p, Sec24p and Sec31p
YBR037C SCO1 Cu-binding protein SCO1 | PET161 Copper-binding protein of mitochondrial inner membrane; required for cytochrome c oxidase activity and respiration; may function to deliver copper to cytochrome c oxidase; similar to thioredoxins; SCO1 has a paralog, SCO2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL166W CUP2 ACE1 Copper-binding transcription factor; activates transcription of the metallothionein genes CUP1-1 and CUP1-2 in response to elevated copper concentrations; required for regulation of copper genes in response to DNA-damaging reagents; CUP2 has a paralog, HAA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR038C CCS1 CCS | copper chaperone CCS1 | LYS7 Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase Sod1p; involved in oxidative stress protection; Met-X-Cys-X2-Cys motif within N-terminus is involved in insertion of copper into Sod1p under conditions of copper deprivation; required for regulation of yeast copper genes in response to DNA-damaging agents; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human homolog CCS can complement yeast ccs1 null mutant
YLL009C COX17 copper metallochaperone COX17 Copper metallochaperone that transfers copper to Sco1p and Cox11p; eventual delivery to cytochrome c oxidase; contains twin cysteine-x9-cysteine motifs; interacts with the MICOS complex, and interaction is promoted by copper ions; human homolog COX17 partially complements yeast null mutant
YMR021C MAC1 CUA1 Copper-sensing transcription factor; involved in regulation of genes required for high affinity copper transport; required for regulation of yeast copper genes in response to DNA-damaging agents; undergoes changes in redox state in response to changing levels of copper or MMS
YDR044W HEM13 coproporphyrinogen oxidase Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase; oxygen-requiring enzyme that catalyzes sixth step in heme biosynthetic pathway; transcription is repressed by oxygen and heme (via Rox1p and Hap1p); human homolog CPOX can complement yeast mutant and allow growth of haploid null after sporulation of a heterozygous diploid
YPL243W SRP68 signal recognition particle subunit SRP68 Core component of the signal recognition particle (SRP) complex; SRP complex functions in targeting nascent secretory proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane; relocalizes from cytoplasm to the nuclear periphery upon DNA replication stress
YPL210C SRP72 signal recognition particle subunit SRP72 Core component of the signal recognition particle (SRP); the SRP is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that functions in targeting nascent secretory proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane
YDR472W TRS31 TRAPP subunit TRS31 Core component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes I-III; TRAPP complexes are related multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating ER-Golgi traffic (TRAPPI), intra-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII), endosome-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII and III) and autophagy (TRAPPIII)
YDR246W TRS23 TRAPP subunit TRS23 Core component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes I-III; TRAPP complexes are related multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating ER-Golgi traffic (TRAPPI), intra-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII), endosome-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII and III) and autophagy (TRAPPIII); human homolog is TRAPPC4
YKR068C BET3 TRAPP complex core subunit BET3 Core component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes I-III; TRAPP complexes are related multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factors for the GTPase Ypt1, regulating ER-Golgi traffic (TRAPPI), intra-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII), endosome-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII and III) and autophagy (TRAPPIII); hydrophilic homodimeric protein that acts in conjunction with SNARE proteins in targeting and fusion of ER to Golgi transport vesicles
YBR254C TRS20 TRAPP subunit TRS20 Core component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes I-III; TRAPPs are multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factors for GTPase Ypt1p, regulating ER-Golgi traffic (TRAPPI), intra-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII), endosome-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII and III) and autophagy (TRAPPIII); mutation leads to defects in endocytic recycling, block in sporulation/meiosis; mutations in human homolog TRAPPC2 cause spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda, TRAPPC2 can complement yeast null mutant
YOR115C TRS33 Core component of TRAPP complexes I, II and IV; transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes are related multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factor for the GTPase Ypt1p, regulating ER-Golgi traffic (TRAPPI), intra-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII), endosome-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII and III) and autophagy (TRAPPIII, and IV); proposed subunit of a novel complex, TRAPPIV, that may function redundantly with TRAPPIII as a GEF that activates Ypt1 during autophagy
YER029C SMB1 mRNA splicing protein SMB1 | SmB | Sm B Core Sm protein Sm B; part of heteroheptameric complex (with Smd1p, Smd2p, Smd3p, Sme1p, Smx3p, and Smx2p) that is part of the spliceosomal U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs; homolog of human Sm B and Sm B'
YGR074W SMD1 mRNA splicing protein SMD1 | SPP92 Core Sm protein Sm D1; part of heteroheptameric complex (with Smb1p, Smd2p, Smd3p, Sme1p, Smx3p, and Smx2p) that is part of the spliceosomal U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; homolog of human Sm D1; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR275W SMD2 mRNA splicing protein SMD2 | Sm D2 Core Sm protein Sm D2; part of heteroheptameric complex (with Smb1p, Smd1p, Smd3p, Sme1p, Smx3p, and Smx2p) that is part of the spliceosomal U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs; homolog of human Sm D2
YPR182W SMX3 mRNA splicing protein SMX3 | SmF | Sm F Core Sm protein Sm F; part of heteroheptameric complex (with Smb1p, Smd1p, Smd2p, Smd3p, Sme1p, and Smx2p) that is part of the spliceosomal U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs; homolog of human Sm F
YFL017W-A SMX2 mRNA splicing protein SMX2 | SmG | Sm G | SNP2 | YFL018W-A Core Sm protein Sm G; part of heteroheptameric complex (with Smb1p, Smd1p, Smd2p, Smd3p, Sme1p, and Smx3p) that is part of the spliceosomal U1, U2, U4, and U5 snRNPs; homolog of human Sm G
YJL076W NET1 CFI1 | ESC5 | SRM8 Core subunit of the RENT complex; involved in nucleolar silencing and telophase exit; stimulates transcription by RNA polymerase I and regulates nucleolar structure; NET1 has a paralog, TOF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL045C COR1 QCR1 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase subunit COR1 Core subunit of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex; the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex (bc1 complex) is a component of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain
YLR429W CRN1 Coronin; cortical actin cytoskeletal component that associates with the Arp2p/Arp3p complex to regulate its activity; plays a role in regulation of actin patch assembly
YML072C TCB3 Cortical ER protein involved in ER-plasma membrane tethering; one of 6 proteins (Ist2p, Scs2p, Scs22p, Tcb1p, Tcb2p, Tcb3p) that connect ER to the plasma membrane (PM) and regulate PM phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) levels by controlling access of Sac1p phosphatase to its substrate PI4P in the PM; localized to the bud via specific mRNA transport; non-tagged protein detected in a phosphorylated state in mitochondria; C-termini of Tcb1p, Tcb2p and Tcb3p interact
YBR086C IST2 Cortical ER protein involved in ER-plasma membrane tethering; one of 6 proteins (Ist2p, Scs2p, Scs22p, Tcb1p, Tcb2p, Tcb3p) that connect ER to the plasma membrane (PM) and regulate PM phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) levels by controlling access of Sac1p phosphatase to its substrate PI4P in the PM; localizes to the mother cell in small-budded cells and to the bud in medium- and large-budded cells; mRNA is transported to the bud tip by an actomyosin-driven process
YBR162C TOS1 Covalently-bound cell wall protein of unknown function; identified as a cell cycle regulated SBF target gene; deletion mutants are highly resistant to treatment with beta-1,3-glucanase; has sequence similarity to YJL171C
YLR390W-A CCW14 ICWP | SSR1 | YLR391W | YLR391W-A Covalently linked cell wall glycoprotein; present in the inner layer of the cell wall
YKL096W-A CWP2 LPR1 | YKL097W-A Covalently linked cell wall mannoprotein; major constituent of the cell wall; plays a role in stabilizing the cell wall; involved in low pH resistance; precursor is GPI-anchored
YOR302W CPA1 uORF; Arginine attenuator peptide, regulates translation of the CPA1 mRNA
YER139C RTR1 RNA polymerase II subunit B1 CTD phosphatase RTR1 CTD phosphatase; dephosphorylates S5-P in the C-terminal domain of Rpo21p; has a cysteine-rich motif required for function and conserved in eukaryotes; shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm; RTR1 has a paralog, RTR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR270W CCC2 Cu(2+)-transporting P-type ATPase CCC2 Cu(+2)-transporting P-type ATPase; required for export of copper from the cytosol into an extracytosolic compartment; similar to human proteins involved in Menkes and Wilsons diseases; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; affects TBSV model (+)RNA virus replication by regulating copper metabolism; human homologs ATP7A and ATP7B both complement yeast null mutant
YDL132W CDC53 cullin CDC53 Cullin; structural protein of SCF complexes (which also contain Skp1p, Cdc34p, Hrt1p and an F-box protein) involved in ubiquitination; SCF promotes the G1-S transition by targeting G1 cyclins and the Cln-CDK inhibitor Sic1p for degradation; human homolog CUL1 can complement yeast cdc53 null mutant
YJL047C RTT101 CUL8 | CULC | cullin RTT101 Cullin subunit of a Roc1p-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase complex; role in anaphase progression; required for recovery after DSB repair; implicated in Mms22-dependent DNA repair; involved with Mms1p in nonfunctional rRNA decay; modified by the ubiquitin-like protein, Rub1p
YGR247W CPD1 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase; hydrolyzes ADP-ribose 1'', 2''-cyclic phosphate to ADP-ribose 1''-phosphate; may have a role in tRNA splicing; no detectable phenotype is conferred by null mutation or by overexpression; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPR025C CCL1 TFIIH complex kinase subunit CCL1 Cyclin associated with protein kinase Kin28p; Kin28p is the TFIIH-associated carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) kinase involved in transcription initiation at RNA polymerase II promoters; human homolog CCNH allows growth of yeast ccl1 temperature-sensitive mutant at restrictive temperature
YPR161C SGV1 BUR1 | cyclin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase SGV1 Cyclin (Bur2p)-dependent protein kinase; part of the BUR kinase complex which functions in transcriptional regulation; phosphorylates the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of Rpo21p and the C-terminal repeat domain of Spt5p; recruits Spt6p to the CTD at the onset of transcription; regulated by Cak1p; similar to metazoan CDK9 proteins
YFL029C CAK1 CIV1 | cyclin-dependent protein kinase-activating kinase CAK1 Cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase; required for passage through the cell cycle; phosphorylates and activates Cdc28p; nucleotide-binding pocket differs significantly from those of most other protein kinases
YBR160W CDC28 CDK1 | cyclin-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase CDC28 | HSL5 | SRM5 Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) catalytic subunit; master regulator of mitotic and meiotic cell cycles; alternately associates with G1, S, G2/M phase cyclins, which provide substrate specificity; regulates metabolism, basal transcription, chromosome dynamics, growth and morphogenesis; transcript induction in osmostress involves antisense RNA; human homologs CDK1, CDK2, CDK3 can complement yeast conditional cdc28 mutants; human CDK1, CDK2 can complement yeast cdc28 null mutant
YGR233C PHO81 phoS | VAC6 Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor; regulates Pho80p-Pho85p and Pcl7p-Pho85p cyclin-CDK complexes in response to phosphate levels; inhibitory activity for Pho80p-Pho85p requires myo-D-inositol heptakisphosphate (IP7) generated by Vip1p; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YPL031C PHO85 cyclin-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase PHO85 | LDB15 | phoU Cyclin-dependent kinase; has ten cyclin partners; involved in regulating the cellular response to nutrient levels and environmental conditions and progression through the cell cycle; human lissencephaly-associated homolog CDK5 functionally complements null mutation
YLR079W SIC1 BYC1 | cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibiting protein SIC1 | SDB25 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI); inhibitor of Cdc28-Clb kinase complexes that controls G1/S phase transition, preventing premature S phase and ensuring genomic integrity; phosphorylated by Clb5/6-Cdk1 and Cln1/2-Cdk1 kinase which regulate timing of Sic1p degradation; phosphorylation targets Sic1p for SCF(CDC4)-dependent turnover; functional homolog of mammalian Kip1
YPL014W CIP1 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; interacts with and inhibits the Cdc28p/Cln2p, G1/S phase cyclin-dependent kinase complex but not S-phase, or M-phase complexes; overexpression blocks cells in G1 phase and stabilizes the Cdc28p inhibitor Sic1p, while disruption accelerates the G1/S phase transition; phosphorylated during S phase in a Cdc28p-dependent manner; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and to the nucleus
YBR135W CKS1 cyclin-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit CKS1 Cyclin-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit and adaptor; interacts with Cdc28p (aka Cdk1p); required for G1/S and G2/M phase transitions and budding; mediates phosphorylation and degradation of Sic1p; modulates proteolysis of M-phase targets through interactions with the proteasome; role in transcriptional regulation, recruiting proteasomal subunits to target gene promoters; human homologs CKS1B and CKS2 can each complement yeast cks1 null mutant
YLR226W BUR2 CST4 Cyclin for the Sgv1p (Bur1p) protein kinase; Sgv1p and Bur2p comprise the CDK-cyclin BUR kinase complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation through its phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Rpo21p); BUR kinase is also involved in the recruitment of Spt6p to the CTD at the onset of transcription
YPL219W PCL8 Cyclin; interacts with Pho85p cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) to phosphorylate and regulate glycogen synthase, also activates Pho85p for Glc8p phosphorylation; PCL8 has a paralog, PCL10, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL025C SSN8 CNC1 | CycC | cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase regulator SSN8 | GIG3 | NUT9 | RYE2 | SRB11 | UME3 Cyclin-like component of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; involved in phosphorylation of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain; forms a kinase-cyclin pair in the RNAPII holoenzyme with Ssn3p; required for both entry into and execution of the meiotic program; involved in glucose repression and telomere maintenance; cyclin homolog 35% identical to human cyclin C
YHL027W RIM101 alkaline-responsive transcriptional regulator RIM101 | RIM1 Cys2His2 zinc-finger transcriptional repressor; involved in alkaline responsive gene repression as part of adaptation to alkaline conditions; involved in cell wall assembly; required for alkaline pH-stimulated haploid invasive growth and sporulation; activated by alkaline-dependent proteolytic processing which results in removal of the C-terminal tail; similar to A. nidulans PacC
YFR044C DUG1 metallodipeptidase Cys-Gly metallo-di-peptidase; forms a complex with Dug2p and Dug3p to degrade glutathione (GSH) and other peptides containing a gamma-glu-X bond in an alternative pathway to GSH degradation by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (Ecm38p); human homolog CNDP2 can complement yeast dug1 mutant
YGR155W CYS4 cystathionine beta-synthase CYS4 | NHS5 | STR4 | VMA41 Cystathionine beta-synthase; catalyzes synthesis of cystathionine from serine and homocysteine, the first committed step in cysteine biosynthesis; responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation; advances passage through START by promoting cell growth which requires catalytic activity, and reducing critical cell size independent of catalytic activity; mutations in human ortholog CBS cause homocystinuria; human CBS can complement yeast null mutant
YAL012W CYS3 CYI1 | cystathionine gamma-lyase CYS3 | FUN35 | STR1 Cystathionine gamma-lyase; catalyzes one of the two reactions involved in the transsulfuration pathway that yields cysteine from homocysteine with the intermediary formation of cystathionine; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YJR130C STR2 cystathionine gamma-synthase Cystathionine gamma-synthase, converts cysteine into cystathionine; STR2 has a paralog, YML082W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL239W LAP3 bleomycin hydrolase | BLH1 | GAL6 | YCP1 Cysteine aminopeptidase with homocysteine-thiolactonase activity; protects cells against homocysteine toxicity; has bleomycin hydrolase activity in vitro; transcription is regulated by galactose via Gal4p; orthologous to human BLMH
YCL017C NFS1 SPL1 Cysteine desulfurase; involved in iron-sulfur cluster (Fe/S) biogenesis and in thio-modification of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic tRNAs; essential protein located predominantly in mitochondria
YER048W-A ISD11 Cysteine desulfurase (Nfs1p) activator; essential for the formation of the persulfide intermediate at the desulfurase active site during pyridoxal phosphate-dependent desulfuration of cysteine; required for mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis; exclusive to eukaryotes, implicated as eukaryotic supplement to the bacterium-derived Fe-S cluster (ISC) assembly apparatus; involved in regulation of iron metabolism; member of the LYR protein family
YNL247W cysteine--tRNA ligase Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; human gene CARS allows growth of the yeast haploid null mutant after sporulation of a heterozygous diploid
YLR245C CDD1 cytidine deaminase Cytidine deaminase; catalyzes the modification of cytidine to uridine in vitro but native RNA substrates have not been identified, localizes to both the nucleus and cytoplasm
YNL111C CYB5 Cytochrome b5; involved in the sterol and lipid biosynthesis pathways; acts as an electron donor to support sterol C5-6 desaturation
YIL043C CBR1 CBR5 Cytochrome b reductase; not essential for viability; also detected in mitochondria; mutation in conserved NADH binding domain of the human ortholog results in type I methemoglobinemia
YOR065W CYT1 CTC1 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase catalytic subunit CYT1 | YOR29-16 Cytochrome c1; component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; expression is regulated by the heme-activated, glucose-repressed Hap2p/3p/4p/5p CCAAT-binding complex
YAL039C CYC3 CCHL | holocytochrome c synthase CYC3 Cytochrome c heme lyase (holocytochrome c synthase); attaches heme to apo-cytochrome c (Cyc1p or Cyc7p) in mitochondrial intermembrane space; human homolog HCCS implicated in microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS), and can complement yeast null mutant
YJR048W CYC1 cytochrome c isoform 1 Cytochrome c, isoform 1; also known as iso-1-cytochrome c; electron carrier of mitochondrial intermembrane space that transfers electrons from ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase to cytochrome c oxidase during cellular respiration; CYC1 has a paralog, CYC7, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human homolog CYC1 can complement yeast null mutant; mutations in human CYC1 cause insulin-responsive hyperglycemia
YEL039C CYC7 cytochrome c isoform 2 Cytochrome c isoform 2, expressed under hypoxic conditions; also known as iso-2-cytochrome c; electron carrier of the mitochondrial intermembrane space that transfers electrons from ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase to cytochrome c oxidase during cellular respiration; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; CYC7 has a paralog, CYC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNR018W RCF2 AIM38 Cytochrome c oxidase subunit; has a role in assembly of respiratory supercomplexes; similar to Rcf1p, and either Rcf1p or Rcf2p is required for late-stage assembly of the Cox12p and Cox13p subunits and for cytochrome c oxidase activity; associates with the cytochrome c oxidase - cytochrome bc1 supercomplex; null mutant accumulates reactive oxygen species; member of the conserved hypoxia induced gene family; C. elegans homolog is functional in yeast
YML030W RCF1 AIM31 Cytochrome c oxidase subunit; required for assembly of the Complex III-Complex IV supercomplex, and for assembly of Cox13p and Rcf2p into cytochrome c oxidase; similar to Rcf2p, and either Rcf1p or Rcf2p is required for late-stage assembly of the Cox12p and Cox13p subunits and for cytochrome c oxidase activity; required for growth under hypoxic conditions; member of the hypoxia induced gene family; C. elegans and human orthologs are functional in yeast
YLR387C REH1 Cytoplasmic 60S subunit biogenesis factor; associates with pre-60S particles; similar to Rei1p and shares partially redundant function in cytoplasmic 60S subunit maturation; contains dispersed C2H2 zinc finger domains
YMR169C ALD3 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(+)) ALD3 Cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase; involved in beta-alanine synthesis; uses NAD+ as the preferred coenzyme; very similar to Ald2p; expression is induced by stress and repressed by glucose
YMR170C ALD2 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(+)) ALD2 Cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase; involved in ethanol oxidation and beta-alanine biosynthesis; uses NAD+ as the preferred coenzyme; expression is stress induced and glucose repressed; very similar to Ald3p
YOR335C ALA1 alanine--tRNA ligase | CDC64 Cytoplasmic and mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase; required for protein synthesis; point mutation (cdc64-1 allele) causes cell cycle arrest at G1; lethality of null mutation is functionally complemented by human homolog AARS; mutations in human homolog AARS are associated with autoimmune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis
YBR121C GRS1 glycine--tRNA ligase Cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glycyl-tRNA synthase; ligates glycine to the cognate anticodon-bearing tRNA; transcription termination factor that may interact with the 3'-end of pre-mRNA to promote 3'-end formation; GRS1 has a paralog, GRS2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human homolog GARS implicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, can complement yeast null mutant
YPR033C HTS1 histidine--tRNA ligase | TS4572 | TSM4572 Cytoplasmic and mitochondrial histidine tRNA synthetase; efficient mitochondrial localization requires both a presequence and an amino-terminal sequence; mutations in human ortholog HARS2 are associated with Perrault syndrome
YHR113W APE4 aspartyl aminopeptidase Cytoplasmic aspartyl aminopeptidase with possible vacuole function; Cvt pathway cargo protein; cleaves unblocked N-terminal acidic amino acids from peptide substrates; forms a 12-subunit homo-oligomer; M18 metalloprotease family
YDL229W SSB1 Hsp70 family ATPase SSB1 | YG101 Cytoplasmic ATPase that is a ribosome-associated molecular chaperone; functions with J-protein partner Zuo1p; may be involved in folding of newly-made polypeptide chains; member of the HSP70 family; interacts with phosphatase subunit Reg1p; SSB1 has a paralog, SSB2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL209W SSB2 Hsp70 family ATPase SSB2 | YG103 Cytoplasmic ATPase that is a ribosome-associated molecular chaperone; functions with J-protein partner Zuo1p; may be involved in the folding of newly-synthesized polypeptide chains; member of the HSP70 family; SSB2 has a paralog, SSB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR046C DBP5 ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP5 | RAT8 Cytoplasmic ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DEAD-box family; involved in mRNA export from the nucleus, remodeling messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs), with ATPase activity stimulated by Gle1p, IP6 and Nup159p; involved in translation termination along with Sup45p (eRF1); role in the cellular response to heat stress
YMR186W HSC82 HSP90 | Hsp90 family chaperone HSC82 Cytoplasmic chaperone of the Hsp90 family; plays a role in determining prion variants; redundant in function and nearly identical with Hsp82p, and together they are essential; expressed constitutively at 10-fold higher basal levels than HSP82 and induced 2-3 fold by heat shock; contains two acid-rich unstructured regions that promote the solubility of chaperone-substrate complexes; HSC82 has a paralog, HSP82, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL084W BRO1 ASI6 | LPF2 | NPI3 | VPS31 Cytoplasmic class E vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) factor; coordinates deubiquitination in the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway by recruiting Doa4p to endosomes
YDL160C DHH1 DExD/H-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase DHH1 Cytoplasmic DEAD-box helicase, stimulates mRNA decapping; coordinates distinct steps in mRNA function and decay, interacting with both decapping and deadenylase complexes; role in translational repression, mRNA decay, and possibly mRNA export; interacts and cooperates with Ngr1p to promote specific mRNA decay; ATP- and RNA-bound form promotes processing body (PB) assembly, while ATPase stimulation by Not1p promotes PB disassembly; forms cytoplasmic foci on replication stress
YDR513W GRX2 dithiol glutaredoxin GRX2 | TTR1 Cytoplasmic glutaredoxin; thioltransferase, glutathione-dependent disulfide oxidoreductase involved in maintaining redox state of target proteins, also exhibits glutathione peroxidase activity, expression induced in response to stress; GRX2 has two in-frame start codons resulting in a shorter isoform that is retained in the cytosol and a longer form translocated to the mitochondrial matrix; GRX2 has a paralog, GRX1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR272W GLO2 hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase GLO2 Cytoplasmic glyoxalase II; catalyzes the hydrolysis of S-D-lactoylglutathione into glutathione and D-lactate; GLO2 has a paralog, GLO4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR100W MDR1 GYP2 | MIC1 Cytoplasmic GTPase-activating protein; activates Ypt/Rab transport GTPases Ypt6p, Ypt31p and Sec4p; involved in recycling of internalized proteins and regulation of Golgi secretory function
YNL163C RIA1 EFL1 | GTPase RIA1 Cytoplasmic GTPase/eEF2-like factor involved in ribosomal biogenesis; with Sdo1p, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), promotes release of Tif6p from 60S ribosomal subunits in the cytoplasm so that they can assemble with 40S subunits to generate mature ribosomes; required for quality control check of newly made large ribosomal subunits before they are released into the pool of translating ribosomes
YKR054C DYN1 DHC1 | dynein heavy chain | PAC6 Cytoplasmic heavy chain dynein; microtubule motor protein; member of the AAA+ protein family, required for anaphase spindle elongation; involved in spindle assembly, chromosome movement, and spindle orientation during cell division, targeted to microtubule tips by Pac1p; motility along microtubules inhibited by She1p
YBR011C IPP1 inorganic diphosphatase IPP1 | PPA1 Cytoplasmic inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase); homodimer that catalyzes the rapid exchange of oxygens from Pi with water, highly expressed and essential for viability, active-site residues show identity to those from E. coli PPase
YBL076C ILS1 isoleucine--tRNA ligase ILS1 Cytoplasmic isoleucine-tRNA synthetase; target of the G1-specific inhibitor reveromycin A
YDR424C DYN2 dynein light chain | SLC1 Cytoplasmic light chain dynein, microtubule motor protein; required for intracellular transport and cell division; involved in mitotic spindle positioning; forms complex with dynein intermediate chain Pac11p that promotes Dyn1p homodimerization, potentiates motor processivity; Dyn2p-Pac11p complex important for interaction of dynein motor complex with dynactin complex; acts as molecular glue to dimerize, stabilize Nup82-Nsp1-Nup159 complex module of cytoplasmic pore filaments
YOL126C MDH2 malate dehydrogenase MDH2 Cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase; one of three isozymes that catalyze interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate; involved in the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis during growth on two-carbon compounds; interacts with Pck1p and Fbp1
YPL015C HST2 histone deacetylase HST2 Cytoplasmic NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase; deacetylation targets are primarily cytoplasmic proteins; member of the silencing information regulator 2 (Sir2) family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases; modulates nucleolar (rDNA) and telomeric silencing; possesses NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase activity in vitro; contains a nuclear export signal (NES); function regulated by its nuclear export
YDL207W GLE1 BRR3 | NLE2 | nucleoporin GLE1 | RSS1 Cytoplasmic nucleoporin required for polyadenylated mRNA export; contains a nuclear export signal; when bound to inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), functions as an activator for the Dbp5p ATPase activity at the nuclear pore complex during mRNA export; mediates translation initiation; required for efficient translation termination
YDR155C CPR1 CPH1 | CYP1 | peptidylprolyl isomerase CPR1 Cytoplasmic peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; binds the drug cyclosporin A; N-terminally propionylated in vivo; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR006C SSK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase SSK1 Cytoplasmic phosphorelay intermediate osmosensor and regulator; part of a two-component signal transducer that mediates osmosensing via a phosphorelay mechanism; required for mitophagy; dephosphorylated form is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system; potential Cdc28p substrate
YBR267W REI1 Cytoplasmic pre-60S factor; required for the correct recycling of shuttling factors Alb1, Arx1 and Tif6 at the end of the ribosomal large subunit biogenesis; involved in bud growth in the mitotic signaling network
YMR174C PAI3 IA3 Cytoplasmic proteinase A (Pep4p) inhibitor; dependent on Pbs2p and Hog1p protein kinases for osmotic induction; intrinsically unstructured, N-terminal half becomes ordered in the active site of proteinase A upon contact
YGR268C HUA1 Cytoplasmic protein containing a zinc finger domain; sequence similarity to that of Type I J-proteins; computational analysis of large-scale protein-protein interaction data suggests a possible role in actin patch assembly
YAL049C AIM2 protein AIM2 Cytoplasmic protein involved in mitochondrial function or organization; null mutant displays reduced frequency of mitochondrial genome loss; potential Hsp82p interactor
YJL217W REE1 Cytoplasmic protein involved in the regulation of enolase (ENO1); mRNA expression is induced by calcium shortage, copper deficiency (via Mac1p) and the presence of galactose (via Gal4p); mRNA expression is also regulated by the cell cycle
YPL263C KEL3 Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function
YBR138C HDR1 Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function; APCC(Cdh1) substrate; potentially phosphorylated by Cdc28p; YBR138C is not an essential gene
YOR284W HUA2 Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function; computational analysis of large-scale protein-protein interaction data suggests a possible role in actin patch assembly
YLR427W MAG2 Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function; induced in response to mycotoxin patulin; ubiquitinated protein similar to the human ring finger motif protein RNF10; predicted to be involved in repair of alkylated DNA due to interaction with MAG1
YPL108W Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function; non-essential gene that is induced in a GDH1 deleted strain with altered redox metabolism; GFP-fusion protein is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YNL212W VID27 Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function; possibly involved in vacuolar protein degradation; not essential for proteasome-dependent degradation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase); null mutants exhibit normal growth; contains two PH-like domains
YKR078W Cytoplasmic protein of unknown function; potential Cdc28p substrate; contains a Phox homology (PX) domain and specifically binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns-3-P); YKR078W has a paralog, VPS5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL022C TSR4 Cytoplasmic protein required for correct processing of 20S pre-rRNA; protein required for processing of the 20S pre-rRNA at site D to generate mature 18S rRNA; essential gene in S288C background but not in CEN.PK2
YDR067C OCA6 protein-tyrosine-phosphatase Cytoplasmic protein required for replication of Brome mosaic virus; S. cerevisiae is a model system for studying positive-strand RNA virus replication; null mutation confers sensitivity to tunicamycin and DTT
YHL029C OCA5 Cytoplasmic protein required for replication of Brome mosaic virus; S. cerevisiae is a model system for studying replication of positive-strand RNA viruses in their natural hosts
YCR095C OCA4 Cytoplasmic protein required for replication of Brome mosaic virus; S. cerevisiae is a model system for studying replication of positive-strand RNA viruses in their natural hosts
YDL001W RMD1 Cytoplasmic protein required for sporulation
YFR017C IGD1 Cytoplasmic protein that inhibits Gdb1p glycogen debranching activity; required for normal intracellular accumulation of glycogen; phosphorylated in vivo; expression increases during wine fermentation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; IGD1 has a paralog, YOL024W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL137C GIP3 protein phosphatase regulator GIP3 Cytoplasmic protein that regulates protein phosphatase 1 Glc7p; overexpression relocalizes Glc7p from the nucleus and prevents chromosome segregation; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; GIP3 has a paralog, HER1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YAL031C GIP4 FUN21 | protein phosphatase regulator GIP4 Cytoplasmic protein that regulates protein phosphatase 1 Glc7p; protein overexpression relocalizes Glc7p from the nucleus and prevents chromosome segregation; potential Cdc28p substrate
YIR001C SGN1 RBP1 | RBP29 Cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein; contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM); may have a role in mRNA translation, as suggested by genetic interactions with genes encoding proteins involved in translational initiation
YCL037C SRO9 Cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein; shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm and is exported from the nucleus in an mRNA export-dependent manner; associates with translating ribosomes; involved in heme regulation of Hap1p as a component of the HMC complex, also involved in the organization of actin filaments; contains a La motif; SRO9 has a paralog, SLF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR247W VHS1 putative serine/threonine protein kinase VHS1 Cytoplasmic serine/threonine protein kinase; identified as a high-copy suppressor of the synthetic lethality of a sis2 sit4 double mutant, suggesting a role in G1/S phase progression; VHS1 has a paralog, SKS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR209C TRX2 LMA1 | thioredoxin TRX2 Cytoplasmic thioredoxin isoenzyme; part of thioredoxin system which protects cells against oxidative and reductive stress; forms LMA1 complex with Pbi2p; acts as a cofactor for Tsa1p; required for ER-Golgi transport and vacuole inheritance; with Trx1p, facilitates mitochondrial import of small Tims Tim9p, Tim10p, Tim13p by maintaining them in reduced form; abundance increases under DNA replication stress; TRX2 has a paralog, TRX1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR043C TRX1 LMA1 | thioredoxin TRX1 Cytoplasmic thioredoxin isoenzyme; part of thioredoxin system which protects cells against oxidative and reductive stress; forms LMA1 complex with Pbi2p; acts as a cofactor for Tsa1p; required for ER-Golgi transport and vacuole inheritance; with Trx2p, facilitates mitochondrial import of small Tims Tim9p, Tim10p, Tim13p by maintaining them in reduced form; abundance increases iunder DNA replication stress; TRX1 has a paralog, TRX2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR353W TRR1 thioredoxin-disulfide reductase TRR1 Cytoplasmic thioredoxin reductase; key regulatory enzyme that determines the redox state of the thioredoxin system, which acts as a disulfide reductase system and protects cells against both oxidative and reductive stress; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; TRR1 has a paralog, TRR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR204W ADE3 trifunctional formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase/methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase/methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase ADE3 Cytoplasmic trifunctional enzyme C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase; involved in single carbon metabolism and required for biosynthesis of purines, thymidylate, methionine, and histidine; null mutation causes auxotrophy for adenine and histidine
YOL097C WRS1 HRE342 | tryptophan--tRNA ligase WRS1 Cytoplasmic tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase; aminoacylates tryptophanyl-tRNA; human homolog WARS can complement yeast null mutant
YBR125C PTC4 GCT1 | type 2C protein phosphatase PTC4 Cytoplasmic type 2C protein phosphatase (PP2C); identified as a high-copy number suppressor of cnb1 mpk1 synthetic lethality; overexpression decreases high-osmolarity induced Hog1p phosphorylation and kinase activity
YGR185C TYS1 TTS1 | tyrosine--tRNA ligase TYS1 | TyrRS Cytoplasmic tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase; required for cytoplasmic protein synthesis; interacts with positions 34 and 35 of the tRNATyr anticodon; mutations in human ortholog YARS are associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathies; human ortholog YARS functionally complements the heat sensitivity of a ts allele; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR024C UBR2 putative ubiquitin-protein ligase UBR2 Cytoplasmic ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3); component of the Mub1p-Ubr2p-Rad6p ubiquitin ligase complex required for the ubiquitination and degradation of Rpn4p; mediates formation of the ternary complex
YPR062W FCY1 cytosine deaminase | yCD Cytosine deaminase; zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine to uracil; of biomedical interest because it also catalyzes the deamination of 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) to form anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU)
YBL007C SLA1 cytoskeletal protein-binding protein SLA1 Cytoskeletal protein binding protein; required for assembly of the cortical actin cytoskeleton; interacts with proteins regulating actin dynamics and proteins required for endocytosis; found in the nucleus and cell cortex; has 3 SH3 domains
YPL061W ALD6 ALD1 | aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) ALD6 Cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase; activated by Mg2+ and utilizes NADP+ as the preferred coenzyme; required for conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate; constitutively expressed; locates to the mitochondrial outer surface upon oxidative stress
YPL091W GLR1 glutathione-disulfide reductase GLR1 | LPG17 Cytosolic and mitochondrial glutathione oxidoreductase; converts oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione; cytosolic Glr1p is the main determinant of the glutathione redox state of the mitochondrial intermembrane space; mitochondrial Glr1p has a role in resistance to hyperoxia; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YJR148W BAT2 branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase BAT2 | ECA40 | TWT2 Cytosolic branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase; preferentially involved in BCAA catabolism; homolog of murine ECA39; highly expressed during stationary phase and repressed during logarithmic phase; BAT2 has a paralog, BAT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR088W CTT1 catalase T | SPS101 Cytosolic catalase T; has a role in protection from oxidative damage by hydrogen peroxide
YNL259C ATX1 copper metallochaperone ATX1 Cytosolic copper metallochaperone; transports copper to the secretory vesicle copper transporter Ccc2p for eventual insertion into Fet3p, which is a multicopper oxidase required for high-affinity iron uptake; human homolog ATOX1 can complement yeast atx1 mutant; overexpression of human ATOX1 suppresses lysine auxotrophy of the yeast sod1 null mutant, as does overexpression of yeast ATX1
YJR104C SOD1 CRS4 | superoxide dismutase SOD1 Cytosolic copper-zinc superoxide dismutase; detoxifies superoxide; stabilizes Yck1p and Yck2p kinases in glucose to repress respiration; phosphorylated by Dun1p, enters nucleus under oxidative stress to promote transcription of stress response genes; human ortholog SOD1 implicated in ALS complements a null allele; abundance increases under DNA replication stress and during exposure to boric acid; localization to mitochondrial intermembrane space is modulated by MICOS complex
YNL015W PBI2 I2B | IB2 | LMA1 Cytosolic inhibitor of vacuolar proteinase B (PRB1); required for efficient vacuole inheritance; with thioredoxin forms protein complex LMA1, which assists in priming SNARE molecules and promotes vacuole fusion; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YIR004W DJP1 ICS1 | PAS22 Cytosolic J-domain-containing protein; required for peroxisomal protein import and involved in peroxisome assembly; facilitates import of Mim1p and Mim2p into the mitochondrial outer membrane; homologous to E. coli DnaJ
YPL160W CDC60 leucine--tRNA ligase CDC60 | LeuRS Cytosolic leucyl tRNA synthetase; ligates leucine to the appropriate tRNA; human homolog LARS can complement yeast temperature-sensitive mutant at restrictive temperature
YGL220W BOL2 AIM15 | FRA2 Cytosolic protein involved in repression of iron regulon transcription; forms an iron-independent complex with Fra1p, Grx3p, and Grx4p; null mutant fails to repress the iron regulon and is sensitive to nickel; sequence similarity to human BOLA family member, BOLA2
YFR048W RMD8 Cytosolic protein required for sporulation
YLR058C SHM2 glycine hydroxymethyltransferase SHM2 | SHMT2 Cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase; converts serine to glycine plus 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate; major isoform involved in generating precursors for purine, pyrimidine, amino acid, and lipid biosynthesis
YDR023W SES1 serine--tRNA ligase SES1 | SerRS Cytosolic seryl-tRNA synthetase; class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that aminoacylates tRNA(Ser), displays tRNA-dependent amino acid recognition which enhances discrimination of the serine substrate, interacts with peroxin Pex21p
YDL178W DLD2 AIP2 | D-lactate dehydrogenase D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, and minor D-lactate dehydrogenase; mitochondrial matrix protein that oxidizes D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), an oncometabolite, to alpha-ketoglutarate with a minor role in lactate catabolism; located in the mitochondrial matrix
YEL066W HPA3 D-amino-acid N-acetyltransferase D-Amino acid N-acetyltransferase that detoxifies D-amino acids; catalyzes N-acetylation of D-amino acids through ordered bi-bi mechanism in which acetyl-CoA is first substrate bound and CoA is last product liberated; acetylates histones and polyamines, also autoacetylates
YML086C ALO1 D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase D-Arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase; catalyzes the final step in biosynthesis of dehydro-D-arabinono-1,4-lactone, which is protective against oxidative stress
YOR264W DSE3 Daughter cell-specific protein, may help establish daughter fate; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YER124C DSE1 Daughter cell-specific protein; may regulate cross-talk between the mating and filamentation pathways; deletion affects cell separation after division and sensitivity to alpha-factor and drugs affecting the cell wall; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YNR067C DSE4 endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase | ENG1 Daughter cell-specific secreted protein with similarity to glucanases; degrades cell wall from the daughter side causing daughter to separate from mother
YOR022C DDL1 putative carboxylic ester hydrolase DDHD domain-containing phospholipase A1; mitochondrial matrix enzyme with sn-1-specific activity, hydrolyzing cardiolipin, PE, PC, PG and PA; implicated in remodeling of mitochondrial phospholipids; antagonistically regulated by Aft1p and Aft2p; in humans, mutations in DDHD1 and DDHD2 genes cause specific types of hereditary spastic paraplegia, while DDL1-defective yeast share similar phenotypes such as mitochondrial dysfunction and defects in lipid metabolism
YJL033W HCA4 DBP4 | ECM24 | RNA-dependent ATPase HCA4 DEAD box RNA helicase; component of the SSU; interacts with Bfr2p and Enp2p; high-copy number suppression of a U14 snoRNA processing mutant suggests an involvement in 18S rRNA synthesis
YCR077C PAT1 MRT1 Deadenylation-dependent mRNA-decapping factor; also required for faithful chromosome transmission, maintenance of rDNA locus stability, and protection of mRNA 3'-UTRs from trimming; associated with topoisomerase II; binds to mRNAs under glucose starvation, most often in the 3' UTR; functionally linked to Pab1p; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress; phosphorylation by PKA inhibits P body foci formation
YER013W PRP22 DEAH-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase PRP22 DEAH-box RNA-dependent ATPase/ATP-dependent RNA helicase; associates with lariat intermediates before the second catalytic step of splicing; mediates ATP-dependent mRNA release from the spliceosome and unwinds RNA duplexes; required for proofreading the exon ligation reaction
YKR086W PRP16 DEAH-box RNA helicase PRP16 | PRP23 | RNA16 DEAH-box RNA helicase involved in second catalytic step of splicing and in exon ligation; exhibits ATP-dependent RNA unwinding activity; mediates the release of Yju2p and Cwc25p in the second step; in the absence of ATP, stabilizes the binding of Cwc25p to the spliceosome in the first catalytic step; missense mutation in human ortholog DHX38 associated with early-onset retinitis pigmentosa
YKR029C SET3 histone-binding protein SET3 Defining member of the SET3 histone deacetylase complex; which is a meiosis-specific repressor of sporulation genes; necessary for efficient transcription by RNAPII; one of two yeast proteins that contains both SET and PHD domains; SET3 has a paralog, SET4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR110C HFD1 hexadecenal dehydrogenase Dehydrogenase involved in ubiquinone and sphingolipid metabolism; oxidizes 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde into 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in ubiquinone biosynthesis; converts hexadecenal to hexadecenoic acid in sphingosine 1-phosphate breakdown pathway; located in the mitochondrial outer membrane and also in lipid particles; human homolog ALDH3A2, a fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) mutated in neurocutaneous disorder Sjogren-Larsson syndrome, can complement yeast hfd1 mutant
YBR007C DSF2 Deletion suppressor of mpt5 mutation; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YHR037W PUT2 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase; nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein involved in utilization of proline as sole nitrogen source; deficiency of human homolog ALDH4A1 causes type II hyperprolinemia (HPII), an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism; human homolog ALDH4A1 can complement yeast null mutant
YER023W PRO3 ORE2 | pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase Delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase; catalyzes the last step in proline biosynthesis
YML008C ERG6 ISE1 | LIS1 | SED6 | sterol 24-C-methyltransferase | VID1 Delta(24)-sterol C-methyltransferase; converts zymosterol to fecosterol in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway by methylating position C-24; localized to lipid particles, the plasma membrane-associated endoplasmic reticulum, and the mitochondrial outer membrane
YOR274W MOD5 [MOD+] | tRNA dimethylallyltransferase Delta 2-isopentenyl pyrophosphate:tRNA isopentenyl transferase; required for biosynthesis of isopentenyladenosine in mitochondrial and cytoplasmic tRNAs; also has a role in tRNA gene-mediated silencing; gene encodes two isozymic forms; converts to a prion form, prion conversion contributes to azole antifungal resistance by upregulating ergosterol biosynthesis; homolog of human TRIT1, a mutation in which is associated with severe combined respiratory chain defects
YGL055W OLE1 MDM2 | stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase Delta(9) fatty acid desaturase; required for monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis and for normal distribution of mitochondria
YPL195W APL5 YKS4 Delta adaptin-like subunit of the clathrin associated protein complex; functions in transport of alkaline phosphatase to the vacuole via the alternate pathway; suppressor of loss of casein kinase 1 function; the clathrin associated protein complex is also known as AP-3
YFR051C RET2 coatomer subunit delta Delta subunit of the coatomer complex (COPI); COPI coats Golgi-derived transport vesicles; involved in retrograde transport between Golgi and ER
YMR149W SWP1 dolichyl-diphosphooligosaccharide-protein glycotransferase Delta subunit of the oligosaccharyl transferase glycoprotein complex; complex is required for N-linked glycosylation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum
YGR083C GCD2 GCD12 | translation initiation factor eIF2B subunit delta Delta subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2B; the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2; activity subsequently regulated by phosphorylated eIF2; first identified as a negative regulator of GCN4 expression
YHR144C DCD1 deoxycytidine monophosphate deaminase Deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP) deaminase; involved in dUMP and dTMP biosynthesis; expression is NOT cell cycle regulated
YOR346W REV1 deoxycytidyl transferase Deoxycytidyl transferase; involved in repair of abasic sites and adducted guanines in damaged DNA by translesion synthesis (TLS); forms a complex with the subunits of DNA polymerase zeta, Rev3p and Rev7p; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YJR070C LIA1 MMD1 Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase; HEAT-repeat containing metalloenzyme that catalyzes hypusine formation; binds to and is required for the modification of Hyp2p (eIF5A); complements S. pombe mmd1 mutants defective in mitochondrial positioning; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YHR068W DYS1 deoxyhypusine synthase Deoxyhypusine synthase; catalyzes formation of deoxyhypusine, the first step in hypusine biosynthesis; triggers posttranslational hypusination of translation elongation factor eIF-5A and regulates its intracellular levels; tetrameric; human homolog DHPS allows growth of yeast haploid dys1 null mutant after sporulation of heterozygous diploid
YBR252W DUT1 bifunctional dITP/dUTP diphosphatase Deoxyuridine triphosphate diphosphatase (dUTPase); catalyzes hydrolysis of dUTP to dUMP and PPi, thereby preventing incorporation of uracil into DNA during replication; critical for the maintenance of genetic stability; also has diphosphatase activity on deoxyinosine triphosphate; human homolog DUT allows growth of yeast haploid dut1 null mutant after sporulation of heterozygous diploid
YPL072W UBP16 putative ubiquitin-specific protease UBP16 Deubiquitinating enzyme anchored to the outer mitochondrial membrane; probably not important for general mitochondrial functioning, but may perform a more specialized function at mitochondria
YFL044C OTU1 ubiquitin-specific protease OTU1 | YOD1 Deubiquitylation enzyme that binds to the chaperone-ATPase Cdc48p; may contribute to regulation of protein degradation by deubiquitylating substrates that have been ubiquitylated by Ufd2p; member of the Ovarian Tumor (OTU) family; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR245C DGA1 diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase Diacylglycerol acyltransferase; catalyzes the terminal step of triacylglycerol (TAG) formation, acylates diacylglycerol using acyl-CoA as an acyl donor; Lro1p and Dga1p can O-acylate ceramides; localized to lipid particles
YOR311C DGK1 diacylglycerol kinase | HSD1 Diacylglycerol kinase; localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); overproduction induces enlargement of ER-like membrane structures and suppresses a temperature-sensitive sly1 mutation; contains a CTP transferase domain
YDR284C DPP1 bifunctional diacylglycerol diphosphate phosphatase/phosphatidate phosphatase | ZRG1 Diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) phosphatase; zinc-regulated vacuolar membrane-associated lipid phosphatase, dephosphorylates DGPP to phosphatidate (PA) and Pi, then PA to diacylglycerol; involved in lipid signaling and cell metabolism
YDR530C APA2 bifunctional AP-4-A phosphorylase/ADP sulfurylase Diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate phosphorylase II; AP4A phosphorylase involved in catabolism of bis(5'-nucleosidyl) tetraphosphates; APA2 has a paralog, APA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL265W DIP5 Dicarboxylic amino acid permease; mediates high-affinity and high-capacity transport of L-glutamate and L-aspartate; also a transporter for Gln, Asn, Ser, Ala, and Gly; relocalizes from plasma membrane to vacuole upon DNA replication stress
YOR236W DFR1 dihydrofolate reductase Dihydrofolate reductase involved in tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis; required for respiratory metabolism; mutation is functionally complemented by human DHFR
YMR113W FOL3 dihydrofolate synthase Dihydrofolate synthetase, involved in folic acid biosynthesis; catalyzes conversion of dihydropteroate to dihydrofolate in folate coenzyme biosynthesis; FOL3 has a paralog, RMA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL071W LAT1 dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase | ODP2 | PDA2 Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component (E2) of the PDC; the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA
YFL018C LPD1 dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase | HPD1 Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase; the lipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase multi-enzyme complexes; PDH complex is concentrated in spots within the mitochondrial matrix, often near the ERMES complex and near peroxisomes; LPD1 has a paralog, IRC15, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR148C KGD2 alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase KGD2 Dihydrolipoyl transsuccinylase; component of the mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA in the TCA cycle; phosphorylated
YLR420W URA4 dihydroorotase Dihydroorotase; catalyzes the third enzymatic step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines, converting carbamoyl-L-aspartate into dihydroorotate
YKL216W URA1 dihydroorotate dehydrogenase Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase; catalyzes the fourth enzymatic step in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines, converting dihydroorotic acid into orotic acid
YDR294C DPL1 BST1 | sphinganine-1-phosphate aldolase DPL1 Dihydrosphingosine phosphate lyase; regulates intracellular levels of sphingolipid long-chain base phosphates (LCBPs), degrades phosphorylated long chain bases, prefers C16 dihydrosphingosine-l-phosphate as a substrate
YNR015W SMM1 DUS2 Dihydrouridine synthase; member of a family of dihydrouridine synthases including Dus1p, Smm1p, Dus3p, and Dus4p; modifies uridine residues at position 20 of cytoplasmic tRNAs
YLR405W DUS4 tRNA dihydrouridine synthase Dihydrouridine synthase; member of a widespread family of conserved proteins including Smm1p, Dus1p, and Dus3p
YLR401C DUS3 tRNA dihydrouridine synthase DUS3 Dihydrouridine synthase; member of a widespread family of conserved proteins including Smm1p, Dus1p, and Dus4p; contains a consensus oleate response element (ORE) in its promoter region; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YML080W DUS1 tRNA dihydrouridine synthase Dihydrouridine synthase; member of a widespread family of conserved proteins including Smm1p, Dus3p, and Dus4p; modifies pre-tRNA(Phe) at U17
YML070W DAK1 dihydroxyacetone kinase Dihydroxyacetone kinase; required for detoxification of dihydroxyacetone (DHA); involved in stress adaptation
YJR016C ILV3 dihydroxy-acid dehydratase ILV3 Dihydroxyacid dehydratase; catalyzes third step in the common pathway leading to biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids
YDR399W HPT1 BRA6 | HGPRTase | HPRT | hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase Dimeric hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase; catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoribosyl portion of 5-phosphoribosyl-alpha-1-pyrophosphate to a purine base (either guanine or hypoxanthine) to form pyrophosphate and a purine nucleotide (either guanosine monophosphate or inosine monophosphate); mutations in the human homolog HPRT1 can cause Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and Kelley-Seegmiller syndrome
YDR305C HNT2 APH1 | bis(5'-adenosyl)-triphosphatase Dinucleoside triphosphate hydrolase; has similarity to the tumor suppressor FHIT and belongs to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily of nucleotide-binding proteins
YOL057W dipeptidyl-peptidase III Dipeptidyl-peptidase III; cleaves dipeptides from the amino terminus of target proteins; highly active on synthetic substrate Arg-Arg-2-naphthylamide; mammalian ortholog may be a biomarker for some cancers
YLR143W DPH6 diphthine--ammonia ligase Diphthamide synthetase; catalyzes the last amidation step of diphthamide biosynthesis using ammonium and ATP; evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes; dph6 mutants exhibit diphthine accumulation and resistance to sordarin, which is indicative of defects in diphthamide formation on EF2; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged protein localizes to the cytoplasm; DPH6/YLR143W is not an essential gene
YLL026W HSP104 chaperone ATPase HSP104 Disaggregase; heat shock protein that cooperates with Ydj1p (Hsp40) and Ssa1p (Hsp70) to refold and reactivate previously denatured, aggregated proteins; responsive to stresses including: heat, ethanol, and sodium arsenite; involved in [PSI+] propagation; protein becomes more abundant and forms cytoplasmic foci in response to DNA replication stress; potentiated Hsp104p variants decrease TDP-43 proteotoxicity by eliminating its cytoplasmic aggregation
YER062C GPP2 glycerol-1-phosphatase HOR2 | HOR2 DL-glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase involved in glycerol biosynthesis; also known as glycerol-1-phosphatase; induced in response to hyperosmotic or oxidative stress, and during diauxic shift; GPP2 has a paralog, GPP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR258W HNT3 DNA 5'-adenosine monophosphate hydrolase DNA 5' AMP hydrolase involved in DNA repair; member of the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily of nucleotide-binding proteins; homolog of Aprataxin, a Hint related protein that is mutated in individuals with ataxia with oculomotor apraxia; relative distribution to nuclear foci decreases upon DNA replication stress
YER111C SWI4 ART1 | SBF complex DNA-binding subunit SWI4 DNA binding component of the SBF complex (Swi4p-Swi6p); a transcriptional activator that in concert with MBF (Mbp1-Swi6p) regulates late G1-specific transcription of targets including cyclins and genes required for DNA synthesis and repair; Slt2p-independent regulator of cold growth; acetylation at two sites, K1016 and K1066, regulates interaction with Swi6p
YHR120W MSH1 mismatch repair ATPase MSH1 DNA-binding protein of the mitochondria; involved in repair of mitochondrial DNA; has ATPase activity and binds to DNA mismatches; has homology to E. coli MutS; transcription is induced during meiosis
YML113W DAT1 DNA binding protein that recognizes oligo(dA).oligo(dT) tracts; Arg side chain in its N-terminal pentad Gly-Arg-Lys-Pro-Gly repeat is required for DNA-binding; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; not essential for viability
YKL112W ABF1 BAF1 | DNA-binding protein ABF1 | GFI | OBF1 | REB2 | SBF1 | SBF-B DNA binding protein with possible chromatin-reorganizing activity; involved in transcriptional activation, gene silencing, and DNA replication and repair
YIL122W POG1 DNA-binding transcriptional activator; involved in cell cycle regulation; overexpression promotes recovery from pheromone induced arrest via CLN1/2 transcription, induction of of IME1 during sporulation, and suppression of stress sensitivity resulting from mutation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p; binds upstream of BAR1 and cell cycle-related genes; phosphorylated form may be ubiquitinated by Dma2p; potential Cdc28p substrate; regulated by Swi4/6 cell-cycle box binding factor (SBF)
YLR098C CHA4 SIL2 | SIL3 DNA binding transcriptional activator; mediates serine/threonine activation of the catabolic L-serine (L-threonine) deaminase (CHA1); Zinc-finger protein with Zn[2]-Cys[6] fungal-type binuclear cluster domain
YPL194W DDC1 DNA damage checkpoint protein; part of a PCNA-like complex required for DNA damage response, required for pachytene checkpoint to inhibit cell cycle in response to unrepaired recombination intermediates; potential Cdc28p substrate; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YDR217C RAD9 chromatin-binding protein RAD9 DNA damage-dependent checkpoint protein; required for cell-cycle arrest in G1/S, intra-S, and G2/M, plays a role in postreplication repair (PRR) pathway; transmits checkpoint signal by activating Rad53p and Chk1p; hyperphosphorylated by Mec1p and Tel1p; multiple cyclin dependent kinase consensus sites and the C-terminal BRCT domain contribute to DNA damage checkpoint activation; Rad9p Chk1 Activating Domain (CAD) is phosphorylated at multiple sites by Cdc28p/Clb2p
YER143W DDI1 VSM1 DNA damage-inducible v-SNARE binding protein; role in suppression of protein secretion; may play a role in S-phase checkpoint control; has ubiquitin-associated (UBA), ubiquitin-like (UBL), and retroviral-like proteinase (RVP) domains
YPL153C RAD53 LSD1 | MEC2 | serine/threonine/tyrosine protein kinase RAD53 | SPK1 DNA damage response kinase; signal transduction pathway component required for DNA damage and replication checkpoints, promoting cell cycle arrest and DNA repair; role in initiation of DNA replication; inhibits gene gating through NPC protein phosphorylation, to promote fork stability; activates downstream kinase Dun1p; senses mtDNA depletion and mitochondrial ROS; relocalizes to cytosol under hypoxia; contains two FHA domains; human homolog CHEK2 implicated in breast cancer complements the null
YMR173W DDR48 DNA damage-responsive protein 48 | FSP DNA damage-responsive protein; expression is increased in response to heat-shock stress or treatments that produce DNA lesions; contains multiple repeats of the amino acid sequence NNNDSYGS; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YER176W ECM32 HEL1 | MTT1 DNA dependent ATPase/DNA helicase; helicase belonging to the Dna2p- and Nam7p-like family of helicases that is involved in modulating translation termination; interacts with the translation termination factors, localized to polysomes
YBR073W RDH54 DNA-dependent ATPase RDH54 | TID1 DNA-dependent ATPase; DNA recombination/repair translocase, supercoils DNA and promotes DNA strand opening; stimulates strand exchange by modifying dsDNA topology; involved in recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during mitosis and meiosis; phosphorylated in Mec1p-, Rad53p-dependent way in response to one DSB; contributes to remodelling of nucleosomes; proposed to be involved in crossover interference; interacts with Dmc1p; stimulates Dmc1p and Rad51p
YGL163C RAD54 DNA-dependent ATPase RAD54 | XRS1 DNA-dependent ATPase that stimulates strand exchange; modifies the topology of double-stranded DNA; involved in the recombinational repair of double-strand breaks in DNA during vegetative growth and meiosis; member of the SWI/SNF family of DNA translocases; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YJL092W SRS2 DNA helicase SRS2 | HPR5 | RADH | RADH1 DNA helicase and DNA-dependent ATPase; role in DNA repair and checkpoint recovery, in the proper timing of commitment to meiotic recombination and the Meiosis I to II transition; blocks trinucleotide repeat expansion; affects genome stability; disassembles Rad51p nucleoprotein filaments during meiotic recombination; stimulates Mus81p-Mms4p endonuclease activity independent of catalytic activity; ATPase and ssDNA translocating motor activities inhibited by Dmc1p; functional homolog of human RTEL1
YHR031C RRM3 RTT104 DNA helicase involved in rDNA replication and Ty1 transposition; binds to and suppresses DNA damage at G4 motifs in vivo; relieves replication fork pauses at telomeric regions; structurally and functionally related to Pif1p
YLR032W RAD5 DNA helicase RAD5 | REV2 | SNM2 DNA helicase/Ubiquitin ligase; involved in error-free DNA damage tolerance (DDT), replication fork regression during postreplication repair by template switching, error-prone translesion synthesis; promotes synthesis of free and PCNA-bound polyubiquitin chains by Ubc13p-Mms2p; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress; associates with native telomeres, cooperates with homologous recombination in senescent cells; human homolog HLTF can complement yeast null mutant
YDL164C CDC9 DNA ligase (ATP) CDC9 | MMS8 DNA ligase I found in nucleus and mitochondria; essential enzyme that joins Okazaki fragments during DNA replication; also acts in ribonucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and recombination; DNA ligase I mutants trigger ubiquitination of PCNA at K107, facilitating Rad59p-mediated bypass of unligated Okazaki fragments; human homolog LIG1 can complement yeast cdc9 temperature-sensitive mutant at restrictive temperature
YAL015C NTG1 bifunctional N-glycosylase/AP lyase NTG1 | FUN33 | ogg2 | SCR1 DNA N-glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase; involved in base excision repair; acts in both nucleus and mitochondrion; creates a double-strand break at mtDNA origins that stimulates replication in response to oxidative stress; required for maintaining mitochondrial genome integrity; NTG1 has a paralog, NTG2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL043C NTG2 bifunctional N-glycosylase/AP lyase NTG2 | SCR2 DNA N-glycosylase and apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) lyase; involved in base excision repair, localizes to the nucleus; sumoylated; NTG2 has a paralog, NTG1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR386W PHR1 deoxyribodipyrimidine photo-lyase PHR1 DNA photolyase involved in photoreactivation; repairs pyrimidine dimers in the presence of visible light; induced by DNA damage; regulated by transcriptional repressor Rph1p
YDR419W RAD30 DBH1 | DNA-directed DNA polymerase eta DNA polymerase eta; involved in translesion synthesis during post-replication repair; catalyzes the synthesis of DNA opposite cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and other lesions; involved in formation of post-replicative damage-induced genome-wide cohesion; may also have a role in protection against mitochondrial mutagenesis; mutations in human pol eta are responsible for XPV
YEL055C POL5 DNA-directed DNA polymerase DNA Polymerase phi; has sequence similarity to the human MybBP1A and weak sequence similarity to B-type DNA polymerases, not required for chromosomal DNA replication; required for the synthesis of rRNA
YLR103C CDC45 DNA replication initiation factor CDC45 | SLD4 DNA replication initiation factor; recruited to MCM pre-RC complexes at replication origins; promotes release of MCM from Mcm10p, recruits elongation machinery; binds tightly to ssDNA, which disrupts interaction with the MCM helicase and stalls it during replication stress; mutants in human homolog may cause velocardiofacial and DiGeorge syndromes
YJL090C DPB11 protein kinase activating protein DPB11 DNA replication initiation protein; loads DNA pol epsilon onto pre-replication complexes at origins; checkpoint sensor recruited to stalled replication forks by the checkpoint clamp complex where it activates Mec1p; along with Rfa1p, binds to ultrafine anaphase bridges in mitotic cells and prevents accumulation of chromatin bridges by stimulating the Mec1p kinase and suppressing homologous recombination; ortholog of human TopBP1; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YJR046W TAH11 CDT1 | SID2 DNA replication licensing factor; required for pre-replication complex assembly
YLR234W TOP3 DNA topoisomerase 3 | EDR1 DNA Topoisomerase III; conserved protein that functions in a complex with Sgs1p and Rmi1p to relax single-stranded negatively-supercoiled DNA preferentially; DNA catenation/decatenation activity is stimulated by RPA and Sgs1p-Top3p-Rmi1p; involved in telomere stability and regulation of mitotic recombination
YLR422W DCK1 Dock family protein (Dedicator Of CytoKinesis), homolog of human DOCK1; upstream component for regulation through the small GTPase Rho5p; may form a complex with Lmo1p that acts as a GEF for Rho5p; interacts with Ino4p; cytoplasmic protein that relocates to mitochondria under oxidative stress; implicated in mitophagy; not an essential protein; DOCK proteins act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors
YPR183W DPM1 dolichyl-phosphate beta-D-mannosyltransferase | SED3 Dolichol phosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man) synthase of ER membrane; catalyzes formation of Dol-P-Man from Dol-P and GDP-Man; required for biosynthesis of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor, as well as O-mannosylation and protein N- and O-linked glycosylation; human homolog DPM1 can complement yeast mutant strains
YBL082C ALG3 dolichyl-P-Man:Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol alpha-1,3-mannosyltransferase | RHK1 Dolichol-P-Man dependent alpha(1-3) mannosyltransferase; involved in synthesis of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide donor for N-linked glycosylation of proteins; G353A missense mutation in human ortholog ALG3 implicated in carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome type IV, which is characterized by microcephaly, severe epilepsy, minimal psychomotor development, partial deficiency of sialic acids in serum glycoproteins; wild-type human ALG3 can complement yeast alg3 mutant
YGR036C CAX4 CWH8 Dolichyl pyrophosphate (Dol-P-P) phosphatase; has a luminally oriented active site in the ER; cleaves the anhydride linkage in Dol-P-P; required for Dol-P-P-linked oligosaccharide intermediate synthesis and protein N-glycosylation
YDR332W IRC3 double-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase Double-stranded DNA-dependent helicase of the DExH/D-box family; required for maintenance of the mitochondrial (mt) genome; null mutant accumulates double-stranded breaks in mt DNA; localizes to the mt matrix
YJL121C RPE1 EPI1 | POS18 | ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase RPE1 D-ribulose-5-phosphate 3-epimerase; catalyzes a reaction in the non-oxidative part of the pentose-phosphate pathway; mutants are sensitive to oxidative stress
YDL219W DTD1 D-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase D-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase; functions in protein translation, may affect nonsense suppression via alteration of the protein synthesis machinery; ubiquitous among eukaryotes
YDR452W PPN1 endopolyphosphatase | PHM5 Dual endo- and exopolyphosphatase with a role in phosphate metabolism; acts as both an endopolyphosphatase cleaving long chains of polyphosphate distributively to generate shorter polymer chains and as an exopolyphosphatase catalyzing the hydrolysis of terminal phosphate from polyphosphate; localizes to the vacuole, nucleus and cytosol; functions as a homodimer; relocalizes from vacuole to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YDL028C MPS1 PAC8 | RPK1 | serine/threonine/tyrosine protein kinase MPS1 Dual-specificity kinase; autophosphorylation required for function; required for spindle pole body (SPB) duplication and spindle checkpoint function; contributes to bi-orientation by promoting formation of force-generating kinetochore-microtubule attachments in meiosis I; substrates include SPB proteins Spc42p, Spc110p, and Spc98p, mitotic exit network protein Mob1p, kinetochore protein Cnn1p, and checkpoint protein Mad1p; substrate of APCC(Cdh1); similar to human Mps1p
YPR001W CIT3 citrate (Si)-synthase CIT3 Dual specificity mitochondrial citrate and methylcitrate synthase; catalyzes the condensation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to form citrate and that of propionyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to form 2-methylcitrate
YNL053W MSG5 tyrosine/serine/threonine protein phosphatase MSG5 Dual-specificity protein phosphatase; maintains low levels of both basal and induced cell integrity pathway signaling by dephosphorylation of the Slt2p MAPK; reciprocally regulated by Slt2p through phosphorylation; minor role with Ptp2p in the adaptive response to pheromone through the dephosphorylation of the Fus3p MAPK with major contribution by Ptp3p; inhibits the nuclear accumulation of Fus3p; two isoforms exist as the result of alternative translation initiation starts
YIR026C YVH1 tyrosine protein phosphatase YVH1 Dual specificity protein phosphatase; regulates growth, sporulation, and glycogen accumulation in a cAMP-dependent protein kinase cascade dependent manner; mutants are defective in 60S ribosome assembly; positively regulates pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS) formation upon nitrogen starvation or rapamycin treatment
YNL307C MCK1 CMS1 | serine/threonine/tyrosine protein kinase MCK1 | YPK1 Dual-specificity ser/thr and tyrosine protein kinase; roles in chromosome segregation, meiotic entry, genome stability, phosphorylation-dependent protein degradation (Rcn1p and Cdc6p), inhibition of protein kinase A, transcriptional regulation, inhibition of RNA pol III, calcium stress and inhibition of Clb2p-Cdc28p after nuclear division; MCK1 has a paralog, YGK3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR193W Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data
YNL198C Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data
YOL150C Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data
YDR250C Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data
YOR248W TOS11 Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data
YER087C-A Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; almost completely overlaps ORF AIM10/YER087W
YDR024W FYV1 Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; not conserved in closely related Saccharomyces species; mutation decreases survival upon exposure to K1 killer toxin
YGR151C Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; overlaps almost completely with the verified ORF RSR1/BUD1/YGR152C; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YOL134C Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; partially overlaps HRT1, a verified gene that encodes an SCF ubiquitin ligase subunit
YGR269W Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; partially overlaps the uncharacterized ORF HUA1/YGR268C
YKL169C Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; partially overlaps the verified gene MRPL38
YJL169W Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; partially overlaps the verified gene YJL168C/SET2
YGR219W Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; partially overlaps the verified ORF MRPL9/YGR220C
YDL152W Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; partially overlaps the verified ORF SAS10/YDL153C, a component of the small ribosomal subunit processosome
YKR001C VPS1 dynamin-like GTPase VPS1 | GRD1 | LAM1 | SPO15 | VPL1 | VPT26 Dynamin-like GTPase required for vacuolar sorting; also involved in actin cytoskeleton organization, endocytosis, late Golgi-retention of some proteins, regulation of peroxisome biogenesis
YOR165W SEY1 dynamin-like GTPase SEY1 Dynamin-like GTPase that mediates homotypic ER fusion; has a role in ER morphology; interacts physically and genetically with Yop1p and Rtn1p; functional ortholog of the human atlastin ATL1, defects in which cause a form of the human disease hereditary spastic paraplegia; homolog of Arabidopsis RHD3
YLL001W DNM1 dynamin-related GTPase DNM1 Dynamin-related GTPase involved in mitochondrial organization; required for mitochondrial fission and inheritance; self assembles on the cytoplasmic face of mitochondrial tubules at sites where division will occur; participates in endocytosis and regulates peroxisome fission along with Vps1p; mutants in the human ortholog DNM1L, which mediates mitochondrial fission, peroxisomal division, autophagy, and mitophagy, are associated with slowly progressive infantile encephalopathy
YMR299C DYN3 dynein light intermediate chain Dynein light intermediate chain (LIC); localizes with dynein, null mutant is defective in nuclear migration
YER178W PDA1 pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) subunit E1 alpha E1 alpha subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex; catalyzes the direct oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA; phosphorylated; regulated by glucose; PDH complex is concentrated in spots within the mitochondrial matrix, often near the ERMES complex and near peroxisomes
YBR221C PDB1 pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring) subunit E1 beta E1 beta subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex; PDH is an evolutionarily conserved multi-protein complex found in mitochondria
YHR111W UBA4 YHR1 E1-like protein that activates Urm1p before urmylation; also acts in thiolation of the wobble base of cytoplasmic tRNAs by adenylating and then thiolating Urm1p; receives sulfur from Tum1p
YNR007C ATG3 APG3 | AUT1 E2-like enzyme; involved in autophagy and cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway; plays a role in formation of Atg8p-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugates, which are involved in membrane dynamics during autophagy and Cvt; interaction with Atg8p regulated by acetylation by NuA4 histone acetyltransferase Esa1p while attenuation of Atg3 acetylation is mediated by histone deacetylase Rpd3p; Atg12p-Atg5p conjugate enhances E2 activity of Atg3p by rearranging its catalytic site
YDR092W UBC13 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating protein UBC13 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme; involved in the error-free DNA postreplication repair pathway; interacts with Mms2p to assemble ubiquitin chains at the Ub Lys-63 residue; DNA damage triggers redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nucleus
YGR193C PDX1 E3-binding protein of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; plays a structural role in the complex by binding and positioning dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) to the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) core
YLR247C IRC20 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase IRC20 E3 ubiquitin ligase and putative helicase; involved in synthesis-dependent strand annealing-mediated homologous recombination; ensures precise end-joining along with Srs2p in the Yku70p/Yku80p/Lig4p-dependent nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway; localizes to both the mitochondrion and the nucleus; contains a Snf2/Swi2 family ATPase/helicase and a RING finger domain; interacts with Cdc48p and Smt3p; null mutant displays increased levels of spontaneous Rad52p foci
YDL074C BRE1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase BRE1 E3 ubiquitin ligase; forms heterodimer with Rad6p to regulate K63 polyubiquitination in response to oxidative stress and to monoubiquinate histone H2B-K123, which is required for the subsequent methylation of histone H3-K4 and H3-K79; required for DSBR, transcription, silencing, and checkpoint control; interacts with RNA-binding protein Npl3p, linking histone ubiquitination to mRNA processing; Bre1p-dependent histone ubiquitination promotes pre-mRNA splicing
YDR457W TOM1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase TOM1 E3 ubiquitin ligase of the hect-domain class; has a role in mRNA export from the nucleus and may regulate transcriptional coactivators; involved in degradation of excess histones; interacts with Dia2p and is required for Dia2p degradation; required to target Cdc6p for ubiquitin-mediated destruction during G1 phase
YOL054W PSH1 ubiquitin-protein ligase PSH1 E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting centromere-binding protein Cse4p; mediates polyubiquitination and degradation of histone H3 variant Cse4p, preventing its mislocalization to euchromatin independent of Slx5p; ubiquitination of Cse4p may be antagonized by Scm3p
YPR032W SRO7 Rab GTPase-binding protein SRO7 | SNI1 | SOP1 Effector of Rab GTPase Sec4p; forms a complex with Sec4p and t-SNARE Sec9p; involved in exocytosis and docking and fusion of post-Golgi vesicles with plasma membrane; regulates cell proliferation and colony development via the Rho1-Tor1 pathway; homolog of Drosophila lgl tumor suppressor; SRO7 has a paralog, SRO77, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL084C END3 EH domain-containing protein involved in endocytosis; actin cytoskeletal organization and cell wall morphogenesis; forms a complex with Sla1p and Pan1p
YBR079C RPG1 TIF32 | translation initiation factor eIF3 core subunit a eIF3a subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3); subunit of the core complex of eIF3; essential for translation; part of a Prt1p-Rpg1p-Nip1p subcomplex that stimulates binding of mRNA and tRNA(i)Met to ribosomes; involved in translation reinitiation; eIF3 is also involved in programmed stop codon readthrough
YOR361C PRT1 CDC63 | DNA26 | translation initiation factor eIF3 core subunit b eIF3b subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3); subunit of the core complex of eIF3; essential for translation; part of a subcomplex (Prt1p-Rpg1p-Nip1p) that stimulates binding of mRNA and tRNA(i)Met to ribosomes; eIF3 is also involved in programmed stop codon readthrough
YMR309C NIP1 translation initiation factor eIF3 core subunit c eIF3c subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3); involved in the assembly of preinitiation complex and start codon selection; eIF3 is also involved in programmed stop codon readthrough
YDR429C TIF35 translation initiation factor eIF3 core subunit g eIF3g subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3); subunit of the core complex of eIF3; is essential for translation; stimulates resumption of ribosomal scanning during translation reinitiation; eIF3 is also involved in programmed stop codon readthrough
YLR192C HCR1 translation initiation factor eIF3 core subunit j eIF3j component of translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3); dual function protein involved in translation initiation as a substoichiometric component (eIF3j) of eIF3; required for 20S pre-rRNA processing; required at post-transcriptional step for efficient retrotransposition; absence decreases Ty1 Gag:GFP protein levels; binds eIF3 subunits Rpg1p, Prt1p and 18S rRNA; eIF3 also involved in programmed stop codon read through; human homolog EIF3J can complement yeast hcr1 mutant
YKL204W EAP1 eIF4E-associated protein, competes with eIF4G for binding to eIF4E; accelerates mRNA degradation by promoting decapping, facilitated by interaction with eIF4E; essential for Puf5p mediated repression; associates with Puf5p and Dhh1p; inhibits cap-dependent translation; functions independently of eIF4E to maintain genetic stability; plays a role in cell growth, implicated in the TOR signaling cascade
YKL105C SEG2 Eisosome component; likely plays only a minor role in eisosome assembly; shown to interact with Seg1p by affinity purification and mass spec; SWAT-GFP and mCherry fusion proteins localize to the cell periphery; similar to <i>A. gossypii</i> SEG gene which is important for stabilizing eisosomes; SEG2 has a paralog, SEG1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR086C PIL1 lipid-binding protein PIL1 Eisosome core component; eisosomes are large immobile cell cortex structures associated with endocytosis; detected in phosphorylated state in mitochondria; phosphorylated on Thr233 upon Pkc1p hyperactivation in a Slt2p MAPK-dependent fashion; null mutant shows activation of Pkc1p/Ypk1p stress resistance pathways; member of BAR domain family; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from plasma membrane to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YPL004C LSP1 lipid-binding protein LSP1 Eisosome core component; eisosomes are large immobile patch structures at the cell cortex associated with endocytosis; phosphorylated on Thr233 upon Pkc1p hyperactivation in a Slt2p MAPK-dependent fashion; null mutants show activation of Pkc1p/Ypk1p stress resistance pathways; member of the BAR domain family
YJL196C ELO1 fatty acid elongase ELO1 Elongase I, medium-chain acyl elongase; catalyzes carboxy-terminal elongation of unsaturated C12-C16 fatty acyl-CoAs to C16-C18 fatty acids; ELO1 has a paralog, ELO2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR372W ELO3 APA1 | fatty acid elongase ELO3 | SRE1 | SUR4 | VBM1 Elongase; involved in fatty acid and sphingolipid biosynthesis; synthesizes very long chain 20-26-carbon fatty acids from C18-CoA primers; involved in regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis; lethality of the elo2 elo3 double null mutation is functionally complemented by human ELOVL1 and weakly complemented by human ELOVL3 or ELOV7
YDR385W EFT2 elongation factor 2 Elongation factor 2 (EF-2), also encoded by EFT1; catalyzes ribosomal translocation during protein synthesis; contains diphthamide, the unique posttranslationally modified histidine residue specifically ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin; EFT2 has a paralog, EFT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR133W EFT1 elongation factor 2 Elongation factor 2 (EF-2), also encoded by EFT2; catalyzes ribosomal translocation during protein synthesis; contains diphthamide, the unique posttranslationally modified histidine residue specifically ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin; EFT1 has a paralog, EFT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL230C ELA1 elongin A Elongin A; F-box protein that forms a heterodimer with Elc1p and is required for ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the RNA Polymerase II subunit Rpo21p; subunit of the Elongin-Cullin-Socs (ECS) ligase complex
YPL046C ELC1 elongin C Elongin C, conserved among eukaryotes; forms a complex with Cul3p that polyubiquitylates monoubiquitylated RNA polymerase II to trigger its proteolysis; plays a role in global genomic repair
YGR282C BGL2 glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase | SCW9 Endo-beta-1,3-glucanase; major protein of the cell wall, involved in cell wall maintenance; involved in incorporation of newly synthesized mannoprotein molecules into the cell wall
YLR286C CTS1 SCW2 Endochitinase; required for cell separation after mitosis; transcriptional activation during the G1 phase of the cell cycle is mediated by transcription factor Ace2p
YKR063C LAS1 rRNA-processing protein LAS1 Endonuclease involved in pre-rRNA processing at both ends of ITS2; functions with Grc3p in a conserved mechanism to modulate rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis; may coordinate the action of the Rat1p-Rai1p exoRNAse; required for the G1/S cell cycle transition; human ortholog is Las1L; mutants require the SSD1-v allele for viability
YLR135W SLX4 Endonuclease involved in processing DNA; acts during recombination, repair; promotes template switching during break-induced replication (BIR), causing non-reciprocal translocations (NRTs); cleaves branched structures in complex with Slx1p; involved in interstrand cross-link repair, Rad1p/Rad10p-dependent removal of 3'-nonhomologous tails during DSBR via single-strand annealing; relative distribution to nuclear foci increases upon DNA replication stress; FANCP-related factor
YGL175C SAE2 COM1 | ssDNA endodeoxyribonuclease SAE2 Endonuclease required for telomere elongation; required for telomeric 5' C-rich strand resection; involved in ds-break repair and processing hairpin DNA structures with the MRX complex; function requires sumoylation and phosphorylation; exists as inactive oligomers that are transiently released into smaller active units by phosphorylation; DNA damage triggers Sae2p removal, so active Sae2p is present only transiently; sequence and functional similarity with human CtIP/RBBP8
YOL010W RCL1 rRNA-processing endoribonuclease Endonuclease that cleaves pre-rRNA at site A2 for 18S rRNA biogenesis; subunit of U3-containing 90S preribosome processome complex involved in small ribosomal subunit assembly; stimulates Bms1p GTPase and U3 binding activity; similar to RNA cyclase-like proteins but no cyclase activity detected
YML048W GSF2 ECM6 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized integral membrane protein; may promote secretion of certain hexose transporters, including Gal2p; involved in glucose-dependent repression
YDR411C DFM1 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized protein; involved in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD), ER stress, and homeostasis; interacts with components of ERAD-L and ERAD-C and Cdc48p; derlin-like family member similar to Der1p
YHL028W WSC4 YFW1 | YHC8 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein; involved in the translocation of soluble secretory proteins and insertion of membrane proteins into the ER membrane; may also have a role in the stress response but has only partial functional overlap with WSC1-3
YJL117W PHO86 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein; required for ER exit of the high-affinity phosphate transporter Pho84p, specifically required for packaging of Pho84p into COPII vesicles; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YER044C ERG28 BUD18 Endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein; may facilitate protein-protein interactions between the Erg26p dehydrogenase and the Erg27p 3-ketoreductase and/or tether these enzymes to the ER, also interacts with Erg6p
YBR036C CSG2 CLS2 | mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide synthase regulatory subunit Endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein; required for mannosylation of inositolphosphorylceramide and for growth at high calcium concentrations; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDL212W SHR3 APF1 Endoplasmic reticulum packaging chaperone; required for incorporation of amino acid permeases into COPII coated vesicles for transport to the cell surface
YKL065C YET1 Endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; homolog of human BAP31 protein; YET1 has a paralog, YET2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNR039C ZRG17 Zn(2+) transporter ZRG17 Endoplasmic reticulum zinc transporter; part of a heterodimeric transporter with Msc2p that transfers zinc from the cytosol to the ER lumen; member of the cation diffusion facilitator family of efflux pumps; zinc-regulated directly through Zap1p; transcription induced under conditions of zinc deficiency
YDR205W MSC2 metal cation transporter MSC2 Endoplasmic reticulum zinc transporter; part of a heterodimeric transporter with Zrg17p that transfers zinc from the cytosol to the ER lumen; member of the cation diffusion facilitator family of efflux pumps; localizes to ER and nucleus; mutations affect the cellular distribution of zinc and also confer defects in meiotic recombination between homologous chromatids
YLR277C YSH1 BRR5 | cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit YSH1 Endoribonuclease; subunit of the mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation specificity complex; required for 3' processing, splicing, and transcriptional termination of mRNAs and snoRNAs; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; YSH1 has a paralog, SYC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJR161C COS5 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YHL048W COS8 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YNR075W COS10 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YGR295C COS6 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YNL336W COS1 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YML132W COS3 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YBR302C COS2 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YFL062W COS4 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YDL248W COS7 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YHR105W YPT35 Endosomal protein of unknown function; contains a phox (PX) homology domain; binds to both phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) and proteins involved in ER-Golgi or vesicular transport
YNR006W VPS27 DID7 | ESCRT-0 subunit protein VPS27 | GRD11 | SSV17 | VPL23 | VPT27 Endosomal protein that forms a complex with Hse1p; required for recycling Golgi proteins, forming lumenal membranes and sorting ubiquitinated proteins destined for degradation; has Ubiquitin Interaction Motifs which bind ubiquitin (Ubi4p)
YCR094W CDC50 aminophospholipid translocase regulatory protein CDC50 Endosomal protein that interacts with phospholipid flippase Drs2p; interaction with Cdc50p is essential for Drs2p catalytic activity; mutations affect cell polarity and polarized growth; similar to Lem3p; CDC50 has a paralog, YNR048W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR089C VPS21 Rab family GTPase VPS21 | VPS12 | VPT12 | YPT21 | YPT51 Endosomal Rab family GTPase; required for endocytic transport and sorting of vacuolar hydrolases; required for endosomal localization of the CORVET complex; required with YPT52 for MVB biogenesis and sorting; involved in autophagy and ionic stress tolerance; geranylgeranylation required for membrane association; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; mammalian Rab5 homolog; VPS21 has a paralog, YPT53, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR014C YPT52 Rab family GTPase YPT52 Endosomal Rab family GTPase; required for vacuolar protein sorting, endocytosis and multivesicular body (MVB) biogenesis and sorting; required for localization of the CORVET complex to endosomes; involved in autophagy and ionic stress tolerance; similar to Vps21p and Ypt53p; mammalian Rab5 homolog; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YAL014C SYN8 SLT2 | syntaxin | UIP2 Endosomal SNARE related to mammalian syntaxin 8
YJL154C VPS35 GRD9 | retromer subunit VPS35 | VPT7 Endosomal subunit of membrane-associated retromer complex; required for retrograde transport; receptor that recognizes retrieval signals on cargo proteins, forms subcomplex with Vps26p and Vps29p that selects cargo proteins for retrieval; interacts with Ypt7p; overexpression of wild-type human VPS35 or Parkinson's-associated vps35-D686N or vps35-P299S variants complements Ni2+ resistance and Cd2+ sensitivity of yeast vps35 null mutant
YGR254W ENO1 HSP48 | phosphopyruvate hydratase ENO1 Enolase I, a phosphopyruvate hydratase; catalyzes conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate during glycolysis and the reverse reaction during gluconeogenesis; expression repressed in response to glucose; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; N-terminally propionylated in vivo; ENO1 has a paralog, ENO2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR174W ENO2 phosphopyruvate hydratase ENO2 Enolase II, a phosphopyruvate hydratase; catalyzes conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate during glycolysis and the reverse reaction during gluconeogenesis; expression induced in response to glucose; ENO2 has a paralog, ENO1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL015C TSC13 trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase (NADPH) TSC13 Enoyl reductase; catalyzes last step in each cycle of very long chain fatty acid elongation; localizes to ER, highly enriched in a structure marking nuclear-vacuolar junctions; coimmunoprecipitates with elongases Elo2p and Elo3p; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to ER foci increases upon DNA replication stress; human homolog TECR implicated in nonsyndromic mental retardation, can complement yeast mutant
YLR028C ADE16 bifunctional phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase ADE16 Enzyme of 'de novo' purine biosynthesis; contains both 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase and inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase activities; ADE16 has a paralog, ADE17, that arose from the whole genome duplication; ade16 ade17 mutants require adenine and histidine
YMR120C ADE17 bifunctional phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase ADE17 Enzyme of 'de novo' purine biosynthesis; contains both 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase and inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase activities; ADE17 has a paralog, ADE16, that arose from the whole genome duplication; ade16 ade17 mutants require adenine and histidine
YGL234W ADE5,7 bifunctional aminoimidazole ribotide synthase/glycinamide ribotide synthase Enzyme of the 'de novo' purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway; contains aminoimidazole ribotide synthetase and glycinamide ribotide synthetase activities
YLR386W VAC14 Enzyme regulator; involved in synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, in control of trafficking of some proteins to the vacuole lumen via the MVB, and in maintenance of vacuole size and acidity; binds negative (Fig4p) and positive (Fab1p) regulators of PtdIns(3,5)P(2) to control endolysosome function; similar to mammalian Vac14p
YIL020C HIS6 1-(5-phosphoribosyl)-5- ((5-phosphoribosylamino)methylideneamino)imidazole-4-carboxamide isomerase HIS6 Enzyme that catalyzes the fourth step in the histidine pathway; Phosphoribosylformimino-5-aminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide isomerase; mutations cause histidine auxotrophy and sensitivity to Cu, Co, and Ni salts
YIL076W SEC28 ANU2 | coatomer subunit epsilon Epsilon-COP subunit of the coatomer; regulates retrograde Golgi-to-ER protein traffic; stabilizes Cop1p, the alpha-COP and the coatomer complex; non-essential for cell growth; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL271W ATP15 ATPEPSILON | F1F0 ATP synthase subunit epsilon Epsilon subunit of the F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; which is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; F1 translationally regulates ATP6 and ATP8 expression to achieve a balanced output of ATP synthase genes encoded in nucleus and mitochondria; phosphorylated
YDL161W ENT1 epsin Epsin-like protein involved in endocytosis and actin patch assembly; functionally redundant with Ent2p; binds clathrin via a clathrin-binding domain motif at C-terminus; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; ENT1 has a paralog, ENT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR206W ENT2 epsin Epsin-like protein required for endocytosis and actin patch assembly; functionally redundant with Ent1p; contains clathrin-binding motif at C-terminus; ENT2 has a paralog, ENT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIR038C GTT1 bifunctional glutathione transferase/peroxidase ER associated glutathione S-transferase; capable of homodimerization; glutathione transferase for Yvc1p vacuolar cation channel; expression induced during the diauxic shift and throughout stationary phase; functional overlap with Gtt2p, Grx1p, and Grx2p
YLL006W MMM1 ERMES complex subunit MMM1 | YME6 ER integral membrane protein, ERMES complex subunit; ERMES links the ER to mitochondria and may promote inter-organellar calcium and phospholipid exchange as well as coordinating mitochondrial DNA replication and growth; required for mitophagy; ERMES complex is often co-localized with peroxisomes and with concentrated areas of pyruvate dehydrogenase
YPR063C ER-localized protein of unknown function
YDR331W GPI8 GPI-anchor transamidase ER membrane glycoprotein subunit of the GPI transamidase complex; adds glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors to newly synthesized proteins; human PIG-K protein is a functional homolog
YLL031C GPI13 mannose-ethanolamine phosphotransferase GPI13 | MPC1 ER membrane localized phosphoryltransferase; adds phosphoethanolamine onto the third mannose residue of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor precursor; similar to human PIG-O protein
YDR302W GPI11 mannose-ethanolamine phosphotransferase GPI11 ER membrane protein involved in a late step of GPI anchor assembly; involved in the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the multiply mannosylated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) intermediate; human PIG-Fp is a functional homolog
YKL020C SPT23 ER membrane protein involved in regulation of OLE1 transcription; inactive ER form dimerizes and one subunit is then activated by ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent processing followed by nuclear targeting; SPT23 has a paralog, MGA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR281W GPI12 N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol deacetylase ER membrane protein involved in the second step of GPI anchor assembly; the second step is the de-N-acetylation of the N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol intermediate; functional homolog of human PIG-Lp; GPI stands for glycosylphosphatidylinositol
YJL192C SOP4 EMC7 ER-membrane protein; subunit of evolutionarily conserved EMC (Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Complex) implicated in ERAD (ER-associated degradation) and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane (TM) proteins; EMC acts in yeast as an ER-mitochondria tether that interacts with outer membrane protein Tom5 of TOM (Translocase of the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane) complex; suppressor of pma1-7, deletion of SOP4 slows down export of wild-type Pma1p and Pma1-7 from the ER
YNL087W TCB2 tricalbin ER protein involved in ER-plasma membrane tethering; one of 6 proteins (Ist2p, Scs2p, Scs22p, Tcb1p, Tcb2p, Tcb3p) that connect ER to plasma membrane (PM) and regulate PM phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) levels by controlling access of Sac1p phosphatase to its substrate PI4P in the PM; contains 3 calcium and lipid binding domains; mRNA is targeted to bud; TCB2 has a paralog, TCB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR106C VOA1 ER protein that functions in assembly of the V0 sector of V-ATPase; functions with other assembly factors; null mutation enhances the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) deficiency of a vma21 mutant impaired in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retrieval
YIL005W EPS1 protein disulfide isomerase EPS1 ER protein with chaperone and co-chaperone activity; involved in retention of resident ER proteins; has a role in recognizing proteins targeted for ER-associated degradation (ERAD), member of the protein disulfide isomerase family
YLR324W PEX30 peroxisome biogenesis protein ER-resident protein involved in peroxisomal biogenesis; ER-localized protein that associates with peroxisomes; interacts with Pex29p and reticulons Rtn1p and Yop1p to regulate peroxisome biogenesis from the ER; role in peroxisomal-destined vesicular flow from the ER; partially redundant with Pex31p; may function at a step downstream of steps mediated by Pex28p and Pex29p; PEX30 has a paralog, PEX31, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR479C PEX29 ER-resident protein involved in peroxisomal biogenesis; ER-localized protein that associates with peroxisomes; interacts with Pex30p and reticulons Rtn1p and Yop1p to regulate peroxisome biogenesis from the ER; role in peroxisomal-destined vesicular flow from the ER; regulates peroxisomal size, number and distribution; Pex28p and Pex29p may act at steps upstream of those mediated by Pex30p, Pex31p, and Pex32p; forms ER foci upon DNA replication stress
YGR206W MVB12 ubiquitin-binding ESCRT-I subunit protein MVB12 ESCRT-I subunit required to stabilize ESCRT-I core complex oligomers; the ESCRT-I core complex (Stp22p, Vps28p, Srn2p) is involved in ubiquitin-dependent sorting of proteins into the endosome; deletion mutant is sensitive to rapamycin and nystatin
YLR166C SEC10 exocyst subunit SEC10 Essential 100kDa subunit of the exocyst complex; the exocyst mediates polarized targeting and tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to active sites of exocytosis at the plasma membrane prior to SNARE-mediated fusion
YDR166C SEC5 exocyst subunit SEC5 Essential 107kDa subunit of the exocyst complex; the exocyst mediates polarized targeting and tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to active sites of exocytosis at the plasma membrane prior to SNARE-mediated fusion; involved in assembly of the exocyst complex; required with Sec3p for ER inheritance where it promotes anchoring of the cortical ER at the bud tip
YGL233W SEC15 Rab GTPase-binding exocyst subunit SEC15 Essential 113 kDa subunit of the exocyst complex; the exocyst mediates polarized targeting and tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to active sites of exocytosis prior to SNARE-mediated fusion; interacts with and functions as a downstream effector of active, GTP-bound Sec4p, a Rab family GTPase
YPR055W SEC8 exocyst subunit SEC8 Essential 121 kDa subunit of the exocyst complex; the exocyst mediates polarized targeting and tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to active sites of exocytosis at the plasma membrane prior to SNARE-mediated fusion; involved in ER and Golgi inheritance in small buds; relocalizes away from bud neck upon DNA replication stress
YJL097W PHS1 enoyl-CoA hydratase PHS1 Essential 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase of the ER membrane; involved in elongation of very long-chain fatty acids; evolutionarily conserved, similar to mammalian PTPLA and PTPLB; involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis and protein trafficking
YIL068C SEC6 SNARE-binding exocyst subunit SEC6 Essential 88kDa subunit of the exocyst complex; the exocyst mediates polarized targeting and tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to active sites of exocytosis at the plasma membrane prior to SNARE-mediated fusion; anchors the assembled complex to sites of secretion; interacts with SM-like protein and SNARE regulator Sec1p and may recruit it to sites of secretion; binds to SNARE complexes binteracting with Sec9p
YDL003W MCD1 kleisin alpha | PDS3 | RHC21 | SCC1 Essential alpha-kleisin subunit of the cohesin complex; required for sister chromatid cohesion in mitosis; subject to proteolytic cleavage by separate Esp1p, resulting in dissociation of cohesin from chromatin and the separation of sister chromatids at the mitotic metaphase-to-anaphase transition; apoptosis induces cleavage and translocation of a C-terminal fragment to mitochondria; expression peaks in S phase
YJL194W CDC6 AAA family ATPase CDC6 Essential ATP-binding protein required for DNA replication; component of the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) which requires ORC to associate with chromatin and is in turn required for Mcm2-7p DNA association; homologous to S. pombe Cdc18p; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; degraded in response to plasma membrane stress
YGL137W SEC27 coatomer subunit beta' Essential beta'-coat protein of the COPI coatomer; involved in ER-to-Golgi and Golgi-to-ER transport; contains WD40 domains that mediate cargo selective interactions; 45% sequence identity to mammalian beta'-COP
YDR238C SEC26 coatomer subunit beta Essential beta-coat protein of the COPI coatomer; involved in ER-to-Golgi protein trafficking and maintenance of normal ER morphology; shares 43% sequence identity with mammalian beta-coat protein (beta-COP)
YIL150C MCM10 DNA43 Essential chromatin-associated protein; involved in initiation of DNA replication; required for association of MCM2-7 complex with replication origins; required to stabilize catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-alpha; self-associates through its N-terminal domain
YGR156W PTI1 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit PTI1 Essential component of CPF (cleavage and polyadenylation factor); involved in 3' end formation of snoRNA and mRNA; interacts directly with Pta1p; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; similar to mammalian Cleavage-Stimulation Factor CstF-64
YNL158W PGA1 Essential component of GPI-mannosyltransferase II; complex is responsible for second mannose addition to GPI precursors as a partner of Gpi18p; required for maturation of Gas1p and Pho8p; has synthetic genetic interactions with secretory pathway genes
YDL029W ARP2 ACT2 | actin-related protein 2 Essential component of the Arp2/3 complex; Arp2/3 is a highly conserved actin nucleation center required for the motility and integrity of actin patches; involved in endocytosis and membrane growth and polarity; required for efficient Golgi-to-ER trafficking in COPI mutants
YER157W COG3 Golgi transport complex subunit COG3 | GRD20 | SEC34 Essential component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YGL223C COG1 COD3 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG1 | LDB11 | SEC36 Essential component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YPR105C COG4 COD1 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG4 | SEC38 | SGF1 Essential component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YGR120C COG2 Golgi transport complex subunit COG2 | SEC35 Essential component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments; the components of the Golgi complex are Gog1p through Cog8p
YAL034W-A MTW1 DSN3 | MIND complex subunit MTW1 | NSL2 Essential component of the MIND kinetochore complex; joins kinetochore subunits contacting DNA to those contacting microtubules; critical to kinetochore assembly; complex consists of Mtw1p Including Nnf1p-Nsl1p-Dsn1p (MIND)
YPL233W NSL1 MIND complex subunit NSL1 Essential component of the MIND kinetochore complex; joins kinetochore subunits contacting DNA to those contacting microtubules; required for accurate chromosome segregation; complex consists of Mtw1p Including Nnf1p-Nsl1p-Dsn1p (MIND)
YIR010W DSN1 MIND complex subunit DSN1 Essential component of the outer kinetochore MIND complex; joins kinetochore subunits contacting DNA to those contacting microtubules; phosphorylation promotes interaction between outer and inner kinetochore proteins; kinetochore receptor for monopolin, via interaction with Csm1p; essential for both meiotic and mitotic chromosome segregation; MIND complex consists of Mtw1p, Nnf1p, Nsl1p and Dsn1p; phosphorylated by monopolin subunit, Hrr25p and Aurora kinase, Ipl1p; modified by sumoylation
YJR112W NNF1 MIND complex subunit NNF1 Essential component of the outer kinetochore MIND complex; joins kinetochore subunits contacting DNA to those contacting microtubules; required for kinetochore bi-orientation and accurate chromosome segregation; complex consists of Mtw1p, Nnf1p, Nsl1p and Dsn1p; homologous to metazoan CENP-H proteins
YMR075W RCO1 Essential component of the Rpd3S histone deacetylase complex; interacts with Eaf3p
YPL063W TIM50 protein translocase subunit TIM50 Essential component of the TIM23 complex; acts as receptor for the translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane (TIM23) complex guiding incoming precursors from the TOM complex; may control the gating of the Tim23p-Tim17p channel
YNR017W TIM23 MAS6 | MIM23 | MPI3 | protein transporter TIM23 Essential component of the TIM23 complex; involved in protein import into mitochondrial matrix and inner membrane; with Tim17p, contributes to architecture and function of the import channel; TIM23 complex is short for the translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane
YIL022W TIM44 ISP45 | MIM44 | MPI1 | protein translocase subunit TIM44 Essential component of the TIM23 complex; tethers the import motor and regulatory factors (PAM complex) to the translocation channel (Tim23p-Tim17p core complex); TIM23 complex is short for the translocase of the inner mitochondrial membrane
YJL143W TIM17 MIM17 | MPI2 | protein transporter TIM17 | SMS1 Essential component of the TIM23 complex; with Tim23p, contributes to the architecture and function of the import channel; may link the import motor to the core Translocase of the Inner Mitochondrial membrane (TIM23 complex)
YNL313C EMW1 tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein EMW1 Essential conserved protein with a role in cell wall integrity; contains six TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains clustered in the C-terminal region; conditional mutant is suppressed by overexpression of GFA1; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL059C MPE1 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit MPE1 Essential conserved subunit of CPF cleavage and polyadenylation factor; plays a role in 3' end formation of mRNA via the specific cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNA; contains a ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain, a RNA-binding zinc knuckle motif and a RING finger domain; both the zinc knuckle and RING finger are required for pre-mRNA binding; possible role in ubiquitination of Pap1p; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YGL091C NBP35 Fe-S cluster-binding ATPase Essential cytoplasmic iron-sulfur cluster binding protein; forms a complex with Cfd1p that is involved in iron-sulfur protein assembly in the cytosol; similar to P-loop NTPases
YMR128W ECM16 ATP-dependent RNA helicase ECM16 | DHR1 Essential DEAH-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase specific to U3 snoRNP; predominantly nucleolar in distribution; required for 18S rRNA synthesis
YNL216W RAP1 DNA-binding transcription factor RAP1 | GRF1 | TBA1 | TUF1 Essential DNA-binding transcription regulator that binds many loci; involved in transcription activation, repression, chromatin silencing, telomere length maintenance; relocalizes to cytosol under hypoxia; conserved protein with N-terminal BRCT domain, central region with homology to Myb DNA binding domain, and C-terminal Rap1-specific protein-interaction domain (RCT domain); recruits Sir complex to telomeric DNA; present in quiescent cell telomere hyperclusters
YLR197W NOP56 SIK1 | snoRNP complex protein NOP56 Essential evolutionarily-conserved nucleolar protein; component of the box C/D snoRNP complexes that direct 2'-O-methylation of pre-rRNA during its maturation; overexpression causes spindle orientation defects
YDR087C RRP1 Essential evolutionarily conserved nucleolar protein; necessary for biogenesis of 60S ribosomal subunits and for processing of pre-rRNAs to mature rRNA; associated with several distinct 66S pre-ribosomal particles
YDR091C RLI1 Fe-S cluster-binding ribosome biosynthesis protein Essential Fe-S protein; required for ribosome biogenesis, translation initiation/termination; facilitates binding of multifactor complex (MFC) of initiation factors to small ribosomal subunit; Dom34-Hbs1 complex and Rli1p work in dissociating inactive ribosomes, thereby facilitating translation restart; forms complex with Lto1p and Yae1p; dependency on ROS-labile FeS clusters, activity in nuclear ribosomal-subunit export impaired by mild oxidative stress
YPR019W MCM4 CDC54 | HCD21 | MCM DNA helicase complex subunit MCM4 Essential helicase component of heterohexameric MCM2-7 complexes; MCM2-7 complexes bind pre-replication complexes on DNA and melt DNA prior to replication; forms an Mcm4p-6p-7p subcomplex; shows nuclear accumulation in G1; homolog of S. pombe Cdc21p
YDR168W CDC37 SMO1 Essential Hsp90p co-chaperone; necessary for passage through the START phase of the cell cycle; stabilizes protein kinase nascent chains and participates along with Hsp90p in their folding
YBR211C AME1 ARP100 Essential kinetochore protein associated with microtubules and SPBs; component of the kinetochore sub-complex COMA (Ctf19p, Okp1p, Mcm21p, Ame1p); involved in spindle checkpoint maintenance; orthologous to human centromere constitutive-associated network (CCAN) subunit CENP-U and fission yeast Mis17; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YMR168C CEP3 CBF3 | CBF3B | CSL1 Essential kinetochore protein; component of the CBF3 complex that binds the CDEIII region of the centromere; contains an N-terminal Zn2Cys6 type zinc finger domain, a C-terminal acidic domain, and a putative coiled coil dimerization domain
YGR140W CBF2 CBF3A | CEP2 | CSL5 | CTF14 | NDC10 Essential kinetochore protein; component of the CBF3 multisubunit complex that binds to the CDEIII region of the centromere; Cbf2p also binds to the CDEII region possibly forming a different multimeric complex, ubiquitinated in vivo; sumoylated in an Mms21p-dependent manner; relative distribution to the spindle pole body decreases upon DNA replication stress
YGL075C MPS2 MMC1 Essential membrane protein localized at nuclear envelope and SPBs; required for insertion of the newly duplicated spindle pole body into the nuclear envelope; potentially phosphorylated by Cdc28p; MPS2 has a paralog, CSM4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL058W PCM1 AGM1 | phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase PCM1 Essential N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase; converts GlcNAc-6-P to GlcNAc-1-P, which is a precursor for the biosynthesis of chitin and for the formation of N-glycosylated mannoproteins and glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors
YOR261C RPN8 proteasome regulatory particle lid subunit RPN8 Essential non-ATPase regulatory subunit of the 26S proteasome; has similarity to the human p40 proteasomal subunit and to another S. cerevisiae regulatory subunit, Rpn11p
YDL097C RPN6 NAS4 | proteasome regulatory particle lid subunit RPN6 Essential, non-ATPase regulatory subunit of the 26S proteasome lid; required for the assembly and activity of the 26S proteasome; the human homolog (S9 protein) partially rescues Rpn6p depletion; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YER021W RPN3 proteasome regulatory particle lid subunit RPN3 | SUN2 Essential non-ATPase regulatory subunit of the 26S proteasome lid; similar to the p58 subunit of the human 26S proteasome; temperature-sensitive alleles cause metaphase arrest, suggesting a role for the proteasome in cell cycle control
YPR108W RPN7 proteasome regulatory particle lid subunit RPN7 Essential non-ATPase regulatory subunit of the 26S proteasome; similar to another S. cerevisiae regulatory subunit, Rpn5p, as well as to mammalian proteasome subunits
YDL166C FAP7 nucleoside-triphosphatase Essential NTPase required for small ribosome subunit synthesis; mediates processing of the 20S pre-rRNA at site D in the cytoplasm but associates only transiently with 43S preribosomes via Rps14p; complex with Rps14 is conserved between humans, yeast, and arches; may be the endonuclease for site D; depletion leads to accumulation of pre-40S ribosomes in 80S-like ribosomes; human TAF9 functionally complements the lethality of the null mutation
YHR036W BRL1 Essential nuclear envelope/ER integral membrane protein; interacts and functions with Apq12p and Brr6p in lipid homeostasis; mutants are defective in nuclear pore complex biogenesis, mRNA nuclear export and are sensitive to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors and membrane fluidizing agents; identified as a dosage suppressor of a temperature sensitive mutation in the major karyopherin, CRM1; homologous to Brr6p
YGL247W BRR6 Essential nuclear envelope integral membrane protein; interacts and functions with Apq12p and Brl1p in lipid homeostasis; mutants are defective in nuclear pore complex biogenesis, nuclear envelope morphology, mRNA nuclear export, and are sensitive to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors and membrane fluidizing agents; exhibits synthetic lethal genetic interactions with genes involved in lipid metabolism; homologous to Brl1p
YLR336C SGD1 Essential nuclear protein; required for biogenesis of the small ribosomal subunit; has a possible role in the osmoregulatory glycerol response; putative homolog of human NOM1 which is implicated in acute myeloid leukemia
YNR054C ESF2 ABT1 | RNA-binding ATPase activator ESF2 Essential nucleolar protein involved in pre-18S rRNA processing; binds to RNA and stimulates ATPase activity of Dbp8; involved in assembly of the small subunit (SSU) processome
YBR142W MAK5 putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase Essential nucleolar protein; putative DEAD-box RNA helicase required for maintenance of M1 dsRNA virus; involved in biogenesis of large (60S) ribosomal subunits
YNL308C KRI1 Essential nucleolar protein required for 40S ribosome biogenesis; associate with snR30; physically and functionally interacts with Krr1p
YDL087C LUC7 EPE1 | EXM2 Essential protein associated with the U1 snRNP complex; splicing factor involved in recognition of 5' splice site; contains two zinc finger motifs; N-terminal zinc finger binds pre-mRNA; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YDR361C BCP1 protein-transporting protein BCP1 Essential protein involved in nuclear export of Mss4p; Mss4p is a lipid kinase that generates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate and plays a role in actin cytoskeleton organization and vesicular transport
YPL082C MOT1 BTAF1 | BUR3 | DNA-binding ATPase | END10 | LPF4 Essential protein involved in regulation of transcription; removes Spt15p (TBP) from DNA via its C-terminal ATPase activity; may have a role in ensuring that soluble TBP is available to bind TATA-less promoters; forms a complex with TBP that binds TATA DNA with high affinity but with altered specificity; the Mot1p-Spt15p-DNA ternary complex contains unbent DNA; coregulates transcription with Spt16p through assembly of preinitiation complex and organization of nucleosomes
YNR038W DBP6 putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP6 Essential protein involved in ribosome biogenesis; putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DEAD-box protein family; human homolog DDX51 complements yeast dbp6 mutant
YGR280C PXR1 GNO1 | PinX1 | telomerase inhibitor Essential protein involved in rRNA and snoRNA maturation; competes with TLC1 RNA for binding to Est2p, suggesting a role in negative regulation of telomerase; human homolog inhibits telomerase; contains a G-patch RNA interacting domain
YCL031C RRP7 Essential protein involved in rRNA processing and ribosome biogenesis; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDL058W USO1 INT1 Essential protein involved in vesicle-mediated ER to Golgi transport; binds membranes and functions during vesicle docking to the Golgi; required for assembly of the ER-to-Golgi SNARE complex
YDR251W PAM1 Essential protein of unknown function; exhibits variable expression during colony morphogenesis; overexpression permits survival without protein phosphatase 2A, inhibits growth, and induces a filamentous phenotype; PAM1 has a paralog, SVL3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR054C CTR86 Essential protein of unknown function; with orthologs in Ashbya gossypii and Candida albicans; similar to human ATXN10, mutations in which cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 10; codon usage corresponds to that observed for yeast genes expressed at low levels; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YPL242C IQG1 CYK1 Essential protein required for determination of budding pattern; promotes localization of axial markers Bud4p and Cdc12p and functionally interacts with Sec3p, localizes to the contractile ring during anaphase, member of the IQGAP family; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YGR271C-A EFG1 YGR272C Essential protein required for maturation of 18S rRNA; null mutant is sensitive to hydroxyurea and is delayed in recovering from alpha-factor arrest; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleolus
YLR068W FYV7 Essential protein required for maturation of 18S rRNA; required for survival upon exposure to K1 killer toxin
YNL149C PGA2 Essential protein required for maturation of Gas1p and Pho8p; involved in protein trafficking; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the ER and YFP-fusion protein to the nuclear envelope-ER network; null mutants have a cell separation defect
YKL095W YJU2 CWC16 | mRNA splicing protein YJU2 Essential protein required for pre-mRNA splicing; associates transiently with the spliceosomal NTC ("nineteen complex") and acts after Prp2p to promote the first catalytic reaction of splicing
YHR040W BCD1 Essential protein required for the accumulation of box C/D snoRNA
YDR499W LCD1 DDC2 | PIE1 Essential protein required for the DNA integrity checkpoint pathways; interacts physically with Mec1p; putative homolog of S. pombe Rad26 and human ATRIP; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YNL152W INN1 Essential protein that associates with contractile actomyosin ring; required for ingression of the plasma membrane into the bud neck during cytokinesis; C2 domain, a membrane targeting module, is required for function; activates chitin synthase activity of Chs2p during cytokinesis
YKR022C NTR2 Essential protein that forms a dimer with Ntr1p; also forms a trimer, with Ntr2p and the DExD/H-box RNA helicase Prp43p, that is involved in spliceosome disassembly
YLR424W SPP382 CCF8 | mRNA splicing protein SPP382 | NTR1 Essential protein that forms a dimer with Ntr2p; also forms a trimer, with Ntr2p and Prp43p, that is involved in spliceosome disassembly; found also in a multisubunit complex with the splicing factor Clf1p; suppressor of prp38-1 mutation
YHR052W CIC1 NSA3 Essential protein that interacts with proteasome components; has a potential role in proteasome substrate specificity; also copurifies with 66S pre-ribosomal particles
YOR148C SPP2 Essential protein that promotes the first step of splicing; required for the final stages of spliceosome maturation and activation; interacts with Prp2p, which may release Spp2p from the spliceosome following the first cleavage reaction; stimulates Prp2p ATPase activity
YGL092W NUP145 nucleocytoplasmic transporter NUP145 | RAT10 Essential protein with distinct roles in two nuclear pore subcomplexes; catalyzes its own proteolytic cleavage in vivo to generate a C-terminal fragment that is a structural component of the Nup84p subcomplex (with roles in NPC biogenesis and localization of genes to the nuclear periphery), and an N-terminal fragment that is one of several FG-nucleoporins within the NPC central core directly responsible for nucleocytoplasmic transport; homologous to human NUP98
YGR211W ZPR1 zinc finger-containing protein ZPR1 Essential protein with two zinc fingers; present in nucleus of growing cells, relocates to cytoplasm in starved cells via a process mediated by Cpr1p; binds translation elongation factor eEF-1 (Tef1p); relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; human ZPR1 gene can complement yeast by allowing growth during down-regulation of yeast zpr1
YPR107C YTH1 cleavage polyadenylation factor RNA-binding subunit YTH1 Essential RNA-binding component of cleavage and polyadenylation factor; contains five zinc fingers; required for pre-mRNA 3'-end processing and polyadenylation; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YJL080C SCP160