ORF Standard name Aliases Description
YMR056C AAC1 ADP/ATP carrier protein AAC1 Mitochondrial inner membrane ADP/ATP translocator; exchanges cytosolic ADP for mitochondrially synthesized ATP; phosphorylated; Aac1p is a minor isoform while Pet9p is the major ADP/ATP translocator; relocalizes from mitochondrion to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YBR085W AAC3 ADP/ATP carrier protein AAC3 | ANC3 Mitochondrial inner membrane ADP/ATP translocator; exchanges cytosolic ADP for mitochondrially synthesized ATP; expressed under anaerobic conditions; similar to Aac1p; has roles in maintenance of viability and in respiration; AAC3 has a paralog, PET9, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL141W AAH1 adenine deaminase Adenine deaminase (adenine aminohydrolase); converts adenine to hypoxanthine; involved in purine salvage; transcriptionally regulated by nutrient levels and growth phase; Aah1p degraded upon entry into quiescence via SCF and the proteasome
YHR047C AAP1 AAP1' | arginine/alanine aminopeptidase Arginine/alanine amino peptidase; overproduction stimulates glycogen accumulation; AAP1 has a paralog, APE2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL074C AAR2 U5 snRNP complex subunit AAR2 Component of the U5 snRNP complex; required for splicing of U3 precursors; originally described as a splicing factor specifically required for splicing pre-mRNA of the MATa1 cistron
YKL106W AAT1 aspartate transaminase AAT1 Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase; catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate to aspartate in aspartate and asparagine biosynthesis
YBR236C ABD1 mRNA (guanine-N7)-methyltransferase Methyltransferase; catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the GpppN terminus of capped mRNA; nuclear protein that relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YKL112W ABF1 BAF1 | DNA-binding protein ABF1 | GFI | OBF1 | REB2 | SBF1 | SBF-B DNA binding protein with possible chromatin-reorganizing activity; involved in transcriptional activation, gene silencing, and DNA replication and repair
YMR072W ABF2 DNA-binding protein ABF2 | HM | mtTFA | p19 Mitochondrial DNA-binding protein; involved in mitochondrial DNA replication and recombination, member of HMG1 DNA-binding protein family; activity may be regulated by protein kinase A phosphorylation; ABF2 has a paralog, IXR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human homolog TFAM can complement yeast abf2 mutant, rescuing the loss-of-mitochondrial DNA phenotype in a yeast abf2 strain
YCR088W ABP1 Actin-binding protein of the cortical actin cytoskeleton; important for activation of actin nucleation mediated by the Arp2/Arp3 complex; inhibits actin filament elongation at the barbed-end; phosphorylation within its proline-rich region, mediated by Cdc28p and Pho85p, protects Abp1p from PEST sequence-mediated proteolysis; mammalian homolog of HIP-55 (hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 [HPK1]-interacting protein of 55 kDa)
YOR239W ABP140 TRM140 | YOR240W AdoMet-dependent tRNA methyltransferase and actin binding protein; C-terminal domain is responsible for 3-methylcytidine modification of residue 32 of the tRNA anticodon loop of tRNA-Thr and tRNA-Ser and contains an S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) binding motif; N-terminal actin binding sequence interacts with actin filaments and localizes to actin patches and cables; N- and C-terminal domains are encoded in separate ORFs that are translated into one protein via a +1 frameshift
YNR033W ABZ1 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase Para-aminobenzoate (PABA) synthase; has similarity to Escherichia coli PABA synthase components PabA and PabB; required for the synthesis of para-aminobenzoic acid, an important intermediate for folate and ubiquinone Q biosynthesis; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR289W ABZ2 aminodeoxychorismate lyase ABZ2 Aminodeoxychorismate lyase (4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase); catalyzes the third step in para-aminobenzoic acid biosynthesis; involved in folic acid biosynthesis
YGR037C ACB1 long-chain fatty acid transporter ACB1 Acyl-CoA-binding protein; transports newly synthesized acyl-CoA esters from fatty acid synthetase (Fas1p-Fas2p) to acyl-CoA-consuming processes; subject to starvation-induced, Grh1p-mediated unconventional secretion; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNR016C ACC1 ABP2 | acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1 | FAS3 | MTR7 Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, biotin containing enzyme; catalyzes carboxylation of cytosolic acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA and regulates histone acetylation by regulating the availablity of acetyl-CoA; required for de novo biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids; ACC1 has a paralog, HFA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR131C ACE2 DNA-binding transcription factor ACE2 Transcription factor required for septum destruction after cytokinesis; phosphorylation by Cbk1p blocks nuclear exit during M/G1 transition, causing localization to daughter cell nuclei, and also increases Ace2p activity; phosphorylation by Cdc28p and Pho85p prevents nuclear import during cell cycle phases other than cytokinesis; part of RAM network that regulates cellular polarity and morphogenesis; ACE2 has a paralog, SWI5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR144C ACF2 ENG2 | PCA1 Intracellular beta-1,3-endoglucanase; expression is induced during sporulation; may have a role in cortical actin cytoskeleton assembly; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YJR083C ACF4 Protein of unknown function; computational analysis of large-scale protein-protein interaction data suggests a possible role in actin cytoskeleton organization; potential Cdc28p substrate
YBL015W ACH1 acetyl-CoA hydrolase Protein with CoA transferase activity; particularly for CoASH transfer from succinyl-CoA to acetate; has minor acetyl-CoA-hydrolase activity; phosphorylated; required for acetate utilization and for diploid pseudohyphal growth
YDL203C ACK1 Protein that functions in the cell wall integrity pathway; functions upstream of Pkc1p; GFP-fusion protein expression is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS; non-tagged Ack1p is detected in purified mitochondria
YDR161W ACL4 Specific assembly chaperone for ribosomal protein Rpl4p; binds to an evolutionarily conserved surface extension of nascent Rpl4p and chaperones Rpl4p until its assembly into the pre-ribosome; transcriptionally co-regulated with rRNA and ribosome biosynthesis genes
YJL200C ACO2 aconitate hydratase ACO2 Putative mitochondrial aconitase isozyme; similarity to Aco1p, an aconitase required for the TCA cycle; expression induced during growth on glucose, by amino acid starvation via Gcn4p, and repressed on ethanol
YKL192C ACP1 acyl carrier protein Mitochondrial matrix acyl carrier protein; involved in biosynthesis of octanoate, which is a precursor to lipoic acid; activated by phosphopantetheinylation catalyzed by Ppt2p
YAL054C ACS1 acetate--CoA ligase 1 | FUN44 Acetyl-coA synthetase isoform; along with Acs2p, acetyl-coA synthetase isoform is the nuclear source of acetyl-coA for histone acetylation; expressed during growth on nonfermentable carbon sources and under aerobic conditions
YLR153C ACS2 acetate--CoA ligase ACS2 Acetyl-coA synthetase isoform; along with Acs1p, acetyl-coA synthetase isoform is the nuclear source of acetyl-coA for histone acetylation; mutants affect global transcription; required for growth on glucose; expressed under anaerobic conditions
YDR448W ADA2 chromatin-binding transcription regulator ADA2 | SWI8 Transcription coactivator; component of the ADA and SAGA transcriptional adaptor/HAT (histone acetyltransferase) complexes
YMR184W ADD37 Protein of unknown function; involved in ER-associated protein degradation; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS; YMR184W is not an essential gene; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL206C ADD66 PBA2 | POC2 Protein involved in 20S proteasome assembly; forms a heterodimer with Pba1p that binds to proteasome precursors; interaction with Pba1p-Add66p may affect function of the mature proteasome and its role in maintaining respiratory metabolism; similar to human PAC2 constituent of the PAC1-PAC2 complex involved in proteasome assembly
YAR015W ADE1 phosphoribosylaminoimidazolesuccinocarboxamide synthase N-succinyl-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide synthetase; required for 'de novo' purine nucleotide biosynthesis; red pigment accumulates in mutant cells deprived of adenine; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL220W ADE12 adenylosuccinate synthase | BRA9 Adenylosuccinate synthase; catalyzes the first step in synthesis of adenosine monophosphate from inosine 5'monophosphate during purine nucleotide biosynthesis; exhibits binding to single-stranded autonomously replicating (ARS) core sequence
YLR028C ADE16 bifunctional phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase ADE16 Enzyme of 'de novo' purine biosynthesis; contains both 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase and inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase activities; ADE16 has a paralog, ADE17, that arose from the whole genome duplication; ade16 ade17 mutants require adenine and histidine
YMR120C ADE17 bifunctional phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase ADE17 Enzyme of 'de novo' purine biosynthesis; contains both 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase and inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase activities; ADE17 has a paralog, ADE16, that arose from the whole genome duplication; ade16 ade17 mutants require adenine and histidine
YOR128C ADE2 phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase ADE2 Phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase; catalyzes a step in the 'de novo' purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway; red pigment accumulates in mutant cells deprived of adenine
YGR204W ADE3 trifunctional formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase/methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase/methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase ADE3 Cytoplasmic trifunctional enzyme C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase; involved in single carbon metabolism and required for biosynthesis of purines, thymidylate, methionine, and histidine; null mutation causes auxotrophy for adenine and histidine
YMR300C ADE4 amidophosphoribosyltransferase Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase (PRPPAT); catalyzes first step of the 'de novo' purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway; also known as amidophosphoribosyltransferase
YGL234W ADE5,7 bifunctional aminoimidazole ribotide synthase/glycinamide ribotide synthase Enzyme of the 'de novo' purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway; contains aminoimidazole ribotide synthetase and glycinamide ribotide synthetase activities
YGR061C ADE6 phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase Formylglycinamidine-ribonucleotide (FGAM)-synthetase; catalyzes a step in the 'de novo' purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway
YDR408C ADE8 phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase Phosphoribosyl-glycinamide transformylase; catalyzes a step in the 'de novo' purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway
YMR303C ADH2 ADR2 | alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 Glucose-repressible alcohol dehydrogenase II; catalyzes the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde; involved in the production of certain carboxylate esters; regulated by ADR1
YMR083W ADH3 alcohol dehydrogenase ADH3 Mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase isozyme III; involved in the shuttling of mitochondrial NADH to the cytosol under anaerobic conditions and ethanol production
YGL256W ADH4 alcohol dehydrogenase ADH4 | NRC465 | ZRG5 Alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme type IV; dimeric enzyme demonstrated to be zinc-dependent despite sequence similarity to iron-activated alcohol dehydrogenases; transcription is induced in response to zinc deficiency
YBR145W ADH5 alcohol dehydrogenase ADH5 Alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme V; involved in ethanol production; ADH5 has a paralog, ADH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR318C ADH6 ADHVI | NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase NADPH-dependent medium chain alcohol dehydrogenase; has broad substrate specificity; member of the cinnamyl family of alcohol dehydrogenases; may be involved in fusel alcohol synthesis or in aldehyde tolerance; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR009W ADI1 acireductone dioxygenase (Ni2+-requiring) Acireductone dioxygenease involved in methionine salvage pathway; transcribed as polycistronic mRNA with YMR010W and regulated post-transcriptionally by RNase III (Rnt1p) cleavage; ADI1 mRNA is induced in heat shock conditions; human ortholog ADI1 can complement yeast adi1 mutant
YDR226W ADK1 adenylate kinase ADK1 | AKY1 | AKY2 Adenylate kinase, required for purine metabolism; localized to the cytoplasm and the mitochondria; lacks cleavable signal sequence; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; mutations affecting Adk1p catalytic activity deregulate expression of phosphate utilization genes PHO5 and PHO84; human homolog AK1 can complement yeast adk1 mutant
YER170W ADK2 adenylate kinase ADK2 | AKY3 | PAK3 Mitochondrial adenylate kinase; catalyzes the reversible synthesis of GTP and AMP from GDP and ADP; may serve as a back-up for synthesizing GTP or ADP depending on metabolic conditions; 3' sequence of ADK2 varies with strain background
YJR105W ADO1 adenosine kinase Adenosine kinase; required for the utilization of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet); may be involved in recycling adenosine produced through the methyl cycle
YCR011C ADP1 putative ATP-dependent permease ADP1 Putative ATP-dependent permease of the ABC transporter family
YDR216W ADR1 DNA-binding transcription factor ADR1 Carbon source-responsive zinc-finger transcription factor; required for transcription of the glucose-repressed gene ADH2, of peroxisomal protein genes, and of genes required for ethanol, glycerol, and fatty acid utilization
YMR064W AEP1 NCA1 Protein required for expression of the mitochondrial OLI1 gene; mitochondrial OLI1 gene encodes subunit 9 of F1-F0 ATP synthase
YMR282C AEP2 ATP13 Mitochondrial protein; likely involved in translation of the mitochondrial OLI1 mRNA; exhibits genetic interaction with the OLI1 mRNA 5'-untranslated leader
YPL005W AEP3 Peripheral mitochondrial inner membrane protein; may facilitate use of unformylated tRNA-Met in mitochondrial translation initiation; stabilizes the bicistronic AAP1-ATP6 mRNA
YEL052W AFG1 Protein that may act as a chaperone for cytochrome c oxidase subunits; conserved protein; may act as a chaperone in the degradation of misfolded or unassembled cytochrome c oxidase subunits; localized to matrix face of the mitochondrial inner membrane; member of the AAA family but lacks a protease domain
YLR397C AFG2 AAA family ATPase AFG2 | DRG1 ATPase of the CDC48/PAS1/SEC18 (AAA) family, forms a hexameric complex; is essential for pre-60S maturation and release of several preribosome maturation factors; releases Rlp24p from purified pre-60S particles in vitro; target of the ribosomal biosynthesis inhibitor diazaborine; may be involved in degradation of aberrant mRNAs
YER017C AFG3 AAA family ATPase AFG3 | YTA10 Mitochondrial inner membrane m-AAA protease component; mediates degradation of misfolded or unassembled proteins; also required for correct assembly of mitochondrial enzyme complexes; involved in cytoplasmic mRNA translation and aging; expression of human homolog AFG3L2 can complement yeast yta12 afg3 double mutant
YOR129C AFI1 Arf3p polarization-specific docking factor; required for the polarized distribution of the ADP-ribosylation factor, Arf3p; participates in polarity development and maintenance of a normal haploid budding pattern; interacts with Cnm7p
YGL071W AFT1 DNA-binding transcription factor AFT1 | RCS1 Transcription factor involved in iron utilization and homeostasis; binds consensus site PyPuCACCCPu and activates transcription in response to changes in iron availability; in iron-replete conditions localization is regulated by Grx3p, Grx4p, and Fra2p, and promoter binding is negatively regulated via Grx3p-Grx4p binding; AFT1 has a paralog, AFT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YPL202C AFT2 Iron-regulated transcriptional activator; activates genes involved in intracellular iron use and required for iron homeostasis and resistance to oxidative stress; AFT2 has a paralog, AFT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNR044W AGA1 Anchorage subunit of a-agglutinin of a-cells; highly O-glycosylated protein with N-terminal secretion signal and C-terminal signal for addition of GPI anchor to cell wall, linked to adhesion subunit Aga2p via two disulfide bonds; AGA1 has a paralog, FIG2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL032C AGA2 Adhesion subunit of a-agglutinin of a-cells; C-terminal sequence acts as a ligand for alpha-agglutinin (Sag1p) during agglutination, modified with O-linked oligomannosyl chains, linked to anchorage subunit Aga1p via two disulfide bonds
YDR524C AGE1 SAT1 ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase activating protein (GAP) effector; involved in the secretory and endocytic pathways; contains C2C2H2 cysteine/histidine motif
YIL044C AGE2 SAT2 ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase activating protein (GAP) effector; involved in Trans-Golgi-Network (TGN) transport; contains C2C2H2 cysteine/histidine motif
YCL025C AGP1 amino acid transporter AGP1 | YCC5 Low-affinity amino acid permease with broad substrate range; involved in uptake of asparagine, glutamine, and other amino acids; expression regulated by SPS plasma membrane amino acid sensor system (Ssy1p-Ptr3p-Ssy5p); AGP1 has a paralog, GNP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR132C AGP2 Plasma membrane regulator of polyamine and carnitine transport; has similarity to transporters but lacks transport activity; may act as a sensor that transduces environmental signals; has a positive or negative regulatory effect on transcription of many transporter genes
YFL030W AGX1 alanine--glyoxylate transaminase Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT); catalyzes the synthesis of glycine from glyoxylate, which is one of three pathways for glycine biosynthesis in yeast; similar to mammalian and plant alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferases; human homolog AGXT complements yeast null mutant
YDR214W AHA1 Co-chaperone that binds Hsp82p and activates its ATPase activity; plays a role in determining prion variants; similar to Hch1p; expression is regulated by stresses such as heat shock; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOR023C AHC1 Subunit of the Ada histone acetyltransferase complex; required for structural integrity of the complex; Ahc2p and Ahc1p are unique to the ADA complex and not shared with the related SAGA and SLIK complexes; Ahc2p may tether Ahc1p to the complex
YCR082W AHC2 Component of the ADA histone acetyltransferase complex; Ahc2p and Ahc1p are unique to the ADA complex and not shared with the related SAGA and SLIK complexes; may tether Ahc1p to the complex
YLR109W AHP1 cTPxIII | thioredoxin peroxidase AHP1 Thiol-specific peroxiredoxin; reduces hydroperoxides to protect against oxidative damage; function in vivo requires covalent conjugation to Urm1p
YHL021C AIM17 FMP12 Protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; null mutant displays reduced frequency of mitochondrial genome loss
YHR198C AIM18 FMP22 Protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; null mutant displays elevated frequency of mitochondrial genome loss
YIL087C AIM19 LRC2 Protein of unknown function; mitochondrial protein that physically interacts with Tim23p; null mutant displays reduced respiratory growth
YAL049C AIM2 protein AIM2 Cytoplasmic protein involved in mitochondrial function or organization; null mutant displays reduced frequency of mitochondrial genome loss; potential Hsp82p interactor
YIL158W AIM20 Protein of unknown function; overexpression causes cell cycle delay or arrest; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to vacuole; null mutant displays elevated frequency of mitochondrial genome loss; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; AIM20 has a paralog, SKG1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIR003W AIM21 Subunit of a complex that associates with actin filaments; forms a complex with Tda2p that inhibits barbed end F-actin assembly; elevates actin monomer pools to increase endocytotic efficiency and to regulate the distribution of actin between cables and patches; Aim21p/Tda2p forms a larger complex with actin capping proteins Cap1p and Cap2p; involved in mitochondrial migration along actin filaments; recruited to cortical actin patches by SH3 domain-containing proteins Bbc1p and Abp1p
YJL131C AIM23 Mitochondrial translation initiation factor 3 (IF3, mIF3); evolutionarily conserved; binds to E. coli ribosomes in vitro; null mutant displays severe respiratory growth defect and elevated frequency of mitochondrial genome loss
YJR080C AIM24 FMP26 Protein with a role in determining mitochondrial architecture; inner membrane protein that interacts physically and genetically with the MICOS complex and is required for its integrity
YKR074W AIM29 Protein of unknown function; epitope-tagged protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YKR074W is not an essential gene; null mutant displays elevated frequency of mitochondrial genome loss
YMR003W AIM34 Protein of unknown function; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the mitochondria; null mutant is viable and displays reduced frequency of mitochondrial genome loss
YMR157C AIM36 FMP39 Protein of unknown function; null mutant displays reduced respiratory growth and elevated frequency of mitochondrial genome loss; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YBR194W AIM4 SOY1 Protein proposed to be associated with the nuclear pore complex; null mutant is viable, displays elevated frequency of mitochondrial genome loss and is sensitive to freeze-thaw stress
YOR215C AIM41 Protein of unknown function; the authentic protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; null mutant displays reduced frequency of mitochondrial genome loss
YPL158C AIM44 GPS1 Protein that regulates Cdc42p and Rho1p; functions in the late steps of cytokinesis and cell separation; sustains Rho1p at the cell division site after actomyosin ring contraction; inhibits the activation of Cdc42-Cla4 at the cell division site to prevent budding inside the old bud neck; transcription is regulated by Swi5p; null mutant displays elevated frequency of mitochondrial genome loss; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YPR004C AIM45 Putative ortholog of mammalian ETF-alpha; interacts with frataxin, Yfh1p; null mutant displays elevated frequency of mitochondrial genome loss; may have a role in oxidative stress response; ETF-alpha is an electron transfer flavoprotein complex subunit
YHR199C AIM46 FMP34 Protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; null mutant displays elevated frequency of mitochondrial genome loss
YDR063W AIM7 GMF | GMF1 Protein that interacts with Arp2/3 complex; interacts with Arp2/3 complex to stimulate actin filament debranching and inhibit actin nucleation; has similarity to Cof1p and also to human glia maturation factor (GMF); null mutant displays elevated mitochondrial genome loss
YER080W AIM9 FMP29 Protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; null mutant displays elevated frequency of mitochondrial genome loss
YMR092C AIP1 Actin cortical patch component; interacts with the actin depolymerizing factor cofilin; inhibits elongation of aged ADP-actin filaments decorated with cofilin to maintain a high level of assembly-competent actin species; required to restrict cofilin localization to cortical patches; putative regulator of cytokinesis; contains WD repeats; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from cytoplasm to plasma membrane upon DNA replication stress
YIL079C AIR1 TRAMP complex RNA-binding subunit Zinc knuckle protein; involved in nuclear RNA processing and degradation as a component of the TRAMP complex; stimulates the poly(A) polymerase activity of Pap2p in vitro; AIR1 has a paralog, AIR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; although Air1p and Air2p are homologous TRAMP subunits, they have nonredundant roles in regulation of substrate specificity of the exosome
YDL175C AIR2 TRAMP complex RNA-binding subunit RNA-binding subunit of the TRAMP nuclear RNA surveillance complex; involved in nuclear RNA processing and degradation; involved in TRAMP complex assembly as a bridge between Mtr4p and Trf4p; stimulates the poly(A) polymerase activity of Pap2p in vitro; has 5 zinc knuckle motifs; AIR2 has a paralog, AIR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; Air2p and Air1p have nonredundant roles in regulation of substrate specificity of the exosome
YBR059C AKL1 serine/threonine protein kinase AKL1 Ser/Thr protein kinase; phosphorylates Pan1p, Sla1p and Ent1p to negatively regulate endocytosis in response to membrane stress; regulates actin cytoskeleton organization and clathrin-dependent endocytosis; phosphorylated and inhibited by upstream kinase, Fpk1p; member, along with Ark1p and Prk1p, of the Ark kinase family
YDR264C AKR1 palmitoyltransferase AKR1 Palmitoyl transferase involved in protein palmitoylation; acts as a negative regulator of pheromone response pathway; required for endocytosis of pheromone receptors; involved in cell shape control; contains ankyrin repeats; AKR1 has a paralog, AKR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; any of several human homologs encoding DHHC-type zinc fingers (ZDHHC) can complement temperature sensitivity of yeast akr1 null mutant
YOR034C AKR2 putative palmitoyltransferase AKR2 Ankyrin repeat-containing protein; member of a family of putative palmitoyltransferases containing an Asp-His-His-Cys-cysteine rich (DHHC-CRD) domain; possibly involved in constitutive endocytosis of Ste3p; AKR2 has a paralog, AKR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR335C ALA1 alanine--tRNA ligase | CDC64 Cytoplasmic and mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase; required for protein synthesis; point mutation (cdc64-1 allele) causes cell cycle arrest at G1; lethality of null mutation is functionally complemented by human homolog AARS; mutations in human homolog AARS are associated with autoimmune disease polymyositis/dermatomyositis
YJL122W ALB1 Shuttling pre-60S factor; involved in the biogenesis of ribosomal large subunit; interacts directly with Arx1p; responsible for Tif6p recycling defects in absence of Rei1p
YMR170C ALD2 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(+)) ALD2 Cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase; involved in ethanol oxidation and beta-alanine biosynthesis; uses NAD+ as the preferred coenzyme; expression is stress induced and glucose repressed; very similar to Ald3p
YMR169C ALD3 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(+)) ALD3 Cytoplasmic aldehyde dehydrogenase; involved in beta-alanine synthesis; uses NAD+ as the preferred coenzyme; very similar to Ald2p; expression is induced by stress and repressed by glucose
YOR374W ALD4 ALD7 | aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) ALD4 | ALDH2 Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase; required for growth on ethanol and conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate; phosphorylated; activity is K+ dependent; utilizes NADP+ or NAD+ equally as coenzymes; expression is glucose repressed; can substitute for cytosolic NADP-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase when directed to the cytosol; human homolog ALDH2 can complement yeast ald4 mutant
YER073W ALD5 aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)(+)) ALD5 Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase; involved in regulation or biosynthesis of electron transport chain components and acetate formation; activated by K+; utilizes NADP+ as the preferred coenzyme; constitutively expressed
YPL061W ALD6 ALD1 | aldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) ALD6 Cytosolic aldehyde dehydrogenase; activated by Mg2+ and utilizes NADP+ as the preferred coenzyme; required for conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate; constitutively expressed; locates to the mitochondrial outer surface upon oxidative stress
YOR175C ALE1 LCA1 | LPT1 | lysophospholipid acyltransferase | SLC4 Broad-specificity lysophospholipid acyltransferase; part of MBOAT family of membrane-bound O-acyltransferases; key component of Lands cycle; may have role in fatty acid exchange at sn-2 position of mature glycerophospholipids
YNL148C ALF1 Alpha-tubulin folding protein; similar to mammalian cofactor B; Alf1p-GFP localizes to cytoplasmic microtubules; required for the folding of alpha-tubulin and may play an additional role in microtubule maintenance
YBR110W ALG1 chitobiosyldiphosphodolichol beta-1,4 mannosyltransferase Mannosyltransferase; involved in asparagine-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); essential for viability; human homolog ALG1 complements yeast null mutant
YNL048W ALG11 alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase ALG11 Alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase; catalyzes sequential addition of the two terminal alpha 1,2-mannose residues to the Man5GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol intermediate during asparagine-linked glycosylation in the ER
YNR030W ALG12 dolichyl-P-Man:Man(7)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase | ECM39 Alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase localized to the ER; responsible for addition of alpha-1,6 mannose to dolichol-linked Man7GlcNAc2; acts in the dolichol pathway for N-glycosylation; human homolog ALG12 complements yeast null mutant
YGL047W ALG13 N-acetylglucosaminyldiphosphodolichol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase catalytic subunit ALG13 Catalytic component of UDP-GlcNAc transferase; required for the second step of dolichyl-linked oligosaccharide synthesis; anchored to the ER membrane via interaction with Alg14p; similar to bacterial and human glycosyltransferases; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; both human homologs ALG13 and ALG14 are required to complement yeast alg13 mutant
YBR070C ALG14 N-acetylglucosaminyldiphosphodolichol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase anchoring subunit ALG14 Component of UDP-GlcNAc transferase; required for second step of dolichyl-linked oligosaccharide synthesis; anchors catalytic subunit Alg13p to ER membrane; similar to bacterial and human glycosyltransferases; both human homologs ALG13 and ALG14 are required to complement yeast alg14 mutant
YGL065C ALG2 GDP-Man:Man(1)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol alpha-1,3-mannosyltransferase Mannosyltransferase in the N-linked glycosylation pathway; catalyzes two consecutive steps in the N-linked glycosylation pathway; alg2 mutants exhibit temperature-sensitive growth and abnormal accumulation of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide Man2GlcNAc2-PP-Dol; human ALG2 complements the temperature sensitivity and dolichol-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis defect of the alg2-1 mutant, but mutant form from a patient with CDG-Ii fails to complement
YBL082C ALG3 dolichyl-P-Man:Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol alpha-1,3-mannosyltransferase | RHK1 Dolichol-P-Man dependent alpha(1-3) mannosyltransferase; involved in synthesis of dolichol-linked oligosaccharide donor for N-linked glycosylation of proteins; G353A missense mutation in human ortholog ALG3 implicated in carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome type IV, which is characterized by microcephaly, severe epilepsy, minimal psychomotor development, partial deficiency of sialic acids in serum glycoproteins; wild-type human ALG3 can complement yeast alg3 mutant
YPL227C ALG5 dolichyl-phosphate beta-glucosyltransferase UDP-glucose:dolichyl-phosphate glucosyltransferase; involved in asparagine-linked glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum; human ortholog ALG5 can partially complement yeast alg5 mutant
YOR002W ALG6 dolichyl-P-Glc:Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol alpha-1,3-glucosyltransferase Alpha 1,3 glucosyltransferase; involved in transfer of oligosaccharides from dolichyl pyrophosphate to asparagine residues of proteins during N-linked protein glycosylation; C998T transition in human ortholog ALG6 causes carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome type-Ic; wild-type human ortholog ALG6 can partially complement yeast alg6 mutant
YNL219C ALG9 dolichyl-P-Man:Man(6)GlcNAc(2)-PP-dolichol alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase Mannosyltransferase, involved in N-linked glycosylation; catalyzes the transfer of both the seventh mannose residue on B-arm and ninth mannose residue on the C-arm from Dol-P-Man to lipid-linked oligosaccharides; human homolog ALG9 can complement yeast null mutant; mutation of human homolog causes type 1 congenital disorders of glycosylation
YGL021W ALK1 protein kinase ALK1 Protein kinase; along with its paralog, ALK2, required for proper spindle positioning and nuclear segregation following mitotic arrest, proper organization of cell polarity factors in mitosis, proper localization of formins and polarity factors, and survival in cells that activate spindle assembly checkpoint; phosphorylated in response to DNA damage; ALK1 has a paralog, ALK2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; similar to mammalian haspins
YML086C ALO1 D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase D-Arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase; catalyzes the final step in biosynthesis of dehydro-D-arabinono-1,4-lactone, which is protective against oxidative stress
YOL130W ALR1 Mg(2+) transporter ALR1 | SWC3 Plasma membrane Mg(2+) transporter; expression and turnover are regulated by Mg(2+) concentration; overexpression confers increased tolerance to Al(3+) and Ga(3+) ions; magnesium transport defect of the null mutant is functionally complemented by either of the human genes MAGT1 and TUSC3 that are not orthologous to ALR1
YDR111C ALT2 alanine transaminase ALT2 Catalytically inactive alanine transaminase; expression is repressed in the presence of alanine and repression is mediated by Nrg1p; ALT2 has a paralog, ALT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR021W ALY1 ART6 Alpha arrestin, substrate of calcineurin; controls nutrient-mediated intracellular sorting of permease Gap1p; interacts with AP-1 subunit Apl4p; dephosphorylation of Aly1p required for the endocytosis of Dip5p; may regulate endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins by recruiting ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p to plasma membrane targets; ALY1 has a paralog, ALY2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL084C ALY2 ART3 Alpha arrestin; controls nutrient-mediated intracellular sorting of permease Gap1p; interacts with AP-1 subunit Apl4p; phosphorylated by Npr1p and also by cyclin-CDK complex Pcl7p-Pho85p; promotes endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins; ALY2 has a paralog, ALY1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML035C AMD1 AMD3 | AMP deaminase AMP deaminase; tetrameric enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of AMP to form IMP and ammonia; thought to be involved in regulation of intracellular purine (adenine, guanine, and inosine) nucleotide pools
YBR211C AME1 ARP100 Essential kinetochore protein associated with microtubules and SPBs; component of the kinetochore sub-complex COMA (Ctf19p, Okp1p, Mcm21p, Ame1p); involved in spindle checkpoint maintenance; orthologous to human centromere constitutive-associated network (CCAN) subunit CENP-U and fission yeast Mis17; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YBR158W AMN1 CST13 | ICS4 Modulator of cell separation and mitotic exit; inhibits separation through Ub-dependent Ace2p proteolysis; part of a daughter-specific switch induced by the mitotic exit network that inhibits exit and resets the cell cycle after the execution of MEN function, blocking Tem1p and Cdc15 association; required for chromosome stability and multiple mitotic checkpoints; regulated by SCF; haploid transcription regulated by Ste12p; contains 12 degenerate leucine-rich repeat motifs and an atypical F-box
YGL156W AMS1 alpha-mannosidase Vacuolar alpha mannosidase; involved in free oligosaccharide (fOS) degradation; delivered to the vacuole in a novel pathway separate from the secretory pathway
YJR047C ANB1 eIF5A | eIF-5A | HYP1 | TIF51B | translation elongation factor eIF-5A Translation elongation factor eIF-5A; previously thought to function in translation initiation; undergoes an essential hypusination modification; expressed under anaerobic conditions; ANB1 has a paralog, HYP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human EIF5A complements the inviability of the yeast hyp2 anb1 double null mutant
YEL036C ANP1 GEM3 | MNN8 Subunit of the alpha-1,6 mannosyltransferase complex; type II membrane protein; has a role in retention of glycosyltransferases in the Golgi; involved in osmotic sensitivity and resistance to aminonitrophenyl propanediol
YKL047W ANR2 Protein of unknown function; may have a role in lipid metabolism, based on localization to lipid droplets; predicted to be palmitoylated
YPR128C ANT1 Peroxisomal adenine nucleotide transporter; involved in beta-oxidation of medium-chain fatty acid; required for peroxisome proliferation
YMR010W ANY1 Protein involved in phospholipid flippase function; null allele suppresses growth and membrane trafficking defects associated with all flippase null alleles; proposed function as a phospholipid scramblase that reduces membrane asymmetry; PQ loop family member; localizes to the endosome and trans-Golgi network; non-essential gene
YPR180W AOS1 E1 ubiquitin-activating protein AOS1 | RHC31 Subunit of heterodimeric nuclear SUMO activating enzyme E1 with Uba2p; activates Smt3p (SUMO) before its conjugation to proteins (sumoylation), which may play a role in protein targeting; essential for viability; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YCL050C APA1 bifunctional AP-4-A phosphorylase/ADP sulfurylase | DTP1 AP4A phosphorylase; bifunctional diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate phosphorylase and ADP sulfurylase involved in catabolism of bis(5'-nucleosidyl) tetraphosphates; catalyzes phosphorolysis of dinucleoside oligophosphates, cleaving substrates' alpha/beta-anhydride bond and introducing Pi into the beta-position of the corresponding NDP formed; protein abundance increases under DNA replication stress; APA1 has a paralog, APA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR530C APA2 bifunctional AP-4-A phosphorylase/ADP sulfurylase Diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate phosphorylase II; AP4A phosphorylase involved in catabolism of bis(5'-nucleosidyl) tetraphosphates; APA2 has a paralog, APA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL172W APC1 anaphase promoting complex subunit 1 Largest subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome; APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; component of the platform domain of the APC/C, based on structural analysis; localizes to nuclear foci that become diffuse upon DNA replication stress
YDL008W APC11 anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 Catalytic core subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; contains a RING-H2 domain that is required for activity
YLR127C APC2 anaphase promoting complex subunit 2 | RSI1 | TID2 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; component of the catalytic core of the APC/C; has similarity to cullin Cdc53p
YDR118W APC4 anaphase promoting complex subunit 4 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; component of the platform domain of the APC/C, based on structural analysis; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YOR249C APC5 anaphase promoting complex subunit 5 | RMC1 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; component of the platform domain of the APC/C, based on structural analysis; relative distribution to nuclear foci decreases upon DNA replication stress
YLR102C APC9 anaphase promoting complex subunit 9 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition
YBR151W APD1 Protein of unknown function; required for normal localization of actin patches and for normal tolerance of sodium ions and hydrogen peroxide; localizes to both cytoplasm and nucleus
YKL103C APE1 API | LAP4 | metalloaminopeptidase APE1 | YSC1 Vacuolar aminopeptidase yscI; zinc metalloproteinase that belongs to the peptidase family M18; often used as a marker protein in studies of autophagy and cytosol to vacuole targeting (CVT) pathway; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to cytoplasmic foci increases upon DNA replication stress
YKL157W APE2 LAP1 | metallo-aminopeptidase | YKL158W Aminopeptidase yscII; may have a role in obtaining leucine from dipeptide substrates; APE2 has a paralog, AAP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR286W APE3 APY1 Vacuolar aminopeptidase Y; processed to mature form by Prb1p
YHR113W APE4 aspartyl aminopeptidase Cytoplasmic aspartyl aminopeptidase with possible vacuole function; Cvt pathway cargo protein; cleaves unblocked N-terminal acidic amino acids from peptide substrates; forms a 12-subunit homo-oligomer; M18 metalloprotease family
YNL077W APJ1 Chaperone with a role in SUMO-mediated protein degradation; member of the DnaJ-like family; conserved across eukaryotes; overexpression interferes with propagation of the [Psi+] prion; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YJR005W APL1 YAP80 Beta-adaptin; large subunit of the clathrin associated protein complex (AP-2); involved in vesicle mediated transport; similar to mammalian beta-chain of the clathrin associated protein complex
YKL135C APL2 Beta-adaptin subunit of the clathrin-associated protein (AP-1) complex; binds clathrin; involved in clathrin-dependent Golgi protein sorting; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBL037W APL3 Alpha-adaptin; large subunit of the clathrin associated protein complex (AP-2); involved in vesicle mediated transport
YPR029C APL4 Gamma-adaptin; large subunit of the clathrin-associated protein (AP-1) complex; binds clathrin; involved in vesicle mediated transport
YPL195W APL5 YKS4 Delta adaptin-like subunit of the clathrin associated protein complex; functions in transport of alkaline phosphatase to the vacuole via the alternate pathway; suppressor of loss of casein kinase 1 function; the clathrin associated protein complex is also known as AP-3
YGR261C APL6 YKS5 Beta3-like subunit of the yeast AP-3 complex; functions in transport of alkaline phosphatase to the vacuole via the alternate pathway; exists in both cytosolic and peripherally associated membrane-bound pools
YPL259C APM1 YAP54 Mu1-like medium subunit of the AP-1 complex; binds clathrin; involved in clathrin-dependent Golgi protein sorting; the AP-1 complex is the clathrin-associated protein complex
YHL019C APM2 Protein of unknown function; homologous to the medium chain of mammalian clathrin-associated protein complex; involved in vesicular transport
YBR288C APM3 YKS6 Mu3-like subunit of the clathrin associated protein complex (AP-3); functions in transport of alkaline phosphatase to the vacuole via the alternate pathway
YOL062C APM4 AMP1 Cargo-binding mu subunit of AP-2; AP-2 is a heterotetrameric endocytic cargo-binding adaptor that facilitates uptake of membrane proteins during clathrin-mediated endocytosis; Apm4p is required for AP-2 function and localization, and binds cell wall stress receptor Mid2p; AP-2 is required for cell polarity responses to pheromone, nutritional status and cell wall damage in S. cerevisiae, and for hyphal growth in C. albicans; AP-2 complex is conserved in mammals
YKL114C APN1 DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase APN1 Major apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease; 3'-repair diesterase; involved in repair of DNA damage by oxidation and alkylating agents; also functions as a 3'-5' exonuclease to repair 7,8-dihydro-8-oxodeoxyguanosine; genetically interacts with NTG1 to maintain mitochondrial genome integrity
YBL019W APN2 DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase APN2 | ETH1 Class II abasic (AP) endonuclease involved in repair of DNA damage; homolog of human HAP1 and E. coli exoIII
YNL094W APP1 phosphatidate phosphatase APP1 Phosphatidate phosphatase, converts phosphatidate to diacylglycerol; App1p, Pah1p, Dpp1p, and Lpp1p are responsible for all the phosphatidate phosphatase activity; component of cortical actin patches; interacts with components of endocytic pathway
YIL040W APQ12 Nuclear envelope/ER integral membrane protein; interacts and functions with Brr6p and Brl1p in lipid homeostasis; mutants are defective in nuclear pore complex biogenesis, nuclear envelope morphology, mRNA export from the nucleus and are sensitive to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors and membrane fluidizing agents; exhibits synthetic lethal genetic interactions with genes involved in lipid metabolism
YJR058C APS2 YAP17 Small subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor complex AP-2; AP-2 is involved in protein sorting at the plasma membrane; related to the sigma subunit of the mammalian plasma membrane clathrin-associated protein (AP-2) complex
YJL024C APS3 YKS7 Small subunit of the clathrin-associated adaptor complex AP-3; involved in vacuolar protein sorting; related to the sigma subunit of the mammalian clathrin AP-3 complex; suppressor of loss of casein kinase 1 function; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YML022W APT1 adenine phosphoribosyltransferase APT1 Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase; catalyzes the formation of AMP from adenine and 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate; involved in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis; APT1 has a paralog, APT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR441C APT2 adenine phosphoribosyltransferase APT2 Potential adenine phosphoribosyltransferase; encodes a protein with similarity to adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, but artificially expressed protein exhibits no enzymatic activity; APT2 has a paralog, APT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL065W AQR1 Plasma membrane transporter of the major facilitator superfamily; member of the 12-spanner drug:H(+) antiporter DHA1 family; confers resistance to short-chain monocarboxylic acids and quinidine; involved in the excretion of excess amino acids; AQR1 has a paralog, QDR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; relocalizes from plasma membrane to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YLL052C AQY2 Water channel that mediates water transport across cell membranes; only expressed in proliferating cells; controlled by osmotic signals; may be involved in freeze tolerance; disrupted by a stop codon in many S. cerevisiae strains
YBR149W ARA1 D-arabinose 1-dehydrogenase (NAD(P)(+)) ARA1 NADP+ dependent arabinose dehydrogenase; involved in carbohydrate metabolism; purified as homodimer; naturally occurs with a N-terminus degradation product
YER036C ARB1 ATP-binding cassette family ATPase ARB1 ATPase of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family; involved in 40S and 60S ribosome biogenesis, has similarity to Gcn20p; shuttles from nucleus to cytoplasm, physically interacts with Tif6p, Lsg1p; human homolog ABCF2 can complement yeast ARB1 mutant
YGL105W ARC1 Protein that binds tRNA and methionyl- and glutamyl-tRNA synthetases; involved in tRNA delivery, stimulating catalysis, and ensuring localization; also binds quadruplex nucleic acids; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; methionyl-tRNA synthetase is Mes1p; glutamyl-tRNA synthetase is Gus1p
YIL062C ARC15 Subunit of the ARP2/3 complex; ARP2/3 is required for the motility and integrity of cortical actin patches; has mRNA binding activity
YLR370C ARC18 Subunit of the ARP2/3 complex; ARP2/3 is required for the motility and integrity of cortical actin patches
YKL013C ARC19 Subunit of the ARP2/3 complex; ARP2/3 is required for the motility and integrity of cortical actin patches; mutation is functionally complemented by human ARPC4
YNR035C ARC35 END9 Subunit of the ARP2/3 complex; ARP2/3 is required for the motility and integrity of cortical actin patches; required for cortical localization of calmodulin
YBR234C ARC40 Subunit of the ARP2/3 complex; ARP2/3 is required for the motility and integrity of cortical actin patches
YHR013C ARD1 NAA10 | peptide alpha-N-acetyltransferase complex A subunit ARD1 Subunit of protein N-terminal acetyltransferase NatA; NatA comprises Nat1p, Ard1p, Nat5p; acetylates many proteins to influence telomeric silencing, cell cycle, heat-shock resistance, mating, sporulation, early stages of mitophagy; protein abundance increases under DNA replication stress; mutations in human homolog X-linked NAA10 lead to Ogden syndrome (S37P) and intellectual disability (R116W); expression of human NAA10 and NAA15 can complement ard1 nat1 double mutant
YCR048W ARE1 SAT2 | sterol acyltransferase Acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase; endoplasmic reticulum enzyme that contributes the major sterol esterification activity in the absence of oxygen; ARE1 has a paralog, ARE2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNR019W ARE2 SAT1 | sterol acyltransferase Acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase; endoplasmic reticulum enzyme that contributes the major sterol esterification activity in the presence of oxygen; ARE2 has a paralog, ARE1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL192W ARF1 Arf family GTPase ARF1 ADP-ribosylation factor; GTPase of the Ras superfamily involved in regulation of coated vesicle formation in intracellular trafficking within the Golgi; ARF1 has a paralog, ARF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; arf1 arf2 double null mutation is complemented by human ARF1, ARF4, ARF5, or ARF6
YDL137W ARF2 Arf family GTPase ARF2 ADP-ribosylation factor; GTPase of the Ras superfamily involved in regulation of coated formation vesicles in intracellular trafficking within the Golgi; ARF2 has a paralog, ARF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; arf1 arf2 double null mutation is complemented by human ARF1, ARF4, ARF5, or ARF6
YOR094W ARF3 Arf family GTPase ARF3 | ARL2 Glucose-repressible ADP-ribosylation factor; GTPase of Ras superfamily involved in regulating cell polarity and invasive growth; localizes to dynamic spots at plasma membrane and modulates PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels to facilitate endocytosis; required for localization of endocytic protein Lsb5p to correct cortical site in cells; also has mRNA binding activity; homolog of mammalian Arf6
YOL058W ARG1 ARG10 | argininosuccinate synthase Arginosuccinate synthetase; catalyzes the formation of L-argininosuccinate from citrulline and L-aspartate in the arginine biosynthesis pathway; potential Cdc28p substrate
YJL071W ARG2 acetyl-CoA:L-glutamate N-acetyltransferase | HRB574 Acetylglutamate synthase (glutamate N-acetyltransferase); mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of the arginine precursor ornithine; forms a complex with Arg5,6p
YJL088W ARG3 argF | ornithine carbamoyltransferase Ornithine carbamoyltransferase; also known as carbamoylphosphate:L-ornithine carbamoyltransferase; catalyzes the biosynthesis of the arginine precursor citrulline
YHR018C ARG4 argininosuccinate lyase ARG4 Argininosuccinate lyase; catalyzes the final step in the arginine biosynthesis pathway
YER069W ARG5,6 argB | argC | bifunctional acetylglutamate kinase/N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase Acetylglutamate kinase and N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase; N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyzes the 2nd and N-acetyl-gamma-glutamyl-phosphate reductase (NAGSA), the 3rd step in arginine biosynthesis; synthesized as a precursor which is processed in the mitochondrion to yield mature NAGK and NAGSA; enzymes form a metabolon complex with Arg2p; NAGK C-terminal domain stabilizes the enzymes, slows catalysis and is involved in feed-back inhibition by arginine
YMR062C ARG7 ECM40 | glutamate N-acetyltransferase Mitochondrial ornithine acetyltransferase; catalyzes the fifth step in arginine biosynthesis; also possesses acetylglutamate synthase activity, regenerates acetylglutamate while forming ornithine
YOL140W ARG8 acetylornithine transaminase Acetylornithine aminotransferase; catalyzes the fourth step in the biosynthesis of the arginine precursor ornithine
YMR042W ARG80 ARGR1 | ARGRI Transcription factor involved in regulating arginine-responsive genes; acts with Arg81p and Arg82p
YML099C ARG81 ARGR2 | ARGRII Zinc finger transcription factor involved in arginine-responsive genes; Zn(2)-Cys(6) binuclear cluster domain type; involved in the regulation of arginine-responsive genes; acts with Arg80p and Arg82p
YDR173C ARG82 ARGR3 | ARGRIII | inositol polyphosphate multikinase | IPK2 Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK); sequentially phosphorylates Ins(1,4,5)P3 to form Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5; also has diphosphoinositol polyphosphate synthase activity; regulates arginine-, phosphate-, and nitrogen-responsive genes
YDR376W ARH1 NADPH-adrenodoxin reductase Oxidoreductase of the mitochondrial inner membrane; involved in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial iron homeostasis and required for activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes; one of the few mitochondrial proteins essential for viability
YGL157W ARI1 carbonyl reductase (NADPH-dependent) ARI1 NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase; utilizes aromatic and alophatic aldehyde substrates; member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily
YNL020C ARK1 serine/threonine protein kinase ARK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase; phosphorylates Pan1p-Sla1p-End3p protein complex subunits, Pan1p and Sla1p; involved in regulation of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and endocytosis; functional overlap with PRK1
YBR164C ARL1 Arf family GTPase ARL1 | DLP2 Soluble GTPase with a role in regulation of membrane traffic; regulates potassium influx; role in membrane organization at trans-Golgi network; required for delivery of Atg9p to the phagophore assembly site during autophagy under high temperature stress; required with Ypt6p for starvation-induced autophagy; required for the CVT pathway under non-starvation conditions; G protein of the Ras superfamily, similar to ADP-ribosylation factor
YPL051W ARL3 Arf family GTPase ARL3 ARF-like small GTPase of the RAS superfamily; required for recruitment of Arl1p, a GTPase that regulates membrane traffic, to the Golgi apparatus; NatC-catalyzed N-terminal acetylation regulates Golgi membrane association mediated by interaction with membrane receptor, Sys1p; similar to ADP-ribosylation factor and orthologous to mammalian ARFRP1
YHL040C ARN1 siderophore transporter ARN family transporter for siderophore-iron chelates; responsible for uptake of iron bound to ferrirubin, ferrirhodin, and related siderophores; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes to the vacuole upon DNA replication stress
YDR127W ARO1 pentafunctional protein ARO1p Pentafunctional arom protein; catalyzes steps 2 through 6 in the biosynthesis of chorismate, which is a precursor to aromatic amino acids
YDR380W ARO10 phenylpyruvate decarboxylase ARO10 Phenylpyruvate decarboxylase; catalyzes decarboxylation of phenylpyruvate to phenylacetaldehyde, which is the first specific step in the Ehrlich pathway; involved in protein N-terminal Met and Ala catabolism
YGL148W ARO2 bifunctional chorismate synthase/riboflavin reductase [NAD(P)H] ARO2 Bifunctional chorismate synthase and flavin reductase; catalyzes the conversion of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate (EPSP) to form chorismate, which is a precursor to aromatic amino acids; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR035W ARO3 3-deoxy-7-phosphoheptulonate synthase ARO3 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase; catalyzes the first step in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and is feedback-inhibited by phenylalanine or high concentration of tyrosine or tryptophan
YBR249C ARO4 3-deoxy-7-phosphoheptulonate synthase ARO4 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate-7-phosphate (DAHP) synthase; catalyzes the first step in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis and is feedback-inhibited by tyrosine or high concentrations of phenylalanine or tryptophan; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YPR060C ARO7 chorismate mutase ARO7 | HGS1 | OSM2 | TYR7 Chorismate mutase; catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to prephenate to initiate the tyrosine/phenylalanine-specific branch of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis
YGL202W ARO8 bifunctional 2-aminoadipate transaminase/aromatic-amino-acid:2-oxoglutarate transaminase Aromatic aminotransferase I; expression is regulated by general control of amino acid biosynthesis
YDR421W ARO80 Zinc finger transcriptional activator of the Zn2Cys6 family; activates transcription of aromatic amino acid catabolic genes in the presence of aromatic amino acids
YHR137W ARO9 aromatic-amino-acid:2-oxoglutarate transaminase Aromatic aminotransferase II; catalyzes the first step of tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine catabolism
YHR129C ARP1 ACT5 | actin-related protein 1 Actin-related protein of the dynactin complex; required for spindle orientation and nuclear migration; forms actin-like short filament composed of 9 or 10 Arp1p monomers; putative ortholog of mammalian centractin
YDL029W ARP2 ACT2 | actin-related protein 2 Essential component of the Arp2/3 complex; Arp2/3 is a highly conserved actin nucleation center required for the motility and integrity of actin patches; involved in endocytosis and membrane growth and polarity; required for efficient Golgi-to-ER trafficking in COPI mutants
YJL081C ARP4 ACT3 Nuclear actin-related protein involved in chromatin remodeling; component of chromatin-remodeling enzyme complexes
YNL059C ARP5 Nuclear actin-related protein involved in chromatin remodeling; component of chromatin-remodeling enzyme complexes; promotes nucleosome shifts in the 3 prime direction
YLR085C ARP6 Actin-related protein that binds nucleosomes; a component of the SWR1 complex, which exchanges histone variant H2AZ (Htz1p) for chromatin-bound histone H2A
YPR034W ARP7 RSC11 | SWP61 Component of both the SWI/SNF and RSC chromatin remodeling complexes; actin-related protein involved in transcriptional regulation
YOR141C ARP8 Nuclear actin-related protein involved in chromatin remodeling; component of chromatin-remodeling enzyme complexes; has mRNA binding activity
YLR392C ART10 Protein of unknown function that contains 2 PY motifs; ubiquinated by Rsp5p; overexpression confers resistance to arsenite; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes it to the cytoplasm; non-essential gene
YGR068C ART5 Protein proposed to regulate endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins; regulates by recruiting the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5p to its target in the plasma membrane; SWAT-GFP and mCherry fusion proteins localize to the cytosol
YDR101C ARX1 putative hydrolase Nuclear export factor for the ribosomal pre-60S subunit; shuttling factor which directly binds FG rich nucleoporins and facilities translocation through the nuclear pore complex; interacts directly with Alb1p; responsible for Tif6p recycling defects in the absence of Rei1; associated with the ribosomal export complex
YOR058C ASE1 YOR29-09 Mitotic spindle midzone-localized microtubule bundling protein; microtubule-associated protein (MAP) family member; required for spindle elongation and stabilization; undergoes cell cycle-regulated degradation by anaphase promoting complex; potential Cdc28p substrate; relative distribution to microtubules decreases upon DNA replication stress
YJL115W ASF1 CIA1 | nucleosome assembly factor ASF1 Nucleosome assembly factor; involved in chromatin assembly, disassembly; required for recovery after DSB repair; role in H3K56 acetylation required for expression homeostasis, buffering mRNA synthesis rate against gene dosage changes in S phase; anti-silencing protein, derepresses silent loci when overexpressed; role in regulating Ty1 transposition; relocalizes to cytosol under hypoxia; growth defect of asf1 null is functionally complemented by either human ASF1A or ASF1B
YDL197C ASF2 Anti-silencing protein; causes derepression of silent loci when overexpressed
YIL130W ASG1 Zinc cluster protein proposed to be a transcriptional regulator; regulator involved in the stress response; null mutants have a respiratory deficiency, calcofluor white sensitivity and slightly increased cycloheximide resistance
YKL185W ASH1 DNA-binding transcription repressor ASH1 Component of the Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex; zinc-finger inhibitor of HO transcription; mRNA is localized and translated in the distal tip of anaphase cells, resulting in accumulation of Ash1p in daughter cell nuclei and inhibition of HO expression; potential Cdc28p substrate
YMR119W ASI1 putative ubiquitin-protein ligase ASI1 Subunit of the inner nuclear membrane Asi ubiquitin ligase complex; the Asi complex targets both misfolded proteins of the inner nuclear membrane-associated degradation (INMAD) pathway and regulators of sterol biosynthesis for ubiquitin-mediated degradation; acts with Asi2p and Asi3p to ensure the fidelity of SPS-sensor signaling by targeting latent unprocessed forms of Stp1p and Stp2p, maintaining the repressed state of gene expression in the absence of inducing amino acids
YNL008C ASI3 putative ubiquitin-protein ligase ASI3 Subunit of the inner nuclear membrane Asi ubiquitin ligase complex; Asi complex targets both misfolded proteins of the inner nuclear membrane-associated degradation (INMAD) pathway and regulators of sterol biosynthesis for ubiquitin-mediated degradation; acts with Asi1p and Asi2p to ensure the fidelity of SPS-sensor signaling by targeting latent unprocessed forms of Stp1p and Stp2p, maintaining the repressed state of gene expression in the absence of inducing amino acids
YKL052C ASK1 Essential subunit of the Dam1 complex (aka DASH complex); couples kinetochores to the force produced by MT depolymerization thereby aiding in chromosome segregation; phosphorylated during the cell cycle by cyclin-dependent kinases; sumoylated in an Mms21p-dependent manner; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGR097W ASK10 RGC2 Regulator of the Fps1p glycerol channel; under nonstress conditions, binds to Fps1p to positively regulate glycerol transport; under osmotic stress, multiple phosphorylation by Hog1p causes Ask10p to dissociate from Fps1p; forms homodimers and heterodimerizes with paralog Rgc1p; phosphorylated in response to oxidative stress; has a role in destruction of Ssn8p; associates with RNA polymerase II holoenzyme
YDL088C ASM4 FG-nucleoporin ASM4 | NUP59 FG-nucleoporin component of central core of nuclear pore complex (NPC); contributes directly to nucleocytoplasmic transport; induces membrane tubulation, which may contribute to nuclear pore assembly; ASM4 has a paralog, NUP53, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR145W ASN1 asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) 1 Asparagine synthetase; catalyzes the synthesis of L-asparagine from L-aspartate in the asparagine biosynthetic pathway; ASN1 has a paralog, ASN2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR124W ASN2 asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) 2 Asparagine synthetase; catalyzes the synthesis of L-asparagine from L-aspartate in the asparagine biosynthetic pathway; ASN2 has a paralog, ASN1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBL069W AST1 Lipid raft associated protein; interacts with the plasma membrane ATPase Pma1p and has a role in its targeting to the plasma membrane by influencing its incorporation into lipid rafts; sometimes classified in the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductases (MDRs) superfamily; AST1 has a paralog, AST2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER101C AST2 Lipid raft associated protein; overexpression restores Pma1p localization to lipid rafts which is required for targeting of Pma1p to the plasma membrane; sometimes classified in the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductases (MDRs) superfamily; AST2 has a paralog, AST1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR184C ATC1 LIC4 Nuclear protein; possibly involved in regulation of cation stress responses and/or in the establishment of bipolar budding pattern; relative distribution to the nucleus decreases upon DNA replication stress
YGL017W ATE1 arginyltransferase Arginyl-tRNA-protein transferase; catalyzes post-translational conjugation of arginine to the amino termini of acceptor proteins which are then subject to degradation via the N-end rule pathway
YOR377W ATF1 alcohol O-acetyltransferase Alcohol acetyltransferase; responsible for the major part of volatile acetate ester production during fermentation; main enzyme involved in terpenyl acetate synthesis; potential roles in lipid and sterol metabolism
YGR177C ATF2 alcohol O-acetyltransferase Alcohol acetyltransferase; may play a role in steroid detoxification; forms volatile esters during fermentation, which is important for brewing and winemaking
YGL180W ATG1 APG1 | AUT3 | CVT10 | serine/threonine protein kinase ATG1 Protein serine/threonine kinase; required for vesicle formation in autophagy and the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway; structurally required for phagophore assembly site formation; during autophagy forms a complex with Atg13p and Atg17p; essential for cell cycle progression from G2/M to G1 under nitrogen starvation
YPR049C ATG11 autophagy protein ATG11 | CVT3 | CVT9 Adapter protein for pexophagy and the Cvt targeting pathway; directs receptor-bound cargo to the phagophore assembly site (PAS) for packaging into vesicles; required for recruiting other proteins to the PAS; recruits Dnm1p to facilitate fission of mitochondria that are destined for removal by mitophagy
YPR185W ATG13 APG13 | serine/threonine protein kinase regulatory subunit ATG13 Regulatory subunit of the Atg1p signaling complex; stimulates Atg1p kinase activity; required for vesicle formation during autophagy and the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway; contains a HORMA domain required for autophagy and for recruitment of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex subunit Atg14p to the pre-autophagosomal structure
YMR159C ATG16 APG15 | APG16 | CVT11 | SAP18 Conserved protein involved in autophagy; interacts with Atg12p-Atg5p conjugates to form Atg12p-Atg5p-Atg16p multimers, which binds to membranes and localizes to the pre-autophagosomal structure and are required for autophagy; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YLR423C ATG17 APG17 | protein kinase regulatory subunit ATG17 Scaffold protein responsible for phagophore assembly site organization; regulatory subunit of an autophagy-specific complex that includes Atg1p and Atg13p; stimulates Atg1p kinase activity; human ortholog RB1CC1/FIP200 interacts with p53, which inhibits autophagy in human cells
YFR021W ATG18 AUT10 | CVT18 | NMR1 | phosphoinositide binding protein ATG18 | SVP1 Phosphoinositide binding protein; required for vesicle formation in autophagy and the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (CVT) pathway; binds PtdIns(3,5)P2, PI3P and PI4P; WD-40 repeat containing protein and PROPPIN family member; relocalizes from the vacuole to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; mammalian homologs include: WIPI1, WIPI2, WIPI3 and WIPI4/WDR45; mutations in human WDR45 cause static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA)
YOL082W ATG19 CVT19 Receptor protein for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway; delivers cargo proteins aminopeptidase I (Ape1p) and alpha-mannosidase (Ams1p) to the phagophore assembly site for packaging into Cvt vesicles; interaction with Atg19p during the Cvt pathway requires phosphorylation by Hrr25p
YNL242W ATG2 APG2 | AUT8 | SPO72 Peripheral membrane protein required for autophagic vesicle formation; also required for vesicle formation during pexophagy and the cytoplasm-to-vaucole targeting (Cvt) pathway; involved in Atg9p cycling between the phagophore assembly site and mitochondria; contains an APT1 domain that binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; essential for cell cycle progression from G2/M to G1 under nitrogen starvation; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YDL113C ATG20 CVT20 | SNX42 Sorting nexin family member; required for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway and for endosomal sorting; has a Phox homology domain that binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; interacts with Snx4p; potential Cdc28p substrate
YPL100W ATG21 HSV1 | MAI1 Phosphoinositide binding protein; required for vesicle formation in the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (CVT) pathway, autophagy, micronucleophagy and mitophagy; binds to several phosphoinositides including: PtdIns(3,5)P2, PI3P and PI4P; involved in PI3P-dependent recruitment and organization of both the Atg12-Atg5-Atg16 complex and Atg8p at the pre-autophagosomal structure; necessary for oxidant-induced cell death; WD-40 repeat containing PROPPIN family member
YLR189C ATG26 UGT51 UDP-glucose:sterol glucosyltransferase; conserved enzyme involved in synthesis of sterol glucoside membrane lipids; in contrast to ATG26 from P. pastoris, S. cerevisiae ATG26 is not involved in autophagy
YJL178C ATG27 ETF1 Type I membrane protein involved in autophagy and the Cvt pathway; may be involved in membrane delivery to the phagophore assembly site
YPL166W ATG29 Autophagy-specific protein; required for recruiting other ATG proteins to the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS); interacts with Atg17p and localizas to the PAS in a manner interdependent with Atg17p and Cis1p; not conserved; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YNR007C ATG3 APG3 | AUT1 E2-like enzyme; involved in autophagy and cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway; plays a role in formation of Atg8p-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugates, which are involved in membrane dynamics during autophagy and Cvt; interaction with Atg8p regulated by acetylation by NuA4 histone acetyltransferase Esa1p while attenuation of Atg3 acetylation is mediated by histone deacetylase Rpd3p; Atg12p-Atg5p conjugate enhances E2 activity of Atg3p by rearranging its catalytic site
YDR022C ATG31 CIS1 Autophagy-specific protein required for autophagosome formation; forms a complex with Atg17p and Atg29p that localizes other proteins to the pre-autophagosomal structure; constitutively phosphorylated, and phosphorylation of residue S174 is required for function; high-copy suppressor of CIK1 deletion
YLR356W ATG33 Mitochondrial mitophagy-specific protein; required primarily for mitophagy induced at post-log phase; not required for other types of selective autophagy or macroautophagy; conserved within fungi, but not in higher eukaryotes; ATG33 has a paralog, SCM4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR211C ATG38 Homodimeric subunit of autophagy-specific PtdIns-3-kinase complex I; required for the integrity of the active PtdIns-3-kinase complex I by maintaining an association between Vps15p-Vps34p and Atg14p-Vps30p subcomplexes; localizes to the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS) in an Atg14p-dependent manner; ATG38 is non-essential but is required for macroautophagy
YNL223W ATG4 APG4 | AUT2 | cysteine protease ATG4 Conserved cysteine protease required for autophagy; cleaves Atg8p to a form required for autophagosome and Cvt vesicle generation
YOR152C ATG40 Autophagy receptor with a role in endoplasmic reticulum degradation; involved specifically in autophagy of cortical and cytoplasmic ER in response to nitrogen starvation or rapamycin treatment; localizes to the cortical and cytoplasmic ER; similar to human FAM134B, which is also involved in ER autophagy and is associated with sensory neuropathy
YPL250C ATG41 ICY2 Protein of unknown function; required for selective and nonselective autophagy, and mitophagy; regulates the rate of autophagosome formation; interacts with Atg9p, and has a similar peri-mitochondrial localization; elevated Gcn4p-dependent expression under autophagy-inducing conditions; mobilized into polysomes upon a shift from a fermentable to nonfermentable carbon source; potential Cdc28p substrate; ATG41 has a paralog, ICY1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR139W ATG42 carboxypeptidase C Vacuolar serine-type carboxypeptidase; involved, along with functional homolog Prc1p, in vacuolar zymogen activation, breakdown of the autophagic body, and autophagosome-dependent protein synthesis; role in phytochelatin synthesis; localizes to the vacuole lumen; expression induced by nitrogen limitation in a GLN3, GAT1-independent manner; N-glycosylated
YMR301C ATM1 ATP-binding cassette Fe/S cluster precursor transporter ATM1 Mitochondrial inner membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter; exports mitochondrially synthesized precursors of iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters to the cytosol; human homolog ABCB7 can complement yeast null mutant
YDR384C ATO3 putative ammonium permease ATO3 Plasma membrane protein, putative ammonium transporter; regulation pattern suggests a possible role in export of ammonia from the cell; phosphorylated in mitochondria; member of the TC 9.B.33 YaaH family of putative transporters
YBL099W ATP1 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit alpha Alpha subunit of the F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; which is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; F1 translationally regulates ATP6 and ATP8 expression to achieve a balanced output of ATP synthase genes encoded in nucleus and mitochondria; phosphorylated; N-terminally propionylated in vivo
YLR393W ATP10 Assembly factor for the F0 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; mitochondrial inner membrane protein; interacts genetically with ATP6
YNL315C ATP11 Molecular chaperone; required for the assembly of alpha and beta subunits into the F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; N-terminally propionylated in vivo
YJL180C ATP12 ATP synthase complex assembly protein ATP12 Assembly factor for F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; conserved protein; required for assembly of alpha and beta subunits into F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; human homolog ATPAF2 can complement yeast atp12 mutant; mutation of human homolog reduces active ATP synthase levels and is associated with the disorder ATPAF2 deficiency
YLR295C ATP14 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit h Subunit h of the F0 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YPL271W ATP15 ATPEPSILON | F1F0 ATP synthase subunit epsilon Epsilon subunit of the F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; which is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; F1 translationally regulates ATP6 and ATP8 expression to achieve a balanced output of ATP synthase genes encoded in nucleus and mitochondria; phosphorylated
YDR377W ATP17 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit f Subunit f of the F0 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis
YML081C-A ATP18 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit i Subunit of the mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; termed subunit I or subunit j; does not correspond to known ATP synthase subunits in other organisms
YOL077W-A ATP19 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit k Subunit k of the mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; associated only with the dimeric form of ATP synthase
YJR121W ATP2 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit beta Beta subunit of the F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; which is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; F1 translationally regulates ATP6 and ATP8 expression to achieve a balanced output of ATP synthase genes encoded in nucleus and mitochondria; phosphorylated
YPR020W ATP20 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit g Subunit g of the mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; reversibly phosphorylated on two residues; unphosphorylated form is required for dimerization of the ATP synthase complex, which in turn determines oligomerization of the complex and the shape of inner membrane cristae
YDR350C ATP22 TCM10 Specific translational activator for the mitochondrial ATP6 mRNA; Atp6p encodes a subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase; localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane
YMR098C ATP25 LRC4 Mitochondrial protein required for the stability of Oli1p (Atp9p) mRNA; also required for the Oli1p ring formation; YMR098C is not an essential gene
YBR039W ATP3 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit gamma Gamma subunit of the F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis
YPL078C ATP4 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit 4 | LPF7 Subunit b of the stator stalk of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; contributes to the oligomerization of the complex, which in turn determines the shape of inner membrane cristae; phosphorylated
YDR298C ATP5 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit 5 | OSC1 Subunit 5 of the stator stalk of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; homologous to bovine subunit OSCP (oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein); phosphorylated
YKL016C ATP7 F1F0 ATP synthase subunit d Subunit d of the stator stalk of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; F1F0 ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis
YML116W ATR1 borate transporter | SNQ1 Multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily; required for resistance to aminotriazole and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide; ATR1 has a paralog, YMR279C, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL259C ATX1 copper metallochaperone ATX1 Cytosolic copper metallochaperone; transports copper to the secretory vesicle copper transporter Ccc2p for eventual insertion into Fet3p, which is a multicopper oxidase required for high-affinity iron uptake; human homolog ATOX1 can complement yeast atx1 mutant; overexpression of human ATOX1 suppresses lysine auxotrophy of the yeast sod1 null mutant, as does overexpression of yeast ATX1
YKL004W AUR1 inositol phosphorylceramide synthase Phosphatidylinositol:ceramide phosphoinositol transferase; required for sphingolipid synthesis; can mutate to confer aureobasidin A resistance; also known as IPC synthase
YLR114C AVL9 Conserved protein involved in exocytic transport from the Golgi; mutation is synthetically lethal with apl2 vps1 double mutation; member of a protein superfamily with orthologs in diverse organisms; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YKL146W AVT3 Vacuolar transporter; exports large neutral amino acids from the vacuole; member of a family of seven S. cerevisiae genes (AVT1-7) related to vesicular GABA-glycine transporters
YIL088C AVT7 Putative transporter; member of a family of seven S. cerevisiae genes (AVT1-7) related to vesicular GABA-glycine transporters
YPR122W AXL1 FUS5 | STE22 Haploid specific endoprotease of a-factor mating pheromone; performs one of two N-terminal cleavages during maturation of a-factor mating pheromone; required for axial budding pattern of haploid cells
YIL140W AXL2 BUD10 | SRO4 Integral plasma membrane protein; required for axial budding in haploid cells; localizes to the incipient bud site and bud neck; glycosylated by Pmt4p; potential Cdc28p substrate
YOR113W AZF1 Zinc-finger transcription factor; involved in diauxic shift; in the presence of glucose, activates transcription of genes involved in growth and carbon metabolism; in nonfermentable carbon sources, activates transcription of genes involved in maintenance of cell wall integrity; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YBR068C BAP2 branched-chain amino acid permease BAP2 High-affinity leucine permease; functions as a branched-chain amino acid permease involved in uptake of leucine, isoleucine and valine; contains 12 predicted transmembrane domains; BAP2 has a paralog, BAP3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR046C BAP3 amino acid transporter BAP3 | PAP1 Amino acid permease; involved in uptake of cysteine, leucine, isoleucine and valine; BAP3 has a paralog, BAP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL015W BAR1 aspartyl protease BAR1 | SST1 Aspartyl protease; secreted into the periplasmic space of mating type a cell; helps cells find mating partners; cleaves and inactivates alpha factor allowing cells to recover from alpha-factor-induced cell cycle arrest
YKR099W BAS1 Myb-related transcription factor; involved in regulating basal and induced expression of genes of the purine and histidine biosynthesis pathways; also involved in regulation of meiotic recombination at specific genes
YJR148W BAT2 branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase BAT2 | ECA40 | TWT2 Cytosolic branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase; preferentially involved in BCAA catabolism; homolog of murine ECA39; highly expressed during stationary phase and repressed during logarithmic phase; BAT2 has a paralog, BAT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL020C BBC1 MTI1 | YJL021C Protein possibly involved in assembly of actin patches; interacts with an actin assembly factor Las17p and with the SH3 domains of Type I myosins Myo3p and Myo5p; localized predominantly to cortical actin patches
YPL255W BBP1 Protein required for the spindle pole body (SPB) duplication; localizes at the cytoplasmic side of the central plaque periphery of the SPB; forms a complex with a nuclear envelope protein Mps2p and SPB components Spc29p and Kar1p; required for mitotic functions of Cdc5p
YHR040W BCD1 Essential protein required for the accumulation of box C/D snoRNA
YMR237W BCH1 exomer complex subunit Member of the ChAPs family (Chs5p-Arf1p-binding proteins); members include Bch1p, Bch2p, Bud7p, and Chs6p; ChAPs family proteins form the exomer complex with Chs5p to mediate export of specific cargo proteins from the Golgi to the plasma membrane; interacts selectively with the activated, GTP-bound form of Arf1p; may interact with ribosomes; protein abundance increases and forms cytoplasmic foci in response to DNA replication stress
YKR027W BCH2 FMP50 Member of the ChAPs (Chs5p-Arf1p-binding proteins) family; part of the exomer complex with Chs5p to mediate export of specific cargo proteins, including Chs3p, from the Golgi to the plasma membrane; BCH2 has a paralog, CHS6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL095W BCK1 LAS3 | mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase BCK1 | SAP3 | SLK1 | SSP31 MAPKKK acting in the protein kinase C signaling pathway; the kinase C signaling pathway controls cell integrity; upon activation by Pkc1p phosphorylates downstream kinases Mkk1p and Mkk2p; MAPKKK is an acronym for mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase kinase
YER167W BCK2 CTR7 Serine/threonine-rich protein involved in PKC1 signaling pathway; protein kinase C (PKC1) signaling pathway controls cell integrity; overproduction suppresses pkc1 mutations
YDR361C BCP1 protein-transporting protein BCP1 Essential protein involved in nuclear export of Mss4p; Mss4p is a lipid kinase that generates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate and plays a role in actin cytoskeleton organization and vesicular transport
YDR375C BCS1 bifunctional AAA family ATPase chaperone/translocase BCS1 Protein translocase and chaperone required for Complex III assembly; member of the AAA ATPase family; forms a homo-oligomeric complex in the mitochondrial inner membrane that translocates the C-terminal domain of Rip1p from the matrix across the inner membrane and delivers it to an assembly intermediate of respiratory Complex III; also required for assembly of the Qcr10p subunit; mutation is functionally complemented by human homolog BCS1L, linked to neonatal diseases
YIL033C BCY1 cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit BCY1 | SRA1 Regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA); PKA is a component of a signaling pathway that controls a variety of cellular processes, including metabolism, cell cycle, stress response, stationary phase, and sporulation
YLR399C BDF1 chromatin-binding protein BDF1 Protein involved in transcription initiation; functions at TATA-containing promoters; associates with the basal transcription factor TFIID; contains two bromodomains; corresponds to the C-terminal region of mammalian TAF1; redundant with Bdf2p; BDF1 has a paralog, BDF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL070W BDF2 Protein involved in transcription initiation; acts at TATA-containing promoters; associates with the basal transcription factor TFIID; contains two bromodomains; corresponds to the C-terminal region of mammalian TAF1; redundant with Bdf1p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; BDF2 has a paralog, BDF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YAL060W BDH1 BDH | (R,R)-butanediol dehydrogenase NAD-dependent (R,R)-butanediol dehydrogenase; catalyzes oxidation of (R,R)-2,3-butanediol to (3R)-acetoin, oxidation of meso-butanediol to (3S)-acetoin, and reduction of acetoin; enhances use of 2,3-butanediol as an aerobic carbon source
YAL061W BDH2 putative dehydrogenase BDH2 Putative medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase with similarity to BDH1; transcription induced by constitutively active PDR1 and PDR3
YNL039W BDP1 B" | TFC5 | TFC7 | TFIIIB90 | transcription factor TFIIIB subunit BDP1 Essential subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription factor (TFIIIB); TFIIIB is involved in transcription of genes encoding tRNAs, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, and other small RNAs
YBR200W BEM1 phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding protein BEM1 | SRO1 Protein containing SH3-domains; involved in establishing cell polarity and morphogenesis; functions as a scaffold protein for complexes that include Cdc24p, Ste5p, Ste20p, and Rsr1p
YER155C BEM2 IPL2 | SUP9 | TSL1 Rho GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP); involved in the control of cytoskeleton organization and cellular morphogenesis; required for bud emergence; potential GAP for Rho4p
YPL115C BEM3 Rho GTPase activating protein (RhoGAP); involved in control of the cytoskeleton organization; targets the essential Rho-GTPase Cdc42p, which controls establishment and maintenance of cell polarity, including bud-site assembly
YPL161C BEM4 ROM7 Protein involved in establishment of cell polarity and bud emergence; interacts with the Rho1p small GTP-binding protein and with the Rho-type GTPase Cdc42p; involved in maintenance of proper telomere length
YLR412W BER1 Protein involved in microtubule-related processes; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS; YLR412W is not an essential gene; similar to Arabidopsis SRR1 gene
YIL004C BET1 SLY12 Type II membrane protein required for vesicular transport; required for vesicular transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex; v-SNARE with similarity to synaptobrevins
YKR068C BET3 TRAPP complex core subunit BET3 Core component of transport protein particle (TRAPP) complexes I-III; TRAPP complexes are related multimeric guanine nucleotide-exchange factors for the GTPase Ypt1, regulating ER-Golgi traffic (TRAPPI), intra-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII), endosome-Golgi traffic (TRAPPII and III) and autophagy (TRAPPIII); hydrophilic homodimeric protein that acts in conjunction with SNARE proteins in targeting and fusion of ER to Golgi transport vesicles
YJR053W BFA1 IBD1 Subunit of a two-component GTPase-activating protein, Bfa1p-Bub2p; contributes to GAP activity, inactivating Tem1 by stimulating GTP hydrolysis following damage or misalignment of the mitotic spindle; functions as a guanine-nucleotide exchange inhibitor (GDI) for Tem1p; involved in multiple cell cycle checkpoint pathways that control mitotic exit; required when telomeres are damaged, but not for all types of chromosomal DNA damage; phosphorylated by the Polo-like kinase Cdc5p
YOR198C BFR1 Component of mRNP complexes associated with polyribosomes; involved in localization of mRNAs to P bodies; implicated in secretion and nuclear segregation; multicopy suppressor of BFA (Brefeldin A) sensitivity
YDR299W BFR2 rRNA-processing protein BFR2 Component of the SSU and 90S preribosomes; involved in pre-18S rRNA processing; binds to U3 snoRNA and Mpp10p; multicopy suppressor of sensitivity to Brefeldin A; expression is induced during lag phase and also by cold shock
YGR282C BGL2 glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase | SCW9 Endo-beta-1,3-glucanase; major protein of the cell wall, involved in cell wall maintenance; involved in incorporation of newly synthesized mannoprotein molecules into the cell wall
YHR101C BIG1 Integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum; required for normal content of cell wall beta-1,6-glucan
YCL029C BIK1 ARM5 | PAC14 Microtubule-associated protein; component of the interface between microtubules and kinetochore, involved in sister chromatid separation; essential in polyploid cells but not in haploid or diploid cells; ortholog of mammalian CLIP-170
YOR304C-A BIL1 EDO1 Protein that binds Bud6p and has a role in actin cable assembly; involved in the Bnr1p-dependent pathway of cable assembly; localizes to bud tip and bud neck
YER016W BIM1 EB1 | microtubule-binding protein BIM1 | YEB1 Microtubule plus end-tracking protein; together with Kar9p makes up the cortical microtubule capture site and delays the exit from mitosis when the spindle is oriented abnormally; homolog of human end binding protein 1 (EB1)
YGR286C BIO2 biotin synthase Biotin synthase; catalyzes the conversion of dethiobiotin to biotin, which is the last step of the biotin biosynthesis pathway; complements E. coli bioB mutant
YNR056C BIO5 Putative transmembrane protein involved in the biotin biosynthesis; responsible for uptake of 7-keto 8-aminopelargonic acid; BIO5 is in a cluster of 3 genes (BIO3, BIO4, and BIO5) that mediate biotin synthesis
YJR089W BIR1 Subunit of chromosomal passenger complex (CPC); CPC is comprised of Ipl1p-Sli15p-Bir1p-Nbl1p and regulates chromosome segregation; required for chromosome bi-orientation and for spindle assembly checkpoint activation upon reduced sister kinetochore tension; relative distribution to shortened microtubules increases upon DNA replication stress; sumoylated in an Mms21p-dependent manner; human survivin homolog
YJL058C BIT61 Subunit of TORC2 membrane-associated complex; involved in regulation of cell cycle-dependent actin cytoskeletal dynamics during polarized growth and cell wall integrity; BIT61 has a paralog, BIT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL061W BLI1 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; interacts with Msb3p; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the endosome
YFL007W BLM10 YFL006W Proteasome activator; binds the core proteasome (CP) and stimulates proteasome-mediated protein degradation by inducing gate opening; required for sequestering CP into proteasome storage granule (PSG) during quiescent phase and for nuclear import of CP in proliferating cells; required for resistance to bleomycin, may be involved in protecting against oxidative damage; similar to mammalian PA200
YLR408C BLS1 BLB1 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the endosome; YLR408C is not an essential gene
YER177W BMH1 14-3-3 family protein BMH1 | APR6 14-3-3 protein, major isoform; controls proteome at post-transcriptional level, binds proteins and DNA, involved in regulation of exocytosis, vesicle transport, Ras/MAPK and rapamycin-sensitive signaling, aggresome formation, spindle position checkpoint; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; antiapoptotic gene similar to human 14-3-3; BMH1 has a paralog, BMH2, that arose from whole genome duplication
YDR099W BMH2 14-3-3 family protein BMH2 | SCD3 14-3-3 protein, minor isoform; controls proteome at post-transcriptional level, binds proteins and DNA, involved in regulation of many processes including exocytosis, vesicle transport, Ras/MAPK signaling, and rapamycin-sensitive signaling; protein increases in abundance and relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; abundance relative to Bmh1p increases during sporulation
YBR141C BMT2 25S rRNA (adenine2142-N1)-methyltransferase Nucleolar S-adenosylmethionine-dependent rRNA methyltransferase; methylates adenine (m1A) of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA at position 2142; belongs to Rossmann fold superfamily; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleolus; YBR141C is not an essential gene
YIL096C BMT5 25S rRNA (uracil2634-N3)-methyltransferase Methyltransferase required for m3U2634 methylation of the 25S rRNA; S-adenosylmethionine-dependent; associates with precursors of the 60S ribosomal subunit; predicted to be involved in ribosome biogenesis
YLR063W BMT6 25S rRNA (uracil2843-N3)-methyltransferase Methyltransferase required for m3U2843 methylation of the 25S rRNA; S-adenosylmethionine-dependent; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; YLR063W is not an essential gene
YJR025C BNA1 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase | HAD1 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid dioxygenase; required for the de novo biosynthesis of NAD from tryptophan via kynurenine; expression regulated by Hst1p
YJL060W BNA3 kynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase Kynurenine aminotransferase; catalyzes formation of kynurenic acid from kynurenine; potential Cdc28p substrate
YBL098W BNA4 kynurenine 3-monooxygenase Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase; required for the de novo biosynthesis of NAD from tryptophan via kynurenine; expression regulated by Hst1p; putative therapeutic target for Huntington disease
YLR231C BNA5 kynureninase Kynureninase; required for the de novo biosynthesis of NAD from tryptophan via kynurenine; expression regulated by Hst1p
YFR047C BNA6 nicotinate-nucleotide diphosphorylase (carboxylating) | QPT1 Quinolinate phosphoribosyl transferase; required for the de novo biosynthesis of NAD from tryptophan via kynurenine; expression regulated by Hst1p
YNL271C BNI1 formin BNI1 | PPF3 | SHE5 Formin; polarisome component; nucleates the formation of linear actin filaments, involved in cell processes such as budding and mitotic spindle orientation which require the formation of polarized actin cables; recruited to the division site in a Glc7p/Ref2p dependent manner following release of Bnr1p; functionally redundant with BNR1
YNL233W BNI4 Targeting subunit for Glc7p protein phosphatase; localized to the bud neck, required for localization of chitin synthase III to the bud neck via interaction with the chitin synthase III regulatory subunit Skt5p; phosphorylation by Slt2p and Kss1p involved in regulating Bni4p in septum assembly
YNL166C BNI5 Linker protein responsible for recruitment of myosin to the bud neck; interacts with the C-terminal extensions of septins Cdc11p and Shs1p and binds Myo1p to promote cytokinesis
YIL159W BNR1 formin BNR1 Formin; nucleates the formation of linear actin filaments; involved in processes such as budding and mitotic spindle orientation which require the formation of polarized actin cables; activity is regulated by Hof1p and by the Bud14p-Kel1p-Kel2p complex; dephosphorylated and delocalized from the division site in a Glc7p/Ref2p-dependent manner; functionally redundant with BNI1
YBL085W BOI1 BOB1 | GIN7 Protein implicated in polar growth; functionally redundant with Boi2p; interacts with bud-emergence protein Bem1p; contains an SH3 (src homology 3) domain and a PH (pleckstrin homology) domain; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; BOI1 has a paralog, BOI2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER114C BOI2 BEB1 Protein implicated in polar growth, functionally redundant with Boi1p; interacts with bud-emergence protein Bem1p; contains an SH3 (src homology 3) domain and a PH (pleckstrin homology) domain; BOI2 has a paralog, BOI1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL220W BOL2 AIM15 | FRA2 Cytosolic protein involved in repression of iron regulon transcription; forms an iron-independent complex with Fra1p, Grx3p, and Grx4p; null mutant fails to repress the iron regulon and is sensitive to nickel; sequence similarity to human BOLA family member, BOLA2
YNL042W BOP3 Protein of unknown function; potential Cdc28p substrate; overproduction confers resistance to methylmercury
YNL275W BOR1 Boron efflux transporter of the plasma membrane; binds HCO3-, I-, Br-, NO3- and Cl-; has similarity to the characterized boron efflux transporter A. thaliana BOR1
YDL141W BPL1 ACC2 | biotin--[acetyl-CoA-carboxylase] ligase BPL1 Biotin:apoprotein ligase; covalently modifies proteins with the addition of biotin, required for acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc1p) holoenzyme formation; comparative analysis suggests that a mitochondrially targeted form may result from translation starting at a non-canonical codon upstream of the annotated start codon; human homolog HLCS can complement yeast BPL1 mutant
YLL015W BPT1 ATP-binding cassette bilirubin transporter BPT1 ABC type transmembrane transporter of MRP/CFTR family; found in vacuolar membrane, involved in the transport of unconjugated bilirubin and in heavy metal detoxification via glutathione conjugates, along with Ycf1p
YDL074C BRE1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase BRE1 E3 ubiquitin ligase; forms heterodimer with Rad6p to regulate K63 polyubiquitination in response to oxidative stress and to monoubiquinate histone H2B-K123, which is required for the subsequent methylation of histone H3-K4 and H3-K79; required for DSBR, transcription, silencing, and checkpoint control; interacts with RNA-binding protein Npl3p, linking histone ubiquitination to mRNA processing; Bre1p-dependent histone ubiquitination promotes pre-mRNA splicing
YLR015W BRE2 CPS60 Subunit of COMPASS (Set1C) complex; COMPASS methylates Lys4 of histone H3 and functions in silencing at telomeres; has a C-terminal Sdc1 Dpy-30 Interaction (SDI) domain that mediates binding to Sdc1p; similar to trithorax-group protein ASH2L
YNR051C BRE5 Ubiquitin protease cofactor; forms deubiquitination complex with Ubp3p that coregulates anterograde and retrograde transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments; null is sensitive to brefeldin A
YGR246C BRF1 PCF4 | TDS4 | TFIIIB70 | transcription factor TFIIIB subunit BRF1 TFIIIB B-related factor; one of three subunits of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor TFIIIB, binds TFIIIC and TBP and recruits RNA pol III to promoters, amino-terminal half is homologous to TFIIB; mutations in human homolog are associated with autosomal recessive cerebellar-facial-dental syndrome
YHR036W BRL1 Essential nuclear envelope/ER integral membrane protein; interacts and functions with Apq12p and Brr6p in lipid homeostasis; mutants are defective in nuclear pore complex biogenesis, mRNA nuclear export and are sensitive to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors and membrane fluidizing agents; identified as a dosage suppressor of a temperature sensitive mutation in the major karyopherin, CRM1; homologous to Brr6p
YBL097W BRN1 condensin subunit BRN1 Subunit of the condensin complex; required for chromosome condensation and for clustering of tRNA genes at the nucleolus; may influence multiple aspects of chromosome transmission
YPL084W BRO1 ASI6 | LPF2 | NPI3 | VPS31 Cytoplasmic class E vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) factor; coordinates deubiquitination in the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway by recruiting Doa4p to endosomes
YPR057W BRR1 snRNP protein component of spliceosomal snRNPs; required for pre-mRNA splicing and snRNP biogenesis; in null mutant newly-synthesized snRNAs are destabilized and 3'-end processing is slowed
YER172C BRR2 ATP-dependent RNA helicase BRR2 | PRP44 | RSS1 | SLT22 | SNU246 RNA-dependent ATPase RNA helicase (DEIH box); required for disruption of U4/U6 base-pairing in native snRNPs to activate the spliceosome for catalysis; homologous to human U5-200kD
YGL247W BRR6 Essential nuclear envelope integral membrane protein; interacts and functions with Apq12p and Brl1p in lipid homeostasis; mutants are defective in nuclear pore complex biogenesis, nuclear envelope morphology, mRNA nuclear export, and are sensitive to sterol biosynthesis inhibitors and membrane fluidizing agents; exhibits synthetic lethal genetic interactions with genes involved in lipid metabolism; homologous to Brl1p
YOL077C BRX1 Nucleolar protein; constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; depletion leads to defects in rRNA processing and a block in the assembly of large ribosomal subunits; possesses a sigma(70)-like RNA-binding motif
YDR275W BSC2 Protein of unknown function; ORF exhibits genomic organization compatible with a translational readthrough-dependent mode of expression; null mutant displays increased translation rate and increased readthrough of premature stop codons; BSC2 has a paralog, IRC23, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL137W BSC6 Protein of unknown function with 8 putative transmembrane segments; ORF exhibits genomic organization compatible with a translational readthrough-dependent mode of expression
YBR290W BSD2 Heavy metal ion homeostasis protein; facilitates trafficking of Smf1p and Smf2p metal transporters to vacuole where they are degraded; acts as an adaptor protein with Rsp5p in the regulated endocytosis of Smf1p and is itself ubiquitylated by Rsp5p; controls metal ion transport, prevents metal hyperaccumulation, functions in copper detoxification
YPR171W BSP1 Adapter that links synaptojanins to the cortical actin cytoskeleton; the synaptojanins are Inp52p and Inp53p
YFL025C BST1 PER17 GPI inositol deacylase of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); negatively regulates COPII vesicle formation; prevents production of vesicles with defective subunits; required for proper discrimination between resident ER proteins and Golgi-bound cargo molecules; functional ortholog of human PGAP1, mutation of which is associated with intellectual disability and encephalopathy
YGR142W BTN2 v-SNARE binding protein; facilitates specific protein retrieval from a late endosome to the Golgi; modulates arginine uptake, possible role in mediating pH homeostasis between the vacuole and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase; contributes to prion curing; preferentially expressed after severe ethanol stress
YPL069C BTS1 farnesyltranstransferase Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS); increases the intracellular pool of geranylgeranyl diphosphate, suppressor of bet2 mutation that causes defective geranylgeranylation of small GTP-binding proteins that mediate vesicular traffic
YDR252W BTT1 CCR4-NOT core subunit BTT1 Heterotrimeric nascent polypeptide-associated complex beta3 subunit; complex binds ribosomes via its beta-subunits in close proximity to nascent polypeptides; interacts with Caf130p of the CCR4-NOT complex; similar to human BTF3; BTT1 has a paralog, EGD1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR188C BUB1 protein kinase BUB1 Protein kinase involved in the cell cycle checkpoint into anaphase; in complex with Mad1p and Bub3p, prevents progression into anaphase in presence of spindle damage; Cdc28p-mediated phosphorylation at Bub1p-T566 is important for degradation in anaphase and adaptation of checkpoint to prolonged mitotic arrest; associates with centromere DNA via Skp1p; involved in Sgo1p relocalization in response to sister kinetochore tension; paralog MAD3 arose from whole genome duplication
YMR055C BUB2 PAC7 Mitotic exit network regulator; forms GTPase-activating Bfa1p-Bub2p complex that binds Tem1p and spindle pole bodies, blocks cell cycle progression before anaphase in response to spindle and kinetochore damage
YOR026W BUB3 PAC9 Kinetochore checkpoint WD40 repeat protein; localizes to kinetochores during prophase and metaphase, delays anaphase in the presence of unattached kinetochores; forms complexes with Mad1p-Bub1p and with Cdc20p, binds Mad2p and Mad3p; functions at kinetochore to activate APC/C-Cdc20p for normal mitotic progression
YGL174W BUD13 CWC26 Subunit of the RES complex; RES complex is required for nuclear pre-mRNA retention and splicing; involved in bud-site selection; diploid mutants display a unipolar budding pattern instead of the wild-type bipolar pattern due to a specific defect in MATa1 pre-mRNA splicing which leads to haploid gene expression in diploids
YAR014C BUD14 protein phosphatase regulator BUD14 Protein involved in bud-site selection; Bud14p-Glc7p complex is a cortical regulator of dynein; forms a complex with Kel1p and Kel2p that regulates Bnr1p (formin) to affect actin cable assembly, cytokinesis, and polarized growth; diploid mutants display a random budding pattern instead of the wild-type bipolar pattern; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YNR027W BUD17 putative pyridoxal kinase BUD17 Putative pyridoxal kinase; a key enzyme in vitamin B6 metabolism; involved in bud-site selection; diploid mutants display a random rather than a bipolar budding pattern; similarity to yeast BUD16 and human pyridoxal kinase (PDXK)
YKL092C BUD2 CLA2 | ERC25 GTPase activating factor for Rsr1p/Bud1p; plays a role in spindle position checkpoint distinct from its role in bud site selection; required for both axial and bipolar budding patterns; mutants exhibit random budding in all cell types; contains two PH-like domains
YLR074C BUD20 C2H2-type zinc finger protein required for ribosome assembly; shuttling factor which associates with pre-60S particles in the nucleus, accompanying them to the cytoplasm; cytoplasmic dissociation of Bud20p requires Drg1p; N-terminus harbors a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES); cytoplasmic Bud20p is reimported by Kap123-dependent pathway; involved in bud-site selection; diploid mutants display a random budding pattern; similar to human ZNF593
YOR078W BUD21 UTP16 | YOR29-29 Component of small ribosomal subunit (SSU) processosome; this complex contains U3 snoRNA; required at post-transcriptional step for efficient retrotransposition; absence results in decreased Ty1 Gag:GFP protein levels; originally isolated as bud-site selection mutant that displays a random budding pattern
YMR014W BUD22 Protein required for rRNA maturation and ribosomal subunit biogenesis; required for 18S rRNA maturation; also required for small ribosomal subunit biogenesis; cosediments with pre-ribosomal particles; mutation decreases efficiency of +1 Ty1 frameshifting and transposition, and affects budding pattern
YCR047C BUD23 18S rRNA (guanine1575-N7)-methyltransferase Methyltransferase that methylates residue G1575 of 18S rRNA; required for rRNA processing and nuclear export of 40S ribosomal subunits independently of methylation activity; diploid mutant displays random budding pattern; functional homolog of human WBSCR22
YFL023W BUD27 URI1 Unconventional prefoldin protein involved in translation initiation; required for correct assembly of RNAP I, II, and III in an Rpb5p-dependent manner; shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm; mutants have inappropriate expression of nutrient sensitive genes due to translational derepression of Gcn4p transcription factor; diploid mutants show random budding; ortholog of human URI/RMP
YCL014W BUD3 YCL012W Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42p; activates Cdc42p in early G1, accounting for the first stage of biphasic activation, with Cdc24p accounting for the second stage in late G1; involved in the Cdc42p-mediated assembly of the axial landmark that dictates the site for the next round of budding, resulting in the axial budding pattern observed in haploids; localizes with septins to the bud neck contractile ring in mitosis
YCR063W BUD31 CWC14 | U2 snRNP complex subunit BUD31 Component of the SF3b subcomplex of the U2 snRNP; increases efficiency of first and second step pre-mRNA splicing; diploid mutants display a random budding pattern instead of the wild-type bipolar pattern; facilitates passage through G1/S Start, but is not required for G2/M transition or exit from mitosis
YGR262C BUD32 LDB14 | serine/threonine protein kinase BUD32 Protein kinase; component of the EKC/KEOPS complex with Kae1p, Cgi121p, Pcc1p, and Gon7p; Pyrococcus Bud32 ortholog functions as a P-loop ATPase rather than a protein kinase in the context of the complex; EKC/KEOPS complex is required for t6A tRNA modification and telomeric TG1-3 recombination; may have role in transcription; mutation is functionally complemented by human TP53RK
YJR092W BUD4 Anillin-like protein involved in bud-site selection; required for the axial budding pattern; required for the formation and disassembly of the double septin ring structure, and generally for septin organization; functions as a platform linking the cytokinesis tag septins to the axial landmark through its multiple domains; in vivo substrate of Cdc28p/Clb2p
YCR038C BUD5 Ras family guanine nucleotide exchange factor BUD5 GTP/GDP exchange factor for Rsr1p (Bud1p); required for both axial and bipolar budding patterns; mutants exhibit random budding in all cell types
YLR319C BUD6 AIP3 Actin- and formin-interacting protein; participates in actin cable assembly and organization as a nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) for formins Bni1p and Bnr1p; a triple helical coiled-coil domain in the C-terminal region interacts with Bni1p; involved in polarized cell growth; isolated as bipolar budding mutant; potential Cdc28p substrate
YOR299W BUD7 exomer complex subunit Member of the ChAPs family (Chs5p-Arf1p-binding proteins); members include Bch1p, Bch2p, Bud7p, and Chs6p; ChAPs family proteins form the exomer complex with Chs5p to mediate export of specific cargo proteins, including Chs3p, from the Golgi to the plasma membrane; BUD7 has a paralog, BCH1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR353W BUD8 Protein involved in bud-site selection; diploid mutants display a unipolar budding pattern instead of the wild-type bipolar pattern, and bud at the proximal pole; BUD8 has a paralog, BUD9, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR041W BUD9 Protein involved in bud-site selection; mutant has increased aneuploidy tolerance; diploid mutants display a unipolar budding pattern instead of the wild-type bipolar pattern, and bud at the distal pole; BUD9 has a paralog, BUD8, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL099W BUG1 Cis-golgi localized protein involved in ER to Golgi transport; forms a complex with the mammalian GRASP65 homolog, Grh1p; mutants are compromised for the fusion of ER-derived vesicles with Golgi membranes
YMR275C BUL1 DAG1 | RDS1 | SMM2 | ubiquitin-ubiquitin ligase BUL1 Ubiquitin-binding component of the Rsp5p E3-ubiquitin ligase complex; disruption causes temperature-sensitive growth, overexpression causes missorting of amino acid permeases; BUL1 has a paralog, BUL2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML111W BUL2 ubiquitin-ubiquitin ligase BUL2 Component of the Rsp5p E3-ubiquitin ligase complex; involved in intracellular amino acid permease sorting, functions in heat shock element mediated gene expression, essential for growth in stress conditions; BUL2 has a paralog, BUL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR226W BUR2 CST4 Cyclin for the Sgv1p (Bur1p) protein kinase; Sgv1p and Bur2p comprise the CDK-cyclin BUR kinase complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation through its phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Rpo21p); BUR kinase is also involved in the recruitment of Spt6p to the CTD at the onset of transcription
YER159C BUR6 NCB1 | negative cofactor 2 transcription regulator complex subunit BUR6 Subunit of a heterodimeric NC2 transcription regulator complex; complex binds to TBP and can repress transcription by preventing preinitiation complex assembly or stimulate activated transcription; homologous to human NC2alpha; complex also includes Ncb2p; bur6 ncb2 double mutation is functionally complemented by coexpression of human DRAP1 and DR1, although the single bur6 mutation is not complemented by its ortholog DRAP1
YNL305C BXI1 YBH3 Protein involved in apoptosis; variously described as containing a BCL-2 homology (BH3) domain or as a member of the BAX inhibitor family; reported to promote apoptosis under some conditions and to inhibit it in others; localizes to ER and vacuole; may link the unfolded protein response to apoptosis via regulation of calcium-mediated signaling; translocates to mitochondria under apoptosis-inducing conditions in a process involving Mir1p and Cor1p
YHR114W BZZ1 LSB7 SH3 domain protein implicated in regulating actin polymerization; able to recruit actin polymerization machinery through its SH3 domains; colocalizes with cortical actin patches and Las17p; interacts with type I myosins
YDR531W CAB1 pantothenate kinase Pantothenate kinase, ATP:D-pantothenate 4'-phosphotransferase; catalyzes the first committed step in the universal biosynthetic pathway for synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA); transcriptionally regulated by Upc2p via a sterol response element
YIL083C CAB2 phosphopantothenate--cysteine ligase CAB2 Phosphopantothenoylcysteine synthetase (PPCS); catalyzes the second step of coenzyme A biosynthesis from pantothenate; subunit of the CoA-Synthesizing Protein Complex (CoA-SPC) that contains: Cab2p, Cab3p, Cab4p, Cab5p, Sis2p and Vhs3p subunits; null mutant lethality is complemented by human homolog PPCS and by E. coli coaBC, a bifunctional enzyme with PPCS activity
YKL088W CAB3 phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase complex subunit CAB3 Subunit of PPCDC and CoA-SPC complexes involved in CoA biosynthesis; subunits of the phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC) complex are: Cab3p, Sis2p, Vhs3p, while the subunits of the CoA-synthesizing protein complex (CoA-SPC) are: Cab2p, Cab3p, Cab4p, and Cab5p as well as Sis2p and Vhs3p; null mutant lethality is complemented by E. coli coaBC
YGR277C CAB4 putative pantetheine-phosphate adenylyltransferase Subunit of the CoA-Synthesizing Protein Complex (CoA-SPC); subunits of this complex are: Cab2p, Cab3p, Cab4p, Cab5p, Sis2p and Vhs3p; probable pantetheine-phosphate adenylyltransferase (PPAT); PPAT catalyzes the fourth step in the biosynthesis of coenzyme A from pantothenate; null mutant lethality is complemented by E. coli coaD (encoding PPAT) and by human COASY
YDR196C CAB5 putative dephospho-CoA kinase Subunit of the CoA-Synthesizing Protein Complex (CoA-SPC); subunits of this complex are: Cab2p, Cab3p, Cab4p, Cab5p, Sis2p and Vhs3p; probable dephospho-CoA kinase (DPCK) that catalyzes the last step in coenzyme A biosynthesis; null mutant lethality is complemented by human homolog DCAKD and by E. coli coaE (encoding DPCK); detected in purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; also localized to lipid droplets
YML102W CAC2 Subunit of chromatin assembly factor I (CAF-1), with Rlf2p and Msi1p; chromatin assembly by CAF-1 is important for multiple processes including silencing at telomeres, mating type loci, and rDNA; maintenance of kinetochore structure, deactivation of the DNA damage checkpoint after DNA repair, chromatin dynamics during transcription; and repression of divergent transcription; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YDR423C CAD1 YAP2 AP-1-like basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcriptional activator; involved in stress responses, iron metabolism, and pleiotropic drug resistance; controls a set of genes involved in stabilizing proteins; binds consensus sequence TTACTAA; CAD1 has a paralog, YAP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL278W CAF120 Part of the CCR4-NOT transcriptional regulatory complex; involved in controlling mRNA initiation, elongation, and degradation; contains a PH-like domain; CAF120 has a paralog, SKG3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR134W CAF130 CCR4-NOT core subunit CAF130 Subunit of the CCR4-NOT transcriptional regulatory complex; CCR4-NOT complex is evolutionarily-conserved and involved in controlling mRNA initiation, elongation, and degradation
YFL028C CAF16 putative ATP-binding cassette family ATPase CAF16 Part of evolutionarily-conserved CCR4-NOT regulatory complex; contains single ABC-type ATPase domain but no transmembrane domain; interacts with several subunits of Mediator
YOR276W CAF20 CAF2 | CAP20 | p20 Phosphoprotein of the mRNA cap-binding complex; involved in translational control; repressor of cap-dependent translation initiation; competes with eIF4G for binding to eIF4E
YKR036C CAF4 WD40 repeat-containing protein associated with the CCR4-NOT complex; interacts in a Ccr4p-dependent manner with Ssn2p; also interacts with Fis1p, Mdv1p and Dnm1p and plays a role in mitochondrial fission; CAF4 has a paralog, MDV1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL288W CAF40 CCR4-NOT core subunit CAF40 Component of the CCR4-NOT transcriptional complex; evolutionarily conserved; involved in controlling mRNA initiation, elongation, and degradation; binds Cdc39p
YFL029C CAK1 CIV1 | cyclin-dependent protein kinase-activating kinase CAK1 Cyclin-dependent kinase-activating kinase; required for passage through the cell cycle; phosphorylates and activates Cdc28p; nucleotide-binding pocket differs significantly from those of most other protein kinases
YPL048W CAM1 CPBP | TEF3 | translation elongation factor EF1B gamma One of two isoforms of the gamma subunit of eEF1B; stimulates the release of GDP from eEF1A (Tef1p/Tef2p) post association with the ribosomal complex with eEF1Balpha subunit; nuclear protein required for transcription of MXR1; binds the MXR1 promoter in the presence of other nuclear factors; binds calcium and phospholipids
YEL063C CAN1 arginine permease CAN1 Plasma membrane arginine permease; requires phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) for localization, exclusively associated with lipid rafts; mutation confers canavanine resistance; CAN1 has a paralog, ALP1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL007W CAP1 Alpha subunit of the capping protein heterodimer (Cap1p and Cap2p); capping protein (CP) binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments preventing further polymerization; localized predominantly to cortical actin patches; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from bud neck to plasma membrane upon DNA replication stress
YIL034C CAP2 F-actin-capping protein subunit beta Beta subunit of the capping protein heterodimer (Cap1p and Cap2p); capping protein (CP) binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments preventing further polymerization; localized predominantly to cortical actin patches; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from bud neck to plasma membrane upon DNA replication stress
YPL111W CAR1 arginase | cargA | LPH15 Arginase, catabolizes arginine to ornithine and urea; expression responds to both induction by arginine and nitrogen catabolite repression; disruption decreases production of carcinogen ethyl carbamate during wine fermentation and also enhances freeze tolerance
YLR438W CAR2 cargB | ornithine-oxo-acid transaminase L-ornithine transaminase (OTAse); catalyzes the second step of arginine degradation, expression is dually-regulated by allophanate induction and a specific arginine induction process; not nitrogen catabolite repression sensitive; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human homolog OAT complements yeast null mutant
YMR280C CAT8 DIL1 | DNA-binding transcription factor CAT8 | MSP8 Zinc cluster transcriptional activator; necessary for derepression of a variety of genes under non-fermentative growth conditions, active after diauxic shift, binds carbon source responsive elements; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YGR036C CAX4 CWH8 Dolichyl pyrophosphate (Dol-P-P) phosphatase; has a luminally oriented active site in the ER; cleaves the anhydride linkage in Dol-P-P; required for Dol-P-P-linked oligosaccharide intermediate synthesis and protein N-glycosylation
YPL178W CBC2 CBP20 | MUD13 | SAE1 Small subunit of the heterodimeric cap binding complex with Sto1p; interacts with Npl3p, possibly to package mRNA for export from the nucleus; may have a role in telomere maintenance; contains an RNA-binding motif
YJR060W CBF1 CEP1 | CP1 | CPF1 | GFII Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein; forms homodimer to bind E-box consensus sequence CACGTG present at MET gene promoters and centromere DNA element I (CDEI); affects nucleosome positioning at this motif; associates with other transcription factors such as Met4p and Isw1p to mediate transcriptional activation or repression; associates with kinetochore proteins, required for chromosome segregation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGR140W CBF2 CBF3A | CEP2 | CSL5 | CTF14 | NDC10 Essential kinetochore protein; component of the CBF3 multisubunit complex that binds to the CDEIII region of the centromere; Cbf2p also binds to the CDEII region possibly forming a different multimeric complex, ubiquitinated in vivo; sumoylated in an Mms21p-dependent manner; relative distribution to the spindle pole body decreases upon DNA replication stress
YLR175W CBF5 pseudouridine synthase CBF5 Pseudouridine synthase catalytic subunit of box H/ACA snoRNPs; acts on large and small rRNAs, on snRNA U2, and on some mRNAs; mutations in human ortholog dyskerin cause the disorder dyskeratosis congenita; small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein particles are also known as snoRNPs
YNL161W CBK1 serine/threonine protein kinase CBK1 Serine/threonine protein kinase of the the RAM signaling network; Ndr/LATS family member; binds regulatory subunit Mob2p; involved in regulation of cellular morphogenesis, polarized growth, and septum destruction; phosphorylation by Cbk1p regulates localization and activity of Ace2p transcription factor and Ssd1p translational repressor; Cbk1p activity is regulated by both phosphorylation and specific localization; relocalizes to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YJL209W CBP1 Mitochondrial protein, regulator of COB mRNA stability and translation; interacts with the 5'-untranslated region of the COB mRNA; found in a complex at the inner membrane along with Pet309p; localizes to mitochondrial foci upon DNA replication stress
YHL038C CBP2 Required for splicing of the group I intron bI5 of the COB pre-mRNA; nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein that binds to the RNA to promote splicing; also involved in but not essential for splicing of the COB bI2 intron and the intron in the 21S rRNA gene
YPL215W CBP3 Mitochondrial protein required for assembly of cytochrome bc1 complex; forms a complex with Cbp6p that binds to mt ribosomes near the polypeptide tunnel exit and promotes efficient translation of the COB mRNA; Cbp3p-Cbp6p complex also interacts with newly synthesized cytochrome b (Cobp) and Cbp4p to promote assembly of Cobp into the cytochrome bc1 complex; Cbp3p-Cbp6p complex is sequestered if assembly of Complex III is blocked, downregulating COB mRNA translation
YGR174C CBP4 Mitochondrial protein required for assembly of cytochrome bc1 complex; interacts with the Cbp3p-Cbp6p complex and newly synthesized cytochrome b (Cobp) to promote assembly of Cobp into the cytochrome bc1 complex
YBR120C CBP6 Mitochondrial protein required for translation of the COB mRNA; forms a complex with Cbp3p that binds to mt ribosomes near the polypeptide tunnel exit and promotes efficient translation of the COB mRNA; Cbp3p-Cbp6p complex also interacts with newly synthesized cytochrome b (Cobp) and Cbp4p to promote assembly of Cobp into the cytochrome bc1 complex; Cbp3p-Cbp6p complex is sequestered if assembly of Complex III is blocked, downregulating COB mRNA translation
YIL043C CBR1 CBR5 Cytochrome b reductase; not essential for viability; also detected in mitochondria; mutation in conserved NADH binding domain of the human ortholog results in type I methemoglobinemia
YDR197W CBS2 CBP7 Mitochondrial translational activator of the COB mRNA; interacts with translating ribosomes, acts on the COB mRNA 5'-untranslated leader
YKL208W CBT1 SOC1 Protein involved in 5' RNA end processing; substrates include mitochondrial COB, 15S_rRNA, and RPM1 transcripts; may also have a role in 3' end processing of the COB pre-mRNA; displays genetic interaction with cell cycle-regulated kinase Dbf2p
YER168C CCA1 TNT1 | tRNA adenylyltransferase ATP (CTP):tRNA-specific tRNA nucleotidyltransferase; different forms targeted to the nucleus, cytosol, and mitochondrion are generated via the use of multiple transcriptional and translational start sites; human homolog TRNT1 complements yeast null mutant
YLR220W CCC1 Vacuolar Fe2+/Mn2+ transporter; suppresses respiratory deficit of yfh1 mutants, which lack the ortholog of mammalian frataxin, by preventing mitochondrial iron accumulation; relative distribution to the vacuole decreases upon DNA replication stress
YDR270W CCC2 Cu(2+)-transporting P-type ATPase CCC2 Cu(+2)-transporting P-type ATPase; required for export of copper from the cytosol into an extracytosolic compartment; similar to human proteins involved in Menkes and Wilsons diseases; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; affects TBSV model (+)RNA virus replication by regulating copper metabolism; human homologs ATP7A and ATP7B both complement yeast null mutant
YKL011C CCE1 cruciform cutting endonuclease | MGT1 Mitochondrial cruciform cutting endonuclease; cleaves Holliday junctions formed during recombination of mitochondrial DNA; CCE1 has a paralog, MRS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR217W CCH1 Voltage-gated high-affinity calcium channel; involved in calcium influx in response to some environmental stresses as well as exposure to mating pheromones; interacts and partially co-localizes with Mid1p; however, evidence suggests CCH1 is not required for Mid1p function
YPR025C CCL1 TFIIH complex kinase subunit CCL1 Cyclin associated with protein kinase Kin28p; Kin28p is the TFIIH-associated carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) kinase involved in transcription initiation at RNA polymerase II promoters; human homolog CCNH allows growth of yeast ccl1 temperature-sensitive mutant at restrictive temperature
YGR150C CCM1 DMR1 | RRG2 Mitochondrial 15S rRNA-binding protein; required for intron removal of COB and COX1 pre-mRNAs; has separable roles in stabilizing mitochondrial 15S rRNA and in maturation of the COB and COX1 mRNAs; contains pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs; mutant is respiratory deficient and has defective plasma membrane electron transport
YKR066C CCP1 cytochrome-c peroxidase Mitochondrial cytochrome-c peroxidase; degrades reactive oxygen species in mitochondria, involved in the response to oxidative stress
YAL021C CCR4 CCR4-NOT core exoribonuclease subunit CCR4 | FUN27 | NUT21 Component of the CCR4-NOT transcriptional complex; CCR4-NOT is involved in regulation of gene expression; component of the major cytoplasmic deadenylase, which is involved in mRNA poly(A) tail shortening
YMR038C CCS1 CCS | copper chaperone CCS1 | LYS7 Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase Sod1p; involved in oxidative stress protection; Met-X-Cys-X2-Cys motif within N-terminus is involved in insertion of copper into Sod1p under conditions of copper deprivation; required for regulation of yeast copper genes in response to DNA-damaging agents; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human homolog CCS can complement yeast ccs1 null mutant
YLR110C CCW12 Cell wall mannoprotein; plays a role in maintenance of newly synthesized areas of cell wall; localizes to periphery of small buds, septum region of larger buds, and shmoo tip; CCW12 has a paralog, YDR134C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR390W-A CCW14 ICWP | SSR1 | YLR391W | YLR391W-A Covalently linked cell wall glycoprotein; present in the inner layer of the cell wall
YBR131W CCZ1 CVT16 Subunit of a heterodimeric guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF); subunit of the Mon1-Ccz1 GEF complex, which stimulates nucleotide exchange and activation of Ypt7p, a Rab family GTPase involved in membrane tethering and fusion events at the late endosome and vacuole; GEF activity is stimulated by membrane association and anionic phospholipids; involved in localizing Ypt7p to the vacuolar membrane; required for macroautophagy, the CVT pathway and mitophagy
YDR182W CDC1 DSC1 | DSR1 | ESP2 | putative lipid phosphatase CDC1 Putative mannose-ethanolamine phosphate phosphodiesterase; involved in GPI-anchor remodeling prior to the attachment of cell wall proteins to beta 1,3-glucan, removing ethanolamine phosphate from the first mannose of GPI anchors; mutants display elevated Ca2+-dependent signaling resulting in secondary actin polarization and Golgi inheritance defects; enzyme is Mn2+-dependent; mutants have cell division cycle defect and fragile cell walls
YCR002C CDC10 septin CDC10 Component of the septin ring, required for cytokinesis; septins are GTP-binding proteins that assemble into rod-like hetero-oligomers that can associate to form filaments; septin rings at the mother-bud neck act as scaffolds for recruiting cell division factors and as barriers to prevent diffusion of specific proteins between mother and daughter cells; N-terminus interacts with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate; protein abundance increases under DNA damage stress
YJR076C CDC11 PSL9 | septin CDC11 Component of the septin ring that is required for cytokinesis; present at the ends of rod-like septin hetero-oligomers; C-terminal extension is important for recruitment of Bni5p to the mother-bud neck, which in turn is required for Myo1p recruitment and cytokinesis; septin rings at the mother-bud neck act as scaffolds for recruiting cell division factors and as barriers to prevent diffusion of specific proteins between mother and daughter cells
YHR107C CDC12 CLA10 | PSL7 | septin CDC12 Component of the septin ring that is required for cytokinesis; septins are GTP-binding proteins that assemble into rod-like hetero-oligomers that can associate with other rods to form filaments; septin rings at the mother-bud neck act as scaffolds for recruiting cell division factors and as barriers to prevent diffusion of specific proteins between mother and daughter cells
YLR215C CDC123 cell proliferation protein CDC123 Assembly factor for the eIF2 translation initiation factor complex; regulates translational initiation; conserved residues of this ATP-Grasp protein that bind to ATP-Mg2+ in the pombe ortholog are required for complex assembly in budding yeast; interaction with eIF2 subunit Gcd11p facilitates complex assembly and activity; required for the START transition and timely progression through G2; regulated by nutrient availability; human ortholog complements the yeast mutant
YDL220C CDC13 EST4 | telomere-binding protein CDC13 Single stranded DNA-binding protein found at TG1-3 telomere G-tails; key roles in regulation of telomerase, telomere end protection, conventional telomere replication; regulates telomere replication through recruitment of specific sub-complexes, essential function is telomere capping; forms homodimer via N-terminus; disruption of dimerization leads to short telomeres; autophagy and proteasome are involved in Cdc13p degradation; differentially phosphorylated through cell cycle
YFR028C CDC14 OAF3 | phosphoprotein phosphatase CDC14 Protein phosphatase required for mitotic exit; required for rDNA segregation, cytokinesis, meiosis I spindle disassembly, environmental stress response; held in nucleolus by Cdc55p in early meiosis, liberated by FEAR and Mitotic Exit Network in anaphase, enabling it to effect a decrease in CDK/B-cyclin activity and mitotic exit; sequestered in metaphase II, released upon entry into anaphase II; human homolog CDC14A can complement thermosensitivity of yeast cdc14-1 mutant
YAR019C CDC15 LYT1 | serine/threonine protein kinase CDC15 Protein kinase of the Mitotic Exit Network; localized to the spindle pole bodies at late anaphase; promotes mitotic exit by directly switching on the kinase activity of Dbf2p; required for spindle disassembly after meiosis II; relocalizes to the cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YKL022C CDC16 anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC16 Subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; required for sporulation; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YAL038W CDC19 PYK1 | pyruvate kinase CDC19 Pyruvate kinase; functions as a homotetramer in glycolysis to convert phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, the input for aerobic (TCA cycle) or anaerobic (glucose fermentation) respiration; regulated via allosteric activation by fructose bisphosphate; CDC19 has a paralog, PYK2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL116W CDC20 PAC5 | ubiquitin-protein transferase activating protein CDC20 Activator of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is required for metaphase/anaphase transition; directs ubiquitination of mitotic cyclins, Pds1p, and other anaphase inhibitors; cell-cycle regulated; potential Cdc28p substrate; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YOR074C CDC21 CRT9 | thymidylate synthase | TMP1 | YOR29-25 Thymidylate synthase; required for de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides; expression is induced at G1/S; human homolog TYMSOS can complement yeast cdc21 temperature-sensitive mutant at restrictive temperature
YHR166C CDC23 anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC23 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition
YAL041W CDC24 CLS4 | Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor CDC24 Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Cdc42p; required for polarity establishment and maintenance, and mutants have morphological defects in bud formation and shmooing; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; thermosensitivity of the cdc24-4 mutant in the presence of sorbitol is functionally complemented by human CDC42
YLR310C CDC25 CDC25' | CTN1 | Ras family guanine nucleotide exchange factor CDC25 Membrane bound guanine nucleotide exchange factor; also known as a GEF or GDP-release factor; indirectly regulates adenylate cyclase through activation of Ras1p and Ras2p by stimulating the exchange of GDP for GTP; required for progression through G1; thermosensitivity of the cdc25-5 mutant is functionally complemented by human RASGRF1 or by a fragment of human SOS1 comprising the CDC25-related catalytic domain
YFR036W CDC26 anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC26 | HIT3 | SCD26 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YBL084C CDC27 anaphase promoting complex subunit CDC27 | APC3 | SNB1 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition
YBR160W CDC28 CDK1 | cyclin-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase CDC28 | HSL5 | SRM5 Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) catalytic subunit; master regulator of mitotic and meiotic cell cycles; alternately associates with G1, S, G2/M phase cyclins, which provide substrate specificity; regulates metabolism, basal transcription, chromosome dynamics, growth and morphogenesis; transcript induction in osmostress involves antisense RNA; human homologs CDK1, CDK2, CDK3 can complement yeast conditional cdc28 mutants; human CDK1, CDK2 can complement yeast cdc28 null mutant
YOL139C CDC33 eIF4E | TIF45 | translation initiation factor eIF4E mRNA cap binding protein and translation initiation factor eIF4E; the eIF4E-cap complex is responsible for mediating cap-dependent mRNA translation via interactions with translation initiation factor eIF4G (Tif4631p or Tif4632p); protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; mutants are defective for adhesion and pseudohyphal growth; human homolog EIF4E can complement yeast cdc33 null mutant
YDR054C CDC34 DNA6 | SCF E2 ubiquitin-protein ligase catalytic subunit CDC34 | UBC3 Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2); catalytic subunit of SCF ubiquitin-protein ligase complex (together with Skp1p, Rbx1p, Cdc53p, and an F-box protein) that regulates cell cycle progression by targeting key substrates for degradation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human CDC34 functionally complements the thermosensitivity of the cdc34-2 mutant
YDL165W CDC36 CCR4-NOT core subunit CDC36 | DNA19 | NOT2 Component of the CCR4-NOT core complex, involved in mRNA decapping; this complex has multiple roles in regulating mRNA levels including regulation of transcription and destabilizing mRNAs through deadenylation; basal transcription factor
YDR168W CDC37 SMO1 Essential Hsp90p co-chaperone; necessary for passage through the START phase of the cell cycle; stabilizes protein kinase nascent chains and participates along with Hsp90p in their folding
YCR093W CDC39 CCR4-NOT core subunit CDC39 | NOT1 | ROS1 | SMD6 Subunit of the CCR4-NOT1 core complex; this complex has multiple roles in the regulation of mRNA levels including regulation of transcription and destabilization of mRNA by deadenylation; basal transcription factor that increases initiation and elongation; activates the ATPase activity of Dhh1p, resulting in processing body disassembly
YDR364C CDC40 PRP17 | SLT15 | SLU4 Pre-mRNA splicing factor; important for catalytic step II of pre-mRNA splicing and plays a role in cell cycle progression, particularly at the G1/S phase transition; required for DNA synthesis during mitosis and meiosis; has WD repeats; thermosensitivity of the cdc40 null mutant is functionally complemented by a chimeric construct containing the N-terminal 156 amino acids of yeast Cdc40p fused to the C-terminal two thirds (297 amino acids) of human CDC40
YGL155W CDC43 CAL1 | protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I subunit CDC43 Beta subunit of geranylgeranyltransferase type I; subunit of the Ram2p-Cdc43p heterodimer that catalyzes the geranylgeranylation of the cysteine residue in proteins containing a C-terminal CaaX sequence ending in Leu or Phe; has substrates important for morphogenesis
YLR103C CDC45 DNA replication initiation factor CDC45 | SLD4 DNA replication initiation factor; recruited to MCM pre-RC complexes at replication origins; promotes release of MCM from Mcm10p, recruits elongation machinery; binds tightly to ssDNA, which disrupts interaction with the MCM helicase and stalls it during replication stress; mutants in human homolog may cause velocardiofacial and DiGeorge syndromes
YDL126C CDC48 AAA family ATPase CDC48 AAA ATPase; subunit of polyUb-selective segregase complex involved in ERAD, INM-associated degradation (INMAD), mitotic spindle disassembly, macroautophagy, PMN, ribosome-associated degradation, ribophagy, homotypic ER membrane fusion, SCF complex disassembly, cell wall integrity during heat stress, and telomerase regulation; mobilizes membrane-anchored transcription factors by regulated Ub/proteasome-dependent processing (RUP); human ortholog VCP complements a cdc48 mutant
YMR001C CDC5 MSD2 | PKX2 | polo kinase CDC5 Polo-like kinase; controls targeting and activation of Rho1p at cell division site via Rho1p guanine nucleotide exchange factors; regulates Spc72p; also functions in adaptation to DNA damage during meiosis; regulates the shape of the nucleus and expansion of the nuclear envelope during mitosis; similar to Xenopus Plx1 and S. pombe Plo1p; human homologs PLK1, PLK3 can each complement yeast cdc5 thermosensitive mutants
YCR094W CDC50 aminophospholipid translocase regulatory protein CDC50 Endosomal protein that interacts with phospholipid flippase Drs2p; interaction with Cdc50p is essential for Drs2p catalytic activity; mutations affect cell polarity and polarized growth; similar to Lem3p; CDC50 has a paralog, YNR048W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL132W CDC53 cullin CDC53 Cullin; structural protein of SCF complexes (which also contain Skp1p, Cdc34p, Hrt1p and an F-box protein) involved in ubiquitination; SCF promotes the G1-S transition by targeting G1 cyclins and the Cln-CDK inhibitor Sic1p for degradation; human homolog CUL1 can complement yeast cdc53 null mutant
YGL190C CDC55 protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit CDC55 | TMR4 Regulatory subunit B of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A); Zds1p/2p-dependent localization to cytoplasm promotes mitotic entry; localization to nucleus prevents mitotic exit; required for correct nuclear division, chromosome segregation during achiasmate meiosis; maintains nucleolar sequestration of Cdc14p during early meiosis; limits formation of PP2A-Rts1p holocomplexes to ensure timely dissolution of sister chromosome cohesion; homolog of mammalian B55
YJL194W CDC6 AAA family ATPase CDC6 Essential ATP-binding protein required for DNA replication; component of the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) which requires ORC to associate with chromatin and is in turn required for Mcm2-7p DNA association; homologous to S. pombe Cdc18p; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; degraded in response to plasma membrane stress
YPL160W CDC60 leucine--tRNA ligase CDC60 | LeuRS Cytosolic leucyl tRNA synthetase; ligates leucine to the appropriate tRNA; human homolog LARS can complement yeast temperature-sensitive mutant at restrictive temperature
YDL017W CDC7 LSD6 | SAS1 | serine/threonine protein kinase CDC7 Ser/Thr kinase and catalytic subunit of DDK (Dbf4-dependent kinase); required for origin firing and replication initiation; phosphorylates MCM subunits and Cdc45p to drive assembly of the pre-IC and the replicative CMG helicase (Cdc45-MCM-GINS); regulates pre-meiotic DNA replication, meiotic DSB formation, monopolar attachment of homologs during MI by recruiting monopolin to kinetochores, and regulation of middle meiotic genes including NDT80; complemented by co-expression of human CDC7 and DBF4
YLR418C CDC73 Component of the Paf1p complex; binds to and modulates the activity of RNA polymerases I and II; required for expression of certain genes, modification of some histones, and telomere maintenance; involved in transcription elongation as demonstrated by the G-less-based run-on (GLRO) assay; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; human homolog, parafibromin, is a tumour suppressor linked to breast, renal and gastric cancers
YJR057W CDC8 bifunctional thymidylate/uridylate kinase Nucleoside monophosphate and nucleoside diphosphate kinase; functions in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides; thymidylate/uridylate kinase that converts nucleoside monophosphates, dTMP and dUMP to nucleoside diphosphates, dTDP and dUDP; nucleoside diphosphate kinase that converts nucleoside diphosphates, dTDP and dUDP to dTTP and dUTP; essential for mitotic and meiotic DNA replication; homologous to S. pombe tmp1; human homolog DTYMK can complement the cdc8 null mutant
YDL164C CDC9 DNA ligase (ATP) CDC9 | MMS8 DNA ligase I found in nucleus and mitochondria; essential enzyme that joins Okazaki fragments during DNA replication; also acts in ribonucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, and recombination; DNA ligase I mutants trigger ubiquitination of PCNA at K107, facilitating Rad59p-mediated bypass of unligated Okazaki fragments; human homolog LIG1 can complement yeast cdc9 temperature-sensitive mutant at restrictive temperature
YLR245C CDD1 cytidine deaminase Cytidine deaminase; catalyzes the modification of cytidine to uridine in vitro but native RNA substrates have not been identified, localizes to both the nucleus and cytoplasm
YMR213W CEF1 NTC85 Essential splicing factor; associated with Prp19p and the spliceosome, contains an N-terminal c-Myb DNA binding motif necessary for cell viability but not for Prp19p association, evolutionarily conserved and homologous to S. pombe Cdc5p
YGL130W CEG1 mRNA guanylyltransferase Guanylyltransferase involved in mRNA 5' capping; subunit of mRNA capping enzyme, which is a heterotetramer composed of two molecules of Ceg1p and a homodimer of Cet1p, the mRNA 5'-triphosphatase subunit; nuclear import of Ceg1p requires interaction with Cet1p; mammalian capping enzyme is a single bifunctional polypeptide; human homolog RNGTT can complement yeast ceg1 null mutant
YER061C CEM1 fatty acid synthase CEM1 Mitochondrial beta-keto-acyl synthase; possible role in fatty acid synthesis; required for mitochondrial respiration; human homolog OXSM can complement yeast cem1 null mutant
YMR168C CEP3 CBF3 | CBF3B | CSL1 Essential kinetochore protein; component of the CBF3 complex that binds the CDEIII region of the centromere; contains an N-terminal Zn2Cys6 type zinc finger domain, a C-terminal acidic domain, and a putative coiled coil dimerization domain
YPL228W CET1 CES5 | polynucleotide 5'-phosphatase RNA 5'-triphosphatase involved in mRNA 5' capping; subunit of mRNA capping enzyme, which is a heterotetramer composed of a Cet1p homodimer and two molecules of guanylyltransferase Ceg1p; Cet1p also has a role in regulation of RNAPII pausing at promoter-proximal sites; interaction between Cet1p and Ceg1p is required for Ceg1p nuclear import; mammalian enzyme is single bifunctional polypeptide; human homolog RNGTT can complement yeast cet1 null mutant
YOR112W CEX1 Component of nuclear aminoacylation-dependent tRNA export pathway; cytoplasmic; interacts with nuclear pore component Nup116p; copurifies with tRNA export receptors Los1p and Msn5p, as well as eIF-1a; required for activation of RAN GTPase Gsp1p and dissociation of receptor-tRNA-Gsp1p export complex; recruits Rna1p from cytoplasm to NPC, facilitates Rna1p activation of Gsp1p GTPase activity by enabling Rna1p to gain access to Gsp1p-GTP bound to export receptor tRNA complex
YDR301W CFT1 YHH1 RNA-binding subunit of the mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation factor; involved in poly(A) site recognition and required for both pre-mRNA cleavage and polyadenylation, 51% sequence similarity with mammalian AAUAA-binding subunit of CPSF
YLR115W CFT2 cleavage polyadenylation factor subunit CFT2 | YDH1 Subunit of the mRNA cleavage and polyadenlylation factor (CPF); required for pre-mRNA cleavage, polyadenylation and poly(A) site recognition, 43% similarity with the mammalian CPSF-100 protein.
YGL029W CGR1 Protein involved in nucleolar integrity and processing of pre-rRNA; has a role in processing rRNA for the 60S ribosome subunit; transcript is induced in response to cytotoxic stress but not genotoxic stress; relocalizes from nucleus to nucleolus upon DNA replication stress
YCL064C CHA1 L-serine/L-threonine ammonia-lyase CHA1 Catabolic L-serine (L-threonine) deaminase; catalyzes the degradation of both L-serine and L-threonine; required to use serine or threonine as the sole nitrogen source, transcriptionally induced by serine and threonine
YLR098C CHA4 SIL2 | SIL3 DNA binding transcriptional activator; mediates serine/threonine activation of the catabolic L-serine (L-threonine) deaminase (CHA1); Zinc-finger protein with Zn[2]-Cys[6] fungal-type binuclear cluster domain
YGL206C CHC1 clathrin heavy chain | SWA5 Clathrin heavy chain; subunit of the major coat protein involved in intracellular protein transport and endocytosis; the clathrin triskelion is a trimeric molecule composed of three heavy chains that radiate from a vertex and three light chains which bind noncovalently near the vertex of the triskelion; the light chain (CLC1) is thought to regulate function
YER164W CHD1 chromatin-remodeling ATPase CHD1 Chromatin remodeler that regulates various aspects of transcription; acts in in conjunction with Isw1b to regulate chromatin structure and maintain chromatin integrity during transcription elongation by RNAP II by preventing trans-histone exchange over coding regions; contains a chromo domain, a helicase domain and a DNA-binding domain; component of both the SAGA and SLIK complexes
YBR274W CHK1 serine/threonine protein kinase CHK1 Serine/threonine kinase and DNA damage checkpoint effector; mediates cell cycle arrest via phosphorylation of Pds1p; phosphorylated by checkpoint signal transducer Mec1p; homolog of S. pombe and mammalian Chk1 checkpoint kinase
YPL008W CHL1 CTF1 | LPA9 | MCM12 Probable DNA helicase; involved in sister-chromatid cohesion and genome integrity and interstrand cross-link repair; interacts with ECO1 and CTF18; mutants are defective in silencing, rDNA recombination, aging and the heat shock response; FANCJ-like helicase family member; mutations in the human homolog, DDX11/ChLR1, cause Warsaw breakage syndrome
YDR254W CHL4 CTF17 | MCM17 Outer kinetochore protein required for chromosome stability; involved in new kinetochore assembly and sister chromatid cohesion; forms a stable complex with Iml3p; peripheral component of the Ctf19 kinetochore complex that interacts with Ctf19p, Ctf3p, and Mif2p; required for the spindle assembly checkpoint; orthologous to human centromere constitutive-associated network (CCAN) subunit CENP-N and fission yeast mis15
YGR157W CHO2 PEM1 | phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase Phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase (PEMT); catalyzes the first step in the conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine during the methylation pathway of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis
YBR023C CHS3 CAL1 | chitin synthase CHS3 | CSD2 | DIT101 | KTI2 Chitin synthase III; catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to chitin; required for synthesis of the majority of cell wall chitin, the chitin ring during bud emergence, and spore wall chitosan; contains overlapping di-leucine and di-acidic signals that mediate, respectively, intracellular trafficking by AP-1 and trafficking to plasma membrane by exomer complex; requires AP-3 complex for its intracellular retention
YLR330W CHS5 CAL3 Component of the exomer complex; the exomer which also contains Csh6p, Bch1p, Bch2p, and Bud7, is involved in the export of select proteins, such as chitin synthase Chs3p, from the Golgi to the plasma membrane; interacts selectively with the activated, GTP-bound form of Arf1p; Chs5p is the only protein with a BRCT domain that is not localized to the nucleus
YJL099W CHS6 CSD3 Member of the ChAPs (Chs5p-Arf1p-binding proteins) family; part of the exomer complex that mediates export of specific cargo proteins, including Chs3p, from the Golgi to the plasma membrane; primary component of the Chs5/6 complex that binds directly to membranes; CHS6 has a paralog, BCH2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR142W CHS7 Protein of unknown function; may be involved in chitin biosynthesis by regulation of Chs3p export from the ER; relocalizes from bud neck to ER upon DNA replication stress
YER030W CHZ1 Histone chaperone for Htz1p/H2A-H2B dimer; required for the stabilization of the Chz1p-Htz1-H2B complex; has overlapping function with Nap1p; null mutant displays weak sensitivity to MMS and benomyl; contains a highly conserved CHZ motif; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR267C CIA1 iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein CIA1 Component of cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly (CIA) machinery; acts at late step of Fe-S cluster assembly; forms CIA targeting complex with Cia2p and Met18p that directs Fe-S cluster incorporation and maturation of a subset of cytosolic and nuclear proteins involved in methionine biosynthesis, DNA replication and repair, transcription and telomere maintenance; contains WD40 repeats; human homolog CIAO1 complements the yeast cia1 null mutant
YHR122W CIA2 iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein CIA2 Component of cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly (CIA) machinery; acts at a late step of Fe-S cluster assembly; forms the CIA targeting complex with Cia1p and Met18p that directs Fe-S cluster incorporation and maturation of a subset of proteins involved in methionine biosynthesis, DNA replication and repair, transcription, and telomere maintenance; ortholog of human FAM96B
YHR052W CIC1 NSA3 Essential protein that interacts with proteasome components; has a potential role in proteasome substrate specificity; also copurifies with 66S pre-ribosomal particles
YMR198W CIK1 Kinesin-associated protein; required for both karyogamy and mitotic spindle organization, interacts stably and specifically with Kar3p and may function to target this kinesin to a specific cellular role; locus encodes a long and short transcript with differing functions; CIK1 has a paralog, VIK1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR349W CIN1 Tubulin folding factor D involved in beta-tubulin (Tub2p) folding; isolated as mutant with increased chromosome loss and sensitivity to benomyl
YPL241C CIN2 GTPase-activating protein CIN2 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Cin4p; tubulin folding factor C involved in beta-tubulin (Tub2p) folding; mutants display increased chromosome loss and benomyl sensitivity; human homolog RP2 complements yeast null mutant
YMR138W CIN4 Arf family GTPase CIN4 | GTP1 | UGX1 GTP-binding protein involved in beta-tubulin (Tub2p) folding; isolated as mutant with increased chromosome loss and sensitivity to benomyl; regulated by the GTPase-activating protein, Cin2p, the human retinitis pigmentosa 2 (RP2) homolog
YOR028C CIN5 HAL6 | YAP4 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor of the yAP-1 family; physically interacts with the Tup1-Cyc8 complex and recruits Tup1p to its targets; mediates pleiotropic drug resistance and salt tolerance; nuclearly localized under oxidative stress and sequestered in the cytoplasm by Lot6p under reducing conditions; CIN5 has a paralog, YAP6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL061C CIN8 kinesin motor protein CIN8 | KSL2 | SDS15 Kinesin motor protein; involved in mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation
YPL014W CIP1 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor; interacts with and inhibits the Cdc28p/Cln2p, G1/S phase cyclin-dependent kinase complex but not S-phase, or M-phase complexes; overexpression blocks cells in G1 phase and stabilizes the Cdc28p inhibitor Sic1p, while disruption accelerates the G1/S phase transition; phosphorylated during S phase in a Cdc28p-dependent manner; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and to the nucleus
YGR207C CIR1 Mitochondrial protein that interacts with frataxin (Yfh1p); putative ortholog of mammalian electron transfer flavoprotein complex subunit ETF-beta; may have a role in oxidative stress response
YOR356W CIR2 putative electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase Putative ortholog of human ETF-dH; found in a large supramolecular complex with other mitochondrial dehydrogenases; may have a role in oxidative stress response; ETF-dH is also known as electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase
YLR346C CIS1 Protein of unknown function found in mitochondria; expression is regulated by transcription factors involved in pleiotropic drug resistance, Pdr1p and Yrr1p; not an essential gene; YLR346C has a paralog, YGR035C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL158C CIS3 CCW11 | CCW5 | PIR4 | SCW8 Mannose-containing glycoprotein constituent of the cell wall; member of the PIR (proteins with internal repeats) family
YNR001C CIT1 citrate (Si)-synthase CIT1 | CS1 | LYS6 Citrate synthase; catalyzes the condensation of acetyl coenzyme A and oxaloacetate to form citrate; the rate-limiting enzyme of the TCA cycle; nuclear encoded mitochondrial protein; CIT1 has a paralog, CIT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR005C CIT2 citrate (Si)-synthase CIT2 Citrate synthase, peroxisomal isozyme involved in glyoxylate cycle; catalyzes condensation of acetyl coenzyme A and oxaloacetate to form citrate; expression is controlled by Rtg1p and Rtg2p transcription factors; SCF-Ucc1 regulates level of Cit2p to maintain citrate homeostasis; oxaloacetate-dependent positive feedback loop inhibits Cit2p ubiquitination; CIT2 has a paralog, CIT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR001W CIT3 citrate (Si)-synthase CIT3 Dual specificity mitochondrial citrate and methylcitrate synthase; catalyzes the condensation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to form citrate and that of propionyl-CoA and oxaloacetate to form 2-methylcitrate
YIL035C CKA1 casein kinase 2 catalytic subunit CKA1 Alpha catalytic subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2); a Ser/Thr protein kinase with roles in cell growth and proliferation; CK2, comprised of CKA1, CKA2, CKB1 and CKB2, has many substrates including transcription factors and all RNA polymerases; regulates Fkh1p-mediated donor preference during mating-type switching
YOR061W CKA2 casein kinase 2 catalytic subunit CKA2 | YOR29-12 Alpha' catalytic subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2); CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase with roles in cell growth and proliferation; CK2, comprised of CKA1, CKA2, CKB1 and CKB2, has many substrates including transcription factors and all RNA polymerases; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; regulates Fkh1p-mediated donor preference during mating-type switching
YGL019W CKB1 casein kinase 2 regulatory subunit CKB1 Beta regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2); a Ser/Thr protein kinase with roles in cell growth and proliferation; CK2, comprised of CKA1, CKA2, CKB1 and CKB2, has many substrates including transcription factors and all RNA polymerases
YOR039W CKB2 casein kinase 2 regulatory subunit CKB2 Beta' regulatory subunit of casein kinase 2 (CK2); a Ser/Thr protein kinase with roles in cell growth and proliferation; CK2, comprised of CKA1, CKA2, CKB1 and CKB2, has many substrates including transcription factors and all RNA polymerase
YLR133W CKI1 bifunctional choline kinase/ethanolamine kinase CKI1 Choline kinase; catalyzes the first step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the CDP-choline (Kennedy pathway); exhibits some ethanolamine kinase activity contributing to phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway; CKI1 has a paralog, EKI1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR135W CKS1 cyclin-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit CKS1 Cyclin-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit and adaptor; interacts with Cdc28p (aka Cdk1p); required for G1/S and G2/M phase transitions and budding; mediates phosphorylation and degradation of Sic1p; modulates proteolysis of M-phase targets through interactions with the proteasome; role in transcriptional regulation, recruiting proteasomal subunits to target gene promoters; human homologs CKS1B and CKS2 can each complement yeast cks1 null mutant
YNL298W CLA4 ERC10 | serine/threonine protein kinase CLA4 Cdc42p-activated signal transducing kinase; member of the PAK (p21-activated kinase) family, along with Ste20p and Skm1p; involved in septin ring assembly, vacuole inheritance, cytokinesis, sterol uptake regulation; phosphorylates Cdc3p and Cdc10p; CLA4 has a paralog, SKM1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR108W CLB1 B-type cyclin CLB1 | SCB1 B-type cyclin involved in cell cycle progression; activates Cdc28p to promote the transition from G2 to M phase; accumulates during G2 and M, then targeted via a destruction box motif for ubiquitin-mediated degradation by the proteasome; CLB1 has a paralog, CLB2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR119W CLB2 B-type cyclin CLB2 B-type cyclin involved in cell cycle progression; activates Cdc28p to promote the transition from G2 to M phase; accumulates during G2 and M, then targeted via a destruction box motif for ubiquitin-mediated degradation by the proteasome; CLB2 has a paralog, CLB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL155W CLB3 B-type cyclin CLB3 B-type cyclin involved in cell cycle progression; activates Cdc28p to promote the G2/M transition; may be involved in DNA replication and spindle assembly; accumulates during S phase and G2, then targeted for ubiquitin-mediated degradation; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; CLB3 has a paralog, CLB4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR210W CLB4 B-type cyclin CLB4 B-type cyclin involved in cell cycle progression; activates Cdc28p to promote the G2/M transition; may be involved in DNA replication and spindle assembly; accumulates during S phase and G2, then targeted for ubiquitin-mediated degradation; CLB4 has a paralog, CLB3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR167W CLC1 SCD4 Clathrin light chain; subunit of the major coat protein involved in intracellular protein transport and endocytosis; regulates endocytic progression; thought to regulate clathrin function; the clathrin triskelion is a trimeric molecule composed of three heavy chains that radiate from a vertex and three light chains which bind noncovalently near the vertex of the triskelion
YLR117C CLF1 NTC77 | SYF3 Member of the NineTeen Complex (NTC); this complex contains Prp19p and stabilizes U6 snRNA in catalytic forms of the spliceosome containing U2, U5, and U6 snRNAs; homolog of Drosophila crooked neck protein; interacts with U1 snRNP proteins
YMR199W CLN1 cyclin CLN1 G1 cyclin involved in regulation of the cell cycle; activates Cdc28p kinase to promote the G1 to S phase transition; late G1 specific expression depends on transcription factor complexes, MBF (Swi6p-Mbp1p) and SBF (Swi6p-Swi4p); CLN1 has a paralog, CLN2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; cell cycle arrest phenotype of the cln1 cln2 cln3 triple null mutant is complemented by any of human cyclins CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNC, CCND1, or CCNE1
YPL256C CLN2 cyclin CLN2 G1 cyclin involved in regulation of the cell cycle; activates Cdc28p kinase to promote the G1 to S phase transition; late G1 specific expression depends on transcription factor complexes, MBF (Swi6p-Mbp1p) and SBF (Swi6p-Swi4p); CLN2 has a paralog, CLN1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; cell cycle arrest phenotype of the cln1 cln2 cln3 triple null mutant is complemented by any of human cyclins CCNA2, CCNB1, CCNC, CCND1, or CCNE1
YMR012W CLU1 TIF31 | translation initiation factor 3 subunit CLU1 Subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3); component of unknown function; deletion causes defects in mitochondrial organization but not in growth or translation initiation; can rescue cytokinesis and mitochondrial organization defects of the Dictyostelium cluA- mutant; eIF3 is also involved in programmed stop codon readthrough
YBL059C-A CMC2 Protein involved in respiratory chain complex assembly or maintenance; protein of the mitochondrial intermembrane space; contains twin Cx9C motifs that can form coiled coil-helix-coiled-coil helix fold
YBR109C CMD1 calmodulin | CaM Calmodulin; Ca2+ binding protein that regulates Ca2+ independent processes (mitosis, bud growth, actin organization, endocytosis, etc.) and Ca2+ dependent processes (stress-activated pathways), targets include Nuf1p, Myo2p and calcineurin; binds to the Hog1p MAPK in response to hyperosmotic stress; potentiates membrane tubulation and constriction mediated by the Rvs161p-Rvs167p complex; human CALM1 or CALM2 functionally complement repression induced inviability
YLR271W CMG1 Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus and is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS
YFR014C CMK1 calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CMK1 Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; may play a role in stress response, many Ca++/calmodulin dependent phosphorylation substrates demonstrated in vitro, amino acid sequence similar to mammalian Cam Kinase II; CMK1 has a paralog, CMK2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL016C CMK2 calmodulin-dependent protein kinase CMK2 Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase; may play a role in stress response, many CA++/calmodulan dependent phosphorylation substrates demonstrated in vitro, amino acid sequence similar to mammalian Cam Kinase II; CMK2 has a paralog, CMK1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML057W CMP2 calcineurin catalytic subunit A | CNA2 Calcineurin A; one isoform (the other is Cna1p) of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin, a Ca++/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase which regulates Crz1p (a stress-response transcription factor), the other calcineurin subunit is CNB1; regulates the function of Aly1p alpha-arrestin; CMP2 has a paralog, CNA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL156W CMR1 Nuclear protein with a role in protein quality control; localizes to the intranuclear quality control compartment (INQ) in response to proteasome inhibition or DNA replication stress; INQ likely sequesters proteins involved in DNA metabolism for degradation or re-folding; DNA-binding protein with preference for UV-damaged DNA; contains three WD domains (WD-40 repeat); human ortholog WDR76 also exhibits perinuclear localization under similar stress conditions
YPR013C CMR3 Putative zinc finger protein; YPR013C is not an essential gene
YLR003C CMS1 Putative subunit of the 90S preribosome processome complex; overexpression rescues supressor mutant of mcm10; null mutant is viable; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YLR433C CNA1 calcineurin catalytic subunit A | CMP1 Calcineurin A; one isoform (the other is Cmp2p) of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin, a Ca++/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphatase which regulates Crz1p (a stress-response transcription factor), the other calcineurin subunit is CNB1; regulates the function of Aly1p alpha-arrestin; CNA1 has a paralog, CMP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL190W CNB1 calcineurin regulatory subunit B | CRV1 | YCN2 Calcineurin B; regulatory subunit of calcineurin, a Ca++/calmodulin-regulated type 2B protein phosphatase which regulates Crz1p (stress-response transcription factor); other calcineurin subunit encoded by CNA1 and/or CMP1; regulates function of Aly1p alpha-arrestin; myristoylation by Nmt1p reduces calcineurin activity in response to submaximal Ca signals, is needed to prevent constitutive phosphatase activity; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YAL058W CNE1 calnexin | FUN48 Calnexin; integral membrane ER chaperone involved in folding and quality control of glycoproteins; chaperone activity is inhibited by Mpd1p, with which Cne1p interacts; 24% identical to mammalian calnexin; Ca+ binding not yet shown in yeast
YDR357C CNL1 BLC1 Subunit of the BLOC-1 complex involved in endosomal maturation; interacts with Msb3p; null mutant is sensitive to drug inducing secretion of vacuolar cargo; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YNL225C CNM67 Component of the spindle pole body outer plaque; required for spindle orientation and mitotic nuclear migration; CNM67 has a paralog, ADY3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFR046C CNN1 centromere-binding protein CNN1 Kinetochore protein; associated with the essential kinetochore proteins Nnf1p and Spc24p; phosphorylated by Clb5-Cdk1, Mps1p, Ipl1p and to a lesser extent by Clb2-Cdk1; localizes to the lower region of the Ndc80 complex during anaphase and regulates KMN activity by inhibiting the Mtw1 and Spc105 complexes from binding to the Ndc80 complex; similar to metazoan CENP-T
YBR155W CNS1 HSP70/90 family co-chaperone CNS1 TPR-containing co-chaperone; binds both Hsp82p (Hsp90) and Ssa1p (Hsp70); stimulates ATPase activity of Ssa1p; ts mutants reduce Hsp82p function, overexpression suppresses phenotypes of HSP82 ts allele and cpr7 deletion; human homolog TTC4 complements yeast cns1 mutant
YIL157C COA1 FMP35 Mitochondrial inner membrane protein; required for assembly of the cytochrome c oxidase complex (complex IV); interacts with complex IV assembly factor Shy1p during the early stages of assembly
YJL062W-A COA3 COX25 | RRG10 Mitochondrial protein required for cytochrome c oxidase assembly; also involved in translational regulation of Cox1p and prevention of Cox1p aggregation before assembly; located in the mitochondrial inner membrane
YLR218C COA4 CMC3 Twin Cx(9)C protein involved in cytochrome c oxidase organization; organization includes assembly or stability; localizes to the mitochondrial intermembrane space via the Mia40p-Erv1p system; interacts genetically with CYC1 and with cytochrome c oxidase assembly factors
YMR244C-A COA6 Protein involved in cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV) assembly; involved in delivery of copper to Complex IV; also required for efficient formation of respiratory supercomplexes comprised of Complexes III and IV; localizes to the mitochondrial intermembrane space; ortholog implicated in cardiac defects in zebrafish and human; transcription is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGL223C COG1 COD3 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG1 | LDB11 | SEC36 Essential component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YGR120C COG2 Golgi transport complex subunit COG2 | SEC35 Essential component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments; the components of the Golgi complex are Gog1p through Cog8p
YER157W COG3 Golgi transport complex subunit COG3 | GRD20 | SEC34 Essential component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YPR105C COG4 COD1 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG4 | SEC38 | SGF1 Essential component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YNL051W COG5 API4 | COD4 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG5 Component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YNL041C COG6 COD2 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG6 | SEC37 Component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YGL005C COG7 COD5 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG7 Component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YML071C COG8 DOR1 | Golgi transport complex subunit COG8 Component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex; a cytosolic tethering complex (Cog1p through Cog8p) that functions in protein trafficking to mediate fusion of transport vesicles to Golgi compartments
YDL145C COP1 coatomer subunit alpha | RET1 | SEC33 | SOO1 Alpha subunit of COPI vesicle coatomer complex; complex surrounds transport vesicles in the early secretory pathway
YBR003W COQ1 trans-hexaprenyltranstransferase Hexaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase; catalyzes the first step in ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) biosynthesis
YLR290C COQ11 MRX2 | ubiquinone biosynthesis protein COQ11 Putative oxidoreductase, subunit of Coenzyme Q biosynthetic complexes; required for synthesis of wild-type levels of Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone); member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily; orthologous gene in some other fungi is fused to the COQ10 ortholog
YNR041C COQ2 4-hydroxybenzoate octaprenyltransferase Para hydroxybenzoate polyprenyl transferase; catalyzes the second step in ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) biosynthesis; human COQ2, mutations in which are implicated in an increased risk of mutiple-system atrophy, can complement a yeast coq2 null mutant
YOL096C COQ3 hexaprenyldihydroxybenzoate methyltransferase O-methyltransferase; catalyzes two different O-methylation steps in ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) biosynthesis; component of a mitochondrial ubiquinone-synthesizing complex; phosphoprotein
YDR204W COQ4 ubiquinone biosynthesis protein COQ4 Protein with a role in ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) biosynthesis; possibly functioning in stabilization of Coq7p; located on matrix face of mitochondrial inner membrane; component of a mitochondrial ubiquinone-synthesizing complex; human homolog COQ4 can complement yeast coq4 null mutant
YML110C COQ5 2-hexaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone methyltransferase | DBI56 2-hexaprenyl-6-methoxy-1,4-benzoquinone methyltransferase; involved in ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) biosynthesis; localizes to the matrix face of the mitochondrial inner membrane in a large complex with other ubiquinone biosynthetic enzymes; respiratory defect of the null mutant is partially complemented by human COQ5
YGR255C COQ6 putative N,N-dimethylaniline monooxygenase COQ6 Flavin-dependent monooxygenase involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis; responsible for hydroxylation at position C5 and deamination at C4 during ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) biosynthesis; localizes to matrix face of mitochondrial inner membrane in a large complex with other ubiquinone biosynthetic enzymes; human homolog COQ6 can complement yeast null mutant and is implicated in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS)
YGL119W COQ8 ABC1 | protein kinase COQ8 ATPase required for ubiquinone biosynthesis and respiratory growth; maintains levels of CoQ biosynthetic proteins; binds to CoQ biosynthesis intermediates; UbiB protein kinase-like family member that lacks canonical protein kinase activity; similar to prokaryotic proteins involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis; human homolog ADCK3 complements a coq8 null, is associated with CoQ and respiratory-chain deficiencies, and is mutated in autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxia type 2
YLR201C COQ9 FMP53 | ubiquinone biosynthesis protein COQ9 Protein required for ubiquinone biosynthesis and respiratory growth; localizes to matrix face of mitochondrial inner membrane in a large complex with ubiquinone biosynthetic enzymes; ubiquinone is also known as coenzyme Q; human homolog COQ9 can complement yeast coq9 null mutant
YBL045C COR1 QCR1 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase subunit COR1 Core subunit of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex; the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex (bc1 complex) is a component of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain
YNL336W COS1 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YNR075W COS10 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YBR302C COS2 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YML132W COS3 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YFL062W COS4 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YJR161C COS5 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YGR295C COS6 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YDL248W COS7 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YHL048W COS8 Endosomal protein involved in turnover of plasma membrane proteins; member of the DUP380 subfamily of conserved, often subtelomeric COS genes; required for the multivesicular vesicle body sorting pathway that internalizes plasma membrane proteins for degradation; Cos proteins provide ubiquitin in trans for nonubiquitinated cargo proteins
YOR316C COT1 metal cation transporter COT1 Vacuolar transporter that mediates zinc transport into the vacuole; overexpression confers resistance to cobalt and rhodium; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; COT1 has a paralog, ZRC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL172C COX10 protoheme IX farnesyltransferase Heme A:farnesyltransferase; catalyzes first step in conversion of protoheme to heme A prosthetic group required for cytochrome c oxidase activity; human ortholog COX10 can complement yeast cox10 null mutant; human ortholog COX10 is associated with mitochondrial disorders
YLR038C COX12 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb Subunit VIb of cytochrome c oxidase; cytochrome c oxidase is also known as respiratory Complex IV and is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; required for assembly of cytochrome c oxidase but not required for activity after assembly; phosphorylated; easily released from the intermembrane space, suggesting a loose association with Complex IV
YML129C COX14 Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) assembly factor; also involved in translational regulation of Cox1p and prevention of Cox1p aggregation before assembly; associates with complex IV assembly intermediates and complex III/complex IV supercomplexes; located in the mitochondrial membrane
YER141W COX15 Heme a synthase; required for the hydroxylation of heme O to form heme A, an essential prosthetic group for cytochrome c oxidase; oligomerization is required for function
YLL009C COX17 copper metallochaperone COX17 Copper metallochaperone that transfers copper to Sco1p and Cox11p; eventual delivery to cytochrome c oxidase; contains twin cysteine-x9-cysteine motifs; interacts with the MICOS complex, and interaction is promoted by copper ions; human homolog COX17 partially complements yeast null mutant
YGR062C COX18 membrane insertase COX18 | OXA2 Protein required for membrane insertion of C-terminus of Cox2p; mitochondrial integral inner membrane protein; interacts genetically and physically with Mss2p and Pnt1p; similar to S. cerevisiae Oxa1, N. crassa Oxa2p, and E. coli YidC; respiratory defect of the null mutant is functionally complemented by human COX18 carrying the N-terminal 54 amino acids of S. cerevisiae Cox18p
YLL018C-A COX19 Protein required for cytochrome c oxidase assembly; located in the cytosol and mitochondrial intermembrane space; putative copper metallochaperone that delivers copper to cytochrome c oxidase; contains twin cysteine-x9-cysteine motifs
YDR231C COX20 Mitochondrial inner membrane protein; required for proteolytic processing of Cox2p and its assembly into cytochrome c oxidase
YHR116W COX23 Protein that functions in mitochondrial copper homeostasis; mitochondrial intermembrane space protein; essential for functional cytochrome oxidase expression; homologous to Cox17p; contains twin cysteine-x9-cysteine motifs
YGL187C COX4 cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV Subunit IV of cytochrome c oxidase; the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; precursor N-terminal 25 residues are cleaved during mitochondrial import; phosphorylated; spermidine enhances translation
YNL052W COX5A cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va Subunit Va of cytochrome c oxidase; cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; Cox5Ap is predominantly expressed during aerobic growth while its isoform Vb (Cox5Bp) is expressed during anaerobic growth; COX5A has a paralog, COX5B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL111W COX5B cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb Subunit Vb of cytochrome c oxidase; cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; Cox5Bp is predominantly expressed during anaerobic growth while its isoform Va (Cox5Ap) is expressed during aerobic growth; COX5B has a paralog, COX5A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR051W COX6 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VI Subunit VI of cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV); Complex IV is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain; expression is regulated by oxygen levels
YMR256C COX7 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VII Subunit VII of cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV); Complex IV is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain
YLR395C COX8 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIII Subunit VIII of cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV); Complex IV is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain
YDL067C COX9 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa Subunit VIIa of cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV); Complex IV is the terminal member of the mitochondrial inner membrane electron transport chain
YKL179C COY1 Golgi membrane protein with similarity to mammalian CASP; genetic interactions with GOS1 (encoding a Golgi snare protein) suggest a role in Golgi function
YOR303W CPA1 carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) CPA1 Small subunit of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase; carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes a step in the synthesis of citrulline, an arginine precursor; translationally regulated by an attenuator peptide encoded by YOR302W within the CPA1 mRNA 5'-leader
YJR109C CPA2 carbamoyl-phosphate synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) CPA2 Large subunit of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase; carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes a step in the synthesis of citrulline, an arginine precursor
YGR247W CPD1 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase; hydrolyzes ADP-ribose 1'', 2''-cyclic phosphate to ADP-ribose 1''-phosphate; may have a role in tRNA splicing; no detectable phenotype is conferred by null mutation or by overexpression; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR155C CPR1 CPH1 | CYP1 | peptidylprolyl isomerase CPR1 Cytoplasmic peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; binds the drug cyclosporin A; N-terminally propionylated in vivo; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YHR057C CPR2 CYP2 | peptidylprolyl isomerase CPR2 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; potential role in the secretory pathway; seamless-GFP and mCherry fusion proteins localize to the vacuole, while SWAT-GFP fusion localizes to both the endoplasmic reticulum and vacuole; suppresses toxicity of slow-folding human Z-type alpha1-antitrypsin variant associated with liver cirrhosis and emphysema
YML078W CPR3 CYP3 | peptidylprolyl isomerase CPR3 Mitochondrial peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; involved in protein refolding after import into mitochondria
YCR069W CPR4 CYP4 | peptidylprolyl isomerase family protein CPR4 | SCC3 | YCR070W Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; has a potential role in the secretory pathway; CPR4 has a paralog, CPR8, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR304C CPR5 CYP5 | peptidylprolyl isomerase family protein CPR5 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin) of the ER; catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; transcriptionally induced in response to unfolded proteins in the ER; CPR5 has a paralog, CPR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR216C CPR6 CYP40 | peptidylprolyl isomerase CPR6 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; plays a role in determining prion variants; binds to Hsp82p and contributes to chaperone activity; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YJR032W CPR7 peptidylprolyl isomerase CPR7 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; binds to Hsp82p and contributes to chaperone activity; plays a role in determining prion variants
YNR028W CPR8 peptidylprolyl isomerase family protein CPR8 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin); catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of peptide bonds N-terminal to proline residues; potential role in the secretory pathway; CPR8 has a paralog, CPR4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL130C CPT1 diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase Cholinephosphotransferase; required for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and for inositol-dependent regulation of EPT1 transcription; CPT1 has a paralog, EPT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL142C CRD1 cardiolipin synthase | CLS1 Cardiolipin synthase; produces cardiolipin, which is a phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane that is required for normal mitochondrial membrane potential and function and for correct integration of membrane-multispanning proteins into the mitochondrial outer membrane; required to maintain tubular mitochondrial morphology and functions in mitochondrial fusion; also required for normal vacuolar ion homeostasis
YGR189C CRH1 transglycosylase Chitin transglycosylase; functions in the transfer of chitin to beta(1-6) and beta(1-3) glucans in the cell wall; similar and functionally redundant to Utr2; localizes to sites of polarized growth; expression induced by cell wall stress
YGR218W CRM1 exportin CRM1 | KAP124 | XPO1 Major karyopherin; involved in export of proteins, RNAs, and ribosomal subunits from the nucleus; exportin
YLR429W CRN1 Coronin; cortical actin cytoskeletal component that associates with the Arp2p/Arp3p complex to regulate its activity; plays a role in regulation of actin patch assembly
YHR146W CRP1 Protein that binds to cruciform DNA structures; CRP1 has a paralog, MDG1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL027W CRZ1 DNA-binding transcription factor CRZ1 | HAL8 | TCN1 Transcription factor, activates transcription of stress response genes; nuclear localization is positively regulated by calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation; rapidly localizes to the nucleus under blue light stress; can be activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization in response to calcium
YGL238W CSE1 importin-alpha export receptor | KAP109 Nuclear envelope protein that acts as a recycling factor; mediates the nuclear export of Srp1p (importin alpha) back to the cytoplasm after its import substrates have been released into the nucleoplasm, thereby allowing the participation of Srp1p in multiple rounds of nuclear import; required for accurate chromosome segregation; homolog of metazoan CAS and human CSE1L, overexpression of which is implicated in cancer progression
YNR010W CSE2 MED9 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; component of the Middle domain of mediator; required for regulation of RNA polymerase II activity; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YKL049C CSE4 centromeric DNA-binding histone H3-like protein CSE4 | CSL2 Centromeric histone H3-like protein; associates with promoters, accessible chromatin, and RNAPII-bound regions; phosphorylated Cse4p associates with centromeres; required for kinetochore function; Ipl1p-dependent phosphorylation destabilizes defective kinetochores promoting bi-orientation; increases association of Sgo1p with centromeric chromatin; proteolysis regulated by multiple E3 ligases, resulting in faithful chromosome segregation; CSE4 complements mutations in the human homolog CENPA
YBR036C CSG2 CLS2 | mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide synthase regulatory subunit Endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein; required for mannosylation of inositolphosphorylceramide and for growth at high calcium concentrations; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR161W CSH1 mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide synthase catalytic subunit CSH1 Mannosylinositol phosphorylceramide (MIPC) synthase catalytic subunit; forms a complex with regulatory subunit Csg2p; function in sphingolipid biosynthesis is overlapping with that of Sur1p; CSH1 has a paralog, SUR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOL007C CSI2 Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)- fusion protein localizes to the mother side of the bud neck and the vacuole; YOL007C is not an essential gene
YNL232W CSL4 exosome non-catalytic core subunit CSL4 | SKI4 Exosome non-catalytic core component; involved in 3'-5' RNA processing and degradation in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm; predicted to contain an S1 RNA binding domain; human homolog EXOSC1 partially complements yeast csl4 null mutant, and can complement inviability of strain in which expression of CSL4 is repressed
YCR086W CSM1 Nucleolar protein that mediates homolog segregation during meiosis I; forms a complex with Lrs4p and then Mam1p at kinetochores; required for condensin recruitment to the replication fork barrier site and rDNA repeat segregation
YIL132C CSM2 Component of Shu complex (aka PCSS complex); Shu complex also includes Psy3, Shu1, Shu2, and promotes error-free DNA repair,; Shu complex mediates inhibition of Srs2p function; promotes formation of Rad51p filaments; Psy3p and Csm2p contain similar DNA-binding regions which work together to form a single DNA binding site; required for accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis
YMR048W CSM3 Replication fork associated factor; required for stable replication fork pausing; component of the DNA replication checkpoint pathway; required for accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YDR179C CSN9 Subunit of the Cop9 signalosome; Cop9 signalosome is required for deneddylation, or removal of the ubiquitin-like protein Rub1p from Cdc53p (cullin); involved in adaptation to pheromone signaling
YLR380W CSR1 SFH2 Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein; has a potential role in regulating lipid and fatty acid metabolism under heme-depleted conditions; interacts specifically with thioredoxin peroxidase; may have a role in oxidative stress resistance; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR042C CST26 PSI1 | putative acyltransferase Acyltransferase; enzyme mainly responsible for the introduction of saturated very long chain fatty acids into neo-synthesized molecules of phosphatidylinositol; required for incorporation of stearic acid into phosphatidylinositol; affects chromosome stability when overexpressed; CST26 has a paralog, YDR018C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL036W CST6 ACA2 | SHF1 Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor from ATF/CREB family involved in stress-responsive regulatory network; mediates transcriptional activation of NCE103 in response to low CO2 levels; proposed to be a regulator of oleate responsive genes; involved in utilization of non-optimal carbon sources and chromosome stability; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; CST6 has a paralog, ACA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR078C CTF18 CHL12 Subunit of a complex with Ctf8p; shares some subunits with Replication Factor C and is required for sister chromatid cohesion; may have overlapping functions with Rad24p in the DNA damage replication checkpoint
YPL018W CTF19 MCM18 Outer kinetochore protein, needed for accurate chromosome segregation; component of kinetochore sub-complex COMA (Ctf19p, Okp1p, Mcm21p, Ame1p) that functions as platform for kinetochore assembly; required for spindle assembly checkpoint; minimizes potentially deleterious centromere-proximal crossovers by preventing meiotic DNA break formation proximal to centromere; homolog of human centromere constitutive-associated network (CCAN) subunit CENP-P and fission yeast fta2
YLR381W CTF3 CHL3 Outer kinetochore protein that forms a complex with Mcm16p and Mcm22p; may bind the kinetochore to spindle microtubules; required for the spindle assembly checkpoint; orthologous to human centromere constitutive-associated network (CCAN) subunit CENP-I and fission yeast mis6
YPR135W CTF4 CHL15 | chromatin-binding protein CTF4 | POB1 Chromatin-associated protein; required for sister chromatid cohesion; interacts with DNA polymerase alpha (Pol1p) and may link DNA synthesis to sister chromatid cohesion
YPL181W CTI6 RXT1 Component of the Rpd3L histone deacetylase complex; relieves transcriptional repression by binding to the Cyc8p-Tup1p corepressor and recruiting the SAGA complex to the repressed promoter; contains a PHD finger domain
YKL139W CTK1 cyclin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase CTK1 Catalytic (alpha) subunit of C-terminal domain kinase I (CTDK-I); phosphorylates both RNA pol II subunit Rpo21p to affect transcription and pre-mRNA 3' end processing, and ribosomal protein Rps2p to increase translational fidelity; required for H3K36 trimethylation but not dimethylation by Set2p; suggested stimulatory role in 80S formation during translation initiation; similar to the Drosophila dCDK12 and human CDK12 and probably CDK13
YML112W CTK3 Gamma subunit of C-terminal domain kinase I; CTDK-I phosphorylates RNA polymerase II subunit Rpo21p to affect transcription and pre-mRNA 3' end processing, and also phosphorylates ribosomal protein Rps2p to increase translational fidelity; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR291C CTP1 Mitochondrial inner membrane citrate transporter; member of the mitochondrial carrier family
YPR124W CTR1 high-affinity Cu transporter CTR1 High-affinity copper transporter of plasma membrane; mediates nearly all copper uptake under low copper conditions; transcriptionally induced at low copper levels and degraded at high copper levels; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from nucleus to plasma membrane upon DNA replication stress; human homolog SLC31A1 can complement a yeast ctr1 ctr3 double deletion
YHR175W CTR2 low-affinity Cu transporter Low-affinity copper transporter of the vacuolar membrane; mutation confers resistance to toxic copper concentrations, while overexpression confers resistance to copper starvation; regulated by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway
YCR054C CTR86 Essential protein of unknown function; with orthologs in Ashbya gossypii and Candida albicans; similar to human ATXN10, mutations in which cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 10; codon usage corresponds to that observed for yeast genes expressed at low levels; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YOL145C CTR9 CDP1 Component of the Paf1p complex involved in transcription elongation; binds to and modulates the activity of RNA polymerases I and II; required for expression of a subset of genes, including cyclin genes; involved in SER3 repression by helping to maintain SRG1 transcription-dependent nucleosome occupancy; contains TPR repeats
YLR286C CTS1 SCW2 Endochitinase; required for cell separation after mitosis; transcriptional activation during the G1 phase of the cell cycle is mediated by transcription factor Ace2p
YDR371W CTS2 putative chitinase Putative chitinase; functionally complements A. gossypii cts2 mutant sporulation defect
YGR088W CTT1 catalase T | SPS101 Cytosolic catalase T; has a role in protection from oxidative damage by hydrogen peroxide
YPL260W CUB1 Conserved fungal gene linked to DNA repair and proteasome function; putative substrate of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA); green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus; YPL260W is not an essential gene; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR264W CUE1 KIS4 Ubiquitin-binding protein; ER membrane protein that recruits and integrates the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc7p into ER membrane-bound ubiquitin ligase complexes that function in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway for misfolded proteins; contains a CUE domain that binds ubiquitin to facilitate intramolecular monoubiquitination and to promote diubiquitin elongation, facilitating polyubiquitin chain formation
YGL110C CUE3 RQT3 Protein of unknown function; has a CUE domain that binds ubiquitin, which may facilitate intramolecular monoubiquitination
YML101C CUE4 Protein of unknown function; has a CUE domain that binds ubiquitin, which may facilitate intramolecular monoubiquitination; CUE4 has a paralog, CUE1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR042W CUE5 ubiquitin-binding protein CUE5 Ubiquitin-binding protein; functions as ubiquitin-Atg8p adaptor in ubiquitin-dependent autophagy; serves as proteaphagy receptor for inactivated 26S proteasomes; contains CUE domain that binds ubiquitin, which may facilitate intramolecular monoubiquitination; CUE5 has a paralog, DON1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human TOLLIP is a functional CUE-domain homolog, can complement yeast null mutant, rescuing hypersensitivity of cue5 null mutant cells to Htt-96Q
YGR003W CUL3 CULB | CULLIN B | cullin CUL3 Ubiquitin-protein ligase; forms a complex with Elc1p that polyubiquitylates monoubiquitylated RNA polymerase II to trigger its proteolysis; cullin family member with similarity to Cdc53p and human CUL3
YHR053C CUP1-1 CUP1 | metallothionein CUP1 Metallothionein; binds copper and mediates resistance to high concentrations of copper and cadmium; locus is variably amplified in different strains, with two copies, CUP1-1 and CUP1-2, in the genomic sequence reference strain S288C; CUP1-1 has a paralog, CUP1-2, that arose from a segmental duplication
YHR055C CUP1-2 CUP1 | metallothionein CUP1 Metallothionein; binds copper and mediates resistance to high concentrations of copper and cadmium; locus is variably amplified in different strains, with two copies, CUP1-1 and CUP1-2, in the genomic sequence reference strain S288C; CUP1-2 has a paralog, CUP1-1, that arose from a segmental duplication
YGL166W CUP2 ACE1 Copper-binding transcription factor; activates transcription of the metallothionein genes CUP1-1 and CUP1-2 in response to elevated copper concentrations; required for regulation of copper genes in response to DNA-damaging reagents; CUP2 has a paralog, HAA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL177C CUP9 Homeodomain-containing transcriptional repressor; regulates expression of PTR2, which encodes a major peptide transporter; imported peptides activate ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis, resulting in degradation of Cup9p and de-repression of PTR2 transcription; CUP9 has a paralog, TOS8, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR240C CUS1 U2 snRNP complex subunit CUS1 Protein required for assembly of U2 snRNP into the spliceosome; forms a complex with Hsh49p and Hsh155p
YNL286W CUS2 U2 snRNP complex subunit CUS2 Putative checkpoint factor in transcription; binds to U2 snRNA and Prp11p; regulates toggling of the U2 snRNA stem II region between different structures; contains two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs)
YNL155W CUZ1 Protein with a role in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway; interacts with ubiquitinated protein, Cdc48p and the proteasomal regulatory particle; may protect cells from trivalent metalloid induced proteotoxicity; contains a PACE promoter element and is co-regulated with proteasome subunit genes; AN1-type zinc finger protein, with DHHC and ubiquitin-like domains (UBL); ortholog of ZFAND1, a human gene linked to cancer; protein abundance increases under DNA replication stress
YDL209C CWC2 NTC40 Member of the NineTeen Complex (NTC); this complex contains Prp19p and stabilizes U6 snRNA in catalytic forms of the spliceosome containing U2, U5, and U6 snRNAs; binds directly to U6 snRNA; similar to S. pombe Cwf2
YDR482C CWC21 U2-type spliceosomal complex subunit CWC21 Protein involved in RNA splicing by the spliceosome; component of a complex containing Cef1p; interacts genetically with ISY1 and BUD13; may bind RNA; has similarity to S. pombe Cwf21p
YGR278W CWC22 U2-type spliceosomal complex subunit CWC22 Spliceosome-associated protein that is required for pre-mRNA splicing; necessary for Prp2p function at the first catalytic step of splicing; has similarity to S. pombe Cwf22p; CWC22 is an essential protein
YGL128C CWC23 U2-type spliceosomal complex subunit CWC23 Component of a complex containing Cef1p; putatively involved in pre-mRNA splicing; has similarity to E. coli DnaJ and other DnaJ-like proteins and to S. pombe Cwf23p
YLR323C CWC24 U2-type spliceosomal complex subunit CWC24 General splicing factor; required for stable U2 snRNP binding to primary transcripts; essential for the first step of splicing; component of the pre-catalytic spliceosome complex containing Cef1p; similar to S. pombe Cwf24p
YNL245C CWC25 U2-type spliceosomal complex subunit CWC25 Splicing factor required for the first step of pre-mRNA splicing; binding to the spliceosome requires Prp2p and Yju2p; heat-stable protein; has similarity to S. pombe Cwf25p
YPL064C CWC27 putative peptidylprolyl isomerase CWC27 Component of a complex containing Cef1p; putatively involved in pre-mRNA splicing; has similarity to S. pombe Cwf27p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YCR017C CWH43 GPI lipid remodelase; responsible for introducing ceramides into GPI anchors having a C26:0 fatty acid in sn-2 of the glycerol moiety; can also use lyso-GPI protein anchors and various base resistant lipids as substrates; contains 14-16 transmembrane segments and several putative glycosylation and phosphorylation sites; null mutation is synthetically lethal with pkc1 deletion
YKL096W CWP1 YJU1 Cell wall mannoprotein that localizes to birth scars of daughter cells; linked to a beta-1,3- and beta-1,6-glucan heteropolymer through a phosphodiester bond; required for propionic acid resistance
YKL096W-A CWP2 LPR1 | YKL097W-A Covalently linked cell wall mannoprotein; major constituent of the cell wall; plays a role in stabilizing the cell wall; involved in low pH resistance; precursor is GPI-anchored
YNL111C CYB5 Cytochrome b5; involved in the sterol and lipid biosynthesis pathways; acts as an electron donor to support sterol C5-6 desaturation
YJR048W CYC1 cytochrome c isoform 1 Cytochrome c, isoform 1; also known as iso-1-cytochrome c; electron carrier of mitochondrial intermembrane space that transfers electrons from ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase to cytochrome c oxidase during cellular respiration; CYC1 has a paralog, CYC7, that arose from the whole genome duplication; human homolog CYC1 can complement yeast null mutant; mutations in human CYC1 cause insulin-responsive hyperglycemia
YOR037W CYC2 oxidoreductase Mitochondrial peripheral inner membrane protein; contains a FAD cofactor in a domain exposed in the intermembrane space; exhibits redox activity in vitro; likely participates in ligation of heme to acytochromes c and c1 (Cyc1p and Cyt1p)
YAL039C CYC3 CCHL | holocytochrome c synthase CYC3 Cytochrome c heme lyase (holocytochrome c synthase); attaches heme to apo-cytochrome c (Cyc1p or Cyc7p) in mitochondrial intermembrane space; human homolog HCCS implicated in microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS), and can complement yeast null mutant
YEL039C CYC7 cytochrome c isoform 2 Cytochrome c isoform 2, expressed under hypoxic conditions; also known as iso-2-cytochrome c; electron carrier of the mitochondrial intermembrane space that transfers electrons from ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase to cytochrome c oxidase during cellular respiration; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; CYC7 has a paralog, CYC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR112C CYC8 CRT8 | [OCT] | [OCT1+] | SSN6 | transcription regulator CYC8 General transcriptional co-repressor; acts together with Tup1p; also acts as part of a transcriptional co-activator complex that recruits the SWI/SNF and SAGA complexes to promoters; can form the prion [OCT+]
YDL117W CYK3 SH3-domain protein located in the bud neck and cytokinetic actin ring; relocalizes from bud neck to nucleus upon DNA replication stress; activates the chitin synthase activity of Chs2p during cytokinesis; suppressor of growth and cytokinesis defects of chs2 phospho-mutants
YDR430C CYM1 MOP112 Lysine-specific metalloprotease of the pitrilysin family; metalloprotease of the intermembrane space; degrades proteins and presequence peptides cleaved from imported proteins; required for normal mitochondrial morphology
YJL005W CYR1 adenylate cyclase | CDC35 | FIL1 | HSR1 | SRA4 | TSM0185 Adenylate cyclase; required for cAMP production and cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling; the cAMP pathway controls a variety of cellular processes, including metabolism, cell cycle, stress response, stationary phase, and sporulation
YAL012W CYS3 CYI1 | cystathionine gamma-lyase CYS3 | FUN35 | STR1 Cystathionine gamma-lyase; catalyzes one of the two reactions involved in the transsulfuration pathway that yields cysteine from homocysteine with the intermediary formation of cystathionine; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGR155W CYS4 cystathionine beta-synthase CYS4 | NHS5 | STR4 | VMA41 Cystathionine beta-synthase; catalyzes synthesis of cystathionine from serine and homocysteine, the first committed step in cysteine biosynthesis; responsible for hydrogen sulfide generation; advances passage through START by promoting cell growth which requires catalytic activity, and reducing critical cell size independent of catalytic activity; mutations in human ortholog CBS cause homocystinuria; human CBS can complement yeast null mutant
YOR065W CYT1 CTC1 | ubiquinol--cytochrome-c reductase catalytic subunit CYT1 | YOR29-16 Cytochrome c1; component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; expression is regulated by the heme-activated, glucose-repressed Hap2p/3p/4p/5p CCAAT-binding complex
YDR016C DAD1 Essential subunit of the Dam1 complex (aka DASH complex); complex couples kinetochores to the force produced by MT depolymerization thereby aiding in chromosome segregation; is transferred to the kinetochore prior to mitosis
YKR083C DAD2 HSK1 Essential subunit of the Dam1 complex (aka DASH complex); complex couples kinetochores to the force produced by MT depolymerization thereby aiding in chromosome segregation; is transferred to the kinetochore prior to mitosis
YBR233W-A DAD3 Essential subunit of the Dam1 complex (aka DASH complex); complex couples kinetochores to the force produced by MT depolymerization thereby aiding in chromosome segregation; is transferred to the kinetochore prior to mitosis
YDR320C-A DAD4 HSK2 Essential subunit of the Dam1 complex (aka DASH complex); complex couples kinetochores to the force produced by MT depolymerization thereby aiding in chromosome segregation; is transferred to the kinetochore prior to mitosis
YML070W DAK1 dihydroxyacetone kinase Dihydroxyacetone kinase; required for detoxification of dihydroxyacetone (DHA); involved in stress adaptation
YIR023W DAL81 DURL | UGA35 Positive regulator of genes in multiple nitrogen degradation pathways; contains DNA binding domain but does not appear to bind the dodecanucleotide sequence present in the promoter region of many genes involved in allantoin catabolism
YPL170W DAP1 Heme-binding protein; involved in regulation of cytochrome P450 protein Erg11p; damage response protein, related to mammalian membrane progesterone receptors; mutations lead to defects in telomeres, mitochondria, and sterol synthesis
YDR020C DAS2 putative uridine kinase DAS2 | RRT3 Putative protein of unknown function; non-essential gene identified in a screen for mutants with increased levels of rDNA transcription; weak similarity with uridine kinases and with phosphoribokinases
YML113W DAT1 DNA binding protein that recognizes oligo(dA).oligo(dT) tracts; Arg side chain in its N-terminal pentad Gly-Arg-Lys-Pro-Gly repeat is required for DNA-binding; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; not essential for viability
YGR092W DBF2 serine/threonine-protein kinase DBF2 Ser/Thr kinase involved in transcription and stress response; functions as part of a network of genes in exit from mitosis; localization is cell cycle regulated; activated by Cdc15p during the exit from mitosis; also plays a role in regulating the stability of SWI5 and CLB2 mRNAs; phosphorylates Chs2p to regulate primary septum formation and Hof1p to regulate cytokinesis; DBF2 has a paralog, DBF20, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR111W DBF20 serine/threonine-protein kinase DBF20 Ser/Thr kinase involved in late nuclear division; one of the mitotic exit network (MEN) proteins; necessary for the execution of cytokinesis; also plays a role in regulating the stability of SWI5 and CLB2 mRNAs; DBF20 has a paralog, DBF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR052C DBF4 DNA52 | LSD7 | protein serine/threonine kinase activating protein DBF4 Regulatory subunit of Cdc7p-Dbf4p kinase complex; required for Cdc7p kinase activity and initiation of DNA replication; phosphorylates the Mcm2-7 family of proteins; cell cycle regulated; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; co-expression of human CDC7 and DBF4 complements single cdc7 or dbf4 null mutations or the cdc7 dbf4 double null mutation
YPL119C DBP1 LPH8 | putative DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP1 Putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DEAD-box protein family; mutants show reduced stability of the 40S ribosomal subunit scanning through 5' untranslated regions of mRNAs; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; DBP1 has a paralog, DED1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL112W DBP2 DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP2 ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DEAD-box protein family; has strong preference for dsRNA; interacts with YRA1; required for assembly of Yra1p, Nab2p and Mex67p onto mRNA and formation of nuclear mRNP; involved in mRNA decay and rRNA processing; may be involved in suppression of transcription from cryptic initiation sites
YGL078C DBP3 RNA-dependent ATPase DBP3 RNA-Dependent ATPase, member of DExD/H-box family; involved in cleavage of site A3 within the ITS1 spacer during rRNA processing; not essential for growth, but deletion causes severe slow-growth phenotype
YOR046C DBP5 ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP5 | RAT8 Cytoplasmic ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DEAD-box family; involved in mRNA export from the nucleus, remodeling messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs), with ATPase activity stimulated by Gle1p, IP6 and Nup159p; involved in translation termination along with Sup45p (eRF1); role in the cellular response to heat stress
YNR038W DBP6 putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP6 Essential protein involved in ribosome biogenesis; putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DEAD-box protein family; human homolog DDX51 complements yeast dbp6 mutant
YKR024C DBP7 putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase Putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase of the DEAD-box family; involved in ribosomal biogenesis; required at post-transcriptional step for efficient retrotransposition; essential for growth under anaerobic conditions
YHR169W DBP8 ATP-dependent RNA helicase DBP8 ATPase, putative RNA helicase of the DEAD-box family; component of 90S preribosome complex involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of 40S small ribosomal subunit; ATPase activity stimulated by association with Esf2p
YKL149C DBR1 PRP26 | RNA lariat debranching enzyme RNA lariat debranching enzyme; catalyzes debranching of lariat introns formed during pre-mRNA splicing; required for efficient Ty1 transposition; knockdown of human homolog Dbr1 rescues toxicity of RNA-binding proteins TDP-43 and FUS which are implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggests potential therapeutic target for ALS and related TDP-43 proteinopathies; human homolog DBR1 can complement yeast dbr1 null mutant
YCL016C DCC1 Subunit of a complex with Ctf8p and Ctf18p; shares some components with Replication Factor C; required for sister chromatid cohesion and telomere length maintenance
YHR144C DCD1 deoxycytidine monophosphate deaminase Deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP) deaminase; involved in dUMP and dTMP biosynthesis; expression is NOT cell cycle regulated
YLR422W DCK1 Dock family protein (Dedicator Of CytoKinesis), homolog of human DOCK1; upstream component for regulation through the small GTPase Rho5p; may form a complex with Lmo1p that acts as a GEF for Rho5p; interacts with Ino4p; cytoplasmic protein that relocates to mitochondria under oxidative stress; implicated in mitophagy; not an essential protein; DOCK proteins act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors
YOL149W DCP1 MRT2 Subunit of the Dcp1p-Dcp2p decapping enzyme complex; decapping complex removes the 5' cap structure from mRNAs prior to their degradation; enhances the activity of catalytic subunit Dcp2p; regulated by DEAD box protein Dhh1p; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YNL118C DCP2 decapping enzyme complex catalytic subunit | PSU1 Catalytic subunit of Dcp1p-Dcp2p decapping enzyme complex; removes 5' cap structure from mRNAs prior to their degradation; also enters nucleus and positively regulates transcription initiation; nudix hydrolase family member; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress; human homolog DCP2 complements yeast dcp2 thermosensitive mutant
YLR270W DCS1 5'-(N(7)-methyl 5'-triphosphoguanosine)-(mRNA) diphosphatase | DcpS Non-essential hydrolase involved in mRNA decapping; activates Xrn1p; may function in a feedback mechanism to regulate deadenylation, contains pyrophosphatase activity and a HIT (histidine triad) motif; acts as inhibitor of neutral trehalase Nth1p; required for growth on glycerol medium; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; DCS1 has a paralog, DCS2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR173W DCS2 5'-(N(7)-methyl 5'-triphosphoguanosine)-(mRNA) diphosphatase m(7)GpppX pyrophosphatase regulator; non-essential, stress induced regulatory protein; modulates m7G-oligoribonucleotide metabolism; inhibits Dcs1p; regulated by Msn2p, Msn4p, and the Ras-cAMP-cAPK signaling pathway; mutant has increased aneuploidy tolerance; DCS2 has a paralog, DCS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKL046C DCW1 putative mannan endo-1,6-alpha-mannosidase Putative mannosidase; GPI-anchored membrane protein required for cell wall biosynthesis in bud formation;homologous to Dfg5p
YPL194W DDC1 DNA damage checkpoint protein; part of a PCNA-like complex required for DNA damage response, required for pachytene checkpoint to inhibit cell cycle in response to unrepaired recombination intermediates; potential Cdc28p substrate; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YER143W DDI1 VSM1 DNA damage-inducible v-SNARE binding protein; role in suppression of protein secretion; may play a role in S-phase checkpoint control; has ubiquitin-associated (UBA), ubiquitin-like (UBL), and retroviral-like proteinase (RVP) domains
YOR022C DDL1 putative carboxylic ester hydrolase DDHD domain-containing phospholipase A1; mitochondrial matrix enzyme with sn-1-specific activity, hydrolyzing cardiolipin, PE, PC, PG and PA; implicated in remodeling of mitochondrial phospholipids; antagonistically regulated by Aft1p and Aft2p; in humans, mutations in DDHD1 and DDHD2 genes cause specific types of hereditary spastic paraplegia, while DDL1-defective yeast share similar phenotypes such as mitochondrial dysfunction and defects in lipid metabolism
YOR163W DDP1 polyphosphatase DDP1 Polyphosphate phosphatase; hydrolyzes diphosphorylated inositol polyphosphates and diadenosine polyphosphates; high specificity for diadenosine hexa- and pentaphosphates; contains endopolyphosphatase activity with a high affinity for polyphosphates, an activity also observed for its human DIPP homologs; possesses mRNA decapping activity; nudix hydrolase family member; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YOL052C-A DDR2 DDRA2 | YOL053C-A Multi-stress response protein; expression is activated by a variety of xenobiotic agents and environmental or physiological stresses; DDR2 has a paralog, HOR7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR173W DDR48 DNA damage-responsive protein 48 | FSP DNA damage-responsive protein; expression is increased in response to heat-shock stress or treatments that produce DNA lesions; contains multiple repeats of the amino acid sequence NNNDSYGS; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YKL054C DEF1 DNA damage-responsive RNA polymerase-degradation factor DEF1 | VID31 RNAPII degradation factor; forms a complex with Rad26p in chromatin, enables ubiquitination and proteolysis of RNAPII present in an elongation complex; mutant is deficient in Zip1p loading onto chromosomes during meiosis
YFL001W DEG1 HRM3 | pseudouridine synthase DEG1 | PUS3 tRNA:pseudouridine synthase; introduces pseudouridines at position 38 or 39 in tRNA; also responsible for pseudouracil modification of some mRNAs; important for maintenance of translation efficiency and normal cell growth, localizes to both the nucleus and cytoplasm; non-essential for viability
YDR051C DET1 acid phosphatase DET1 Acid phosphatase; involved in the non-vesicular transport of sterols in both directions between the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane; deletion confers sensitivity to nickel
YMR238W DFG5 putative mannan endo-1,6-alpha-mannosidase Putative mannosidase; essential glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein required for cell wall biogenesis in bud formation, involved in filamentous growth, homologous to Dcw1p
YDR411C DFM1 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized protein; involved in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD), ER stress, and homeostasis; interacts with components of ERAD-L and ERAD-C and Cdc48p; derlin-like family member similar to Der1p
YOR236W DFR1 dihydrofolate reductase Dihydrofolate reductase involved in tetrahydrofolate biosynthesis; required for respiratory metabolism; mutation is functionally complemented by human DHFR
YOR245C DGA1 diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase Diacylglycerol acyltransferase; catalyzes the terminal step of triacylglycerol (TAG) formation, acylates diacylglycerol using acyl-CoA as an acyl donor; Lro1p and Dga1p can O-acylate ceramides; localized to lipid particles
YOR311C DGK1 diacylglycerol kinase | HSD1 Diacylglycerol kinase; localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); overproduction induces enlargement of ER-like membrane structures and suppresses a temperature-sensitive sly1 mutation; contains a CTP transferase domain
YDL160C DHH1 DExD/H-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase DHH1 Cytoplasmic DEAD-box helicase, stimulates mRNA decapping; coordinates distinct steps in mRNA function and decay, interacting with both decapping and deadenylase complexes; role in translational repression, mRNA decay, and possibly mRNA export; interacts and cooperates with Ngr1p to promote specific mRNA decay; ATP- and RNA-bound form promotes processing body (PB) assembly, while ATPase stimulation by Not1p promotes PB disassembly; forms cytoplasmic foci on replication stress
YKL078W DHR2 RNA helicase Predominantly nucleolar DEAH-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase; required for 18S rRNA synthesis
YHR011W DIA4 putative serine--tRNA ligase DIA4 Probable mitochondrial seryl-tRNA synthetase; mutant displays increased invasive and pseudohyphal growth
YLR348C DIC1 Mitochondrial dicarboxylate carrier; integral membrane protein, catalyzes a dicarboxylate-phosphate exchange across the inner mitochondrial membrane, transports cytoplasmic dicarboxylates into the mitochondrial matrix
YKR035W-A DID2 CHM1 | FTI1 | VPL30 | VPS46 Class E protein of the vacuolar protein-sorting (Vps) pathway; binds Vps4p and directs it to dissociate ESCRT-III complexes; forms a functional and physical complex with Ist1p; human ortholog may be altered in breast tumors
YKL002W DID4 CHM2 | ESCRT-III subunit protein DID4 | GRD7 | REN1 | VPL2 | VPS14 | VPS2 | VPT14 Class E Vps protein of the ESCRT-III complex; required for sorting of integral membrane proteins into lumenal vesicles of multivesicular bodies, and for delivery of newly synthesized vacuolar enzymes to the vacuole, involved in endocytosis
YPL049C DIG1 RST1 MAP kinase-responsive inhibitor of the Ste12p transcription factor; involved in the regulation of mating-specific genes and the invasive growth pathway; related regulators Dig1p and Dig2p bind to Ste12p; DIG1 has a paralog, DIG2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR480W DIG2 RST2 MAP kinase-responsive inhibitor of the Ste12p transcription factor; involved in the regulation of mating-specific genes and the invasive growth pathway; related regulators Dig1p and Dig2p bind to Ste12p; DIG2 has a paralog, DIG1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR129W DIP2 snoRNA-binding rRNA-processing protein DIP2 | UTP12 Nucleolar protein; specifically associated with the U3 snoRNA, part of the large ribonucleoprotein complex known as the small subunit (SSU) processome, required for 18S rRNA biogenesis, part of the active pre-rRNA processing complex
YPL265W DIP5 Dicarboxylic amino acid permease; mediates high-affinity and high-capacity transport of L-glutamate and L-aspartate; also a transporter for Gln, Asn, Ser, Ala, and Gly; relocalizes from plasma membrane to vacuole upon DNA replication stress
YOL021C DIS3 exosome catalytic subunit DIS3 | MTR17 | RRP44 Exosome core complex catalytic subunit; has both endonuclease and 3'-5' exonuclease activity; involved in 3'-5' RNA processing and degradation in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm; role in degradation of tRNAs; similar to E. coli RNase R and to human DIS3, which partially complements dis3-81 heat sensitivity; mutations in Dis3p analogous to human mutations implicated in multiple myeloma impair exosome function; protein abundance increases under to DNA replication stress
YIR004W DJP1 ICS1 | PAS22 Cytosolic J-domain-containing protein; required for peroxisomal protein import and involved in peroxisome assembly; facilitates import of Mim1p and Mim2p into the mitochondrial outer membrane; homologous to E. coli DnaJ
YDL174C DLD1 D-lactate dehydrogenase Major mitochondrial D-lactate dehydrogenase; oxidizes D-lactate to pyruvate, transcription is heme-dependent, repressed by glucose, and derepressed in ethanol or lactate; located in the mitochondrial inner membrane
YDL178W DLD2 AIP2 | D-lactate dehydrogenase D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, and minor D-lactate dehydrogenase; mitochondrial matrix protein that oxidizes D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), an oncometabolite, to alpha-ketoglutarate with a minor role in lactate catabolism; located in the mitochondrial matrix
YEL071W DLD3 D-lactate dehydrogenase 2-hydroxyglutarate transhydrogenase, and minor D-lactate dehydrogenase; converts D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), an oncometabolite, to alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of FAD, with concomitant reduction of pyruvate to D-lactate; minor lactate dehydrogenase activity; component of the retrograde regulon that consists of genes whose expression are stimulated by damage to mitochondria and reduced in cells grown with glutamate as the sole nitrogen source; located in the cytoplasm
YJL065C DLS1 Subunit of ISW2/yCHRAC chromatin accessibility complex; ISW2/yCHRAC also includes Itc1p, Isw2p, and Dpb4p; involved in inheritance of telomeric silencing; DLS1 has a paralog, DPB3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR115C DMA1 CHF1 | ubiquitin-conjugating protein DMA1 Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3); controls septin dynamics, spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) with ligase Dma2p by regulating recruitment of Elm1p to bud neck; regulates levels of eIF2 subunit Gcd11p, as well as abundance, localization, and ubiquitination of Cdk inhibitory kinase Swe1p; ubiquitinates cyclin Pcl1p; ortholog of human RNF8, similar to human Chfr; contains FHA, RING fingers; DMA1 has a paralog, DMA2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL116W DMA2 CHF2 | ubiquitin-conjugating protein DMA2 Ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3); controls septin dynamics and spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) with ligase Dma1p by regulating recruitment of Elm1p to bud neck; regulates levels of eIF2 subunit Gcd11p, as well as abundance, localization, and ubiquitination of Cdk inhibitory kinase Swe1p; ortholog of human RNF8, similar to human Chfr; contains FHA and RING finger domains; DMA2 has a paralog, DMA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR164C DNA2 bifunctional ATP-dependent DNA helicase/ssDNA endodeoxyribonuclease DNA2 | WEB2 Tripartite DNA replication factor; single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase, ATP-dependent nuclease, helicase; tracking protein for flap cleavage during Okazaki fragment maturation; involved in DNA repair/processing of meiotic DNA double strand breaks; component of telomeric chromatin with cell-cycle dependent localization; required for telomerase-dependent telomere synthesis; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress; human homolog DNA2 complements yeast dna2 mutant
YER166W DNF1 aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type ATPase DNF1 Aminophospholipid translocase (flippase); type 4 P-type ATPase; involved in phospholipid translocation, contributing to endocytosis, protein transport, and cellular polarization; localizes primarily to the plasma membrane; localizes to the shmoo tip where it has a redundant role in the cellular response to mating pheromone; DNF1 has a paralog, DNF2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR093W DNF2 aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type ATPase DNF2 Aminophospholipid translocase (flippase); type 4 P-type ATPase; involved in phospholipid translocation, contributing to endocytosis, protein transport, and cellular polarization; localizes primarily to the plasma membrane; localizes to the shmoo tip where it has a redundant role in the cellular response to mating pheromone; DNF2 has a paralog, DNF1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR162C DNF3 aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type ATPase DNF3 Trans-golgi network aminophospholipid translocase (flippase); type 4 P-type ATPase; involved in phospholipid translocation, contributing to the maintenance of membrane lipid asymmetry in post-Golgi secretory vesicles; role in protein trafficking between the Golgi and endosomal system; localizes to the trans-Golgi network; localizes to the shmoo tip where it has a redundant role in the cellular response to mating pheromone
YLL001W DNM1 dynamin-related GTPase DNM1 Dynamin-related GTPase involved in mitochondrial organization; required for mitochondrial fission and inheritance; self assembles on the cytoplasmic face of mitochondrial tubules at sites where division will occur; participates in endocytosis and regulates peroxisome fission along with Vps1p; mutants in the human ortholog DNM1L, which mediates mitochondrial fission, peroxisomal division, autophagy, and mitophagy, are associated with slowly progressive infantile encephalopathy
YKL213C DOA1 UFD3 | ZZZ4 WD-repeat protein involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation; Ub-binding protein with a role in Ub homeostasis; substrate-recruiting adaptor for Cdc48p in mitochondria-associated degradation; inhibits degradation of Ufd2p-dependent substrates; facilitates proteolysis of Cse4p, a centromeric H3-like protein; required for ribophagy; promotes NHEJ in postdiauxic/stationary phase; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from nucleus to nuclear periphery upon DNA replication stress
YDR069C DOA4 DOS1 | MUT4 | NPI2 | SSV7 | ubiquitin-specific protease DOA4 | UBP4 Ubiquitin hydrolase; deubiquitinates intralumenal vesicle (ILVs) cargo proteins; required for recycling ubiquitin from proteasome-bound ubiquitinated intermediates, acts at the late endosome/prevacuolar compartment to recover ubiquitin from ubiquitinated membrane proteins destined for the vacuole; DOA4 has a paralog, UBP5, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL240W DOC1 anaphase promoting complex subunit DOC1 | APC10 Processivity factor; required for the ubiquitination activity of the anaphase promoting complex (APC), mediates the activity of the APC by contributing to substrate recognition; involved in cyclin proteolysis; contains a conserved DOC1 homology domain
YHR043C DOG2 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphatase 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase; member of a family of low molecular weight phosphatases, induced by oxidative and osmotic stress, confers 2-deoxyglucose resistance when overexpressed; DOG2 has a paralog, DOG1, that arose from a single-locus duplication; the last half of DOG1 and DOG2 are subject to gene conversions among S. cerevisiae, S. paradoxus, and S. mikatae
YNL001W DOM34 ribosome dissociation factor DOM34 Protein that facilitates ribosomal subunit dissociation; Dom34-Hbs1 complex and Rli1p have roles in dissociating inactive ribosomes to facilitate translation restart, particularly ribosomes stalled in 3' UTRs; required for RNA cleavage in no-go decay, but reports conflict on endonuclease activity; Pelota ortholog; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; DOM34 has a paralog, YCL001W-B, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR141C DOP1 Golgi-localized, leucine-zipper domain containing protein; involved in endosome to Golgi transport, organization of the ER, establishing cell polarity, and morphogenesis; detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YDR068W DOS2 Protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YDR440W DOT1 histone methyltransferase DOT1 | KMT4 | PCH1 Nucleosomal histone H3-Lys79 methylase; methylation is required for telomeric silencing, meiotic checkpoint control, and DNA damage response
YIL010W DOT5 thioredoxin peroxidase DOT5 Nuclear thiol peroxidase; functions as an alkyl-hydroperoxide reductase during post-diauxic growth
YER088C DOT6 PBF2 Protein involved in rRNA and ribosome biogenesis; activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization; binds polymerase A and C motif; subunit of the RPD3L histone deacetylase complex; has chromatin specific SANT domain; involved in telomeric gene silencing and filamentation; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YJL090C DPB11 protein kinase activating protein DPB11 DNA replication initiation protein; loads DNA pol epsilon onto pre-replication complexes at origins; checkpoint sensor recruited to stalled replication forks by the checkpoint clamp complex where it activates Mec1p; along with Rfa1p, binds to ultrafine anaphase bridges in mitotic cells and prevents accumulation of chromatin bridges by stimulating the Mec1p kinase and suppressing homologous recombination; ortholog of human TopBP1; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YPR175W DPB2 DNA polymerase epsilon noncatalytic subunit Second largest subunit of DNA polymerase II (DNA polymerase epsilon); required for maintenance of fidelity of chromosomal replication; essential motif in C-terminus is required for formation of the four-subunit Pol epsilon; expression peaks at the G1/S phase boundary; Cdc28p substrate
YBR278W DPB3 DNA polymerase epsilon noncatalytic subunit Third-largest subunit of DNA polymerase II (DNA polymerase epsilon); required to maintain fidelity of chromosomal replication and also for inheritance of telomeric silencing; stabilizes the interaction of Pol epsilon with primer-template DNA, positively affecting the processivity of the polymerase and exonuclease activities of Pol epsilon; mRNA abundance peaks at the G1/S boundary of the cell cycle; DPB3 has a paralog, DLS1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR121W DPB4 DNA polymerase epsilon noncatalytic subunit Subunit of DNA pol epsilon and of ISW2 chromatin accessibility complex; involved in both chromosomal DNA replication and inheritance of telomeric silencing; stabilizes the interaction of Pol epsilon with primer-template DNA, positively affecting the processivity of the polymerase and exonuclease activities of Pol epsilon; interacts with extranucleosomal DNA and acts as anchor point for ISW2 complex that retains its position on DNA during nucleosome mobilization
YPL107W DPC25 Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to mitochondria; YPL107W is not an essential gene
YGR021W DPC29 HAH1 Putative protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YIL103W DPH1 KIF48 Protein required for synthesis of diphthamide; required along with Dph2p, Kti11p, Jjj3p, and Dph5p; diphthamide is a modified histidine residue of translation elongation factor 2 (Eft1p or Eft2p); may act in a complex with Dph2p and Kti11p
YKL191W DPH2 Protein required for synthesis of diphthamide; required along with Dph1p, Kti11p, Jjj3p, and Dph5p; diphthamide is a modified histidine residue of translation elongation factor 2 (Eft1p or Eft2p); may act in a complex with Dph1p and Kti11p
YLR172C DPH5 diphthine synthase Methyltransferase required for synthesis of diphthamide; diphthamide is a modified histidine residue of translation elongation factor 2 (Eft1p or Eft2p); not essential for viability; GFP-Dph5p fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YLR143W DPH6 diphthine--ammonia ligase Diphthamide synthetase; catalyzes the last amidation step of diphthamide biosynthesis using ammonium and ATP; evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes; dph6 mutants exhibit diphthine accumulation and resistance to sordarin, which is indicative of defects in diphthamide formation on EF2; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged protein localizes to the cytoplasm; DPH6/YLR143W is not an essential gene
YNR040W DPI29 Putative protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YDR294C DPL1 BST1 | sphinganine-1-phosphate aldolase DPL1 Dihydrosphingosine phosphate lyase; regulates intracellular levels of sphingolipid long-chain base phosphates (LCBPs), degrades phosphorylated long chain bases, prefers C16 dihydrosphingosine-l-phosphate as a substrate
YPR183W DPM1 dolichyl-phosphate beta-D-mannosyltransferase | SED3 Dolichol phosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man) synthase of ER membrane; catalyzes formation of Dol-P-Man from Dol-P and GDP-Man; required for biosynthesis of glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor, as well as O-mannosylation and protein N- and O-linked glycosylation; human homolog DPM1 can complement yeast mutant strains
YDR284C DPP1 bifunctional diacylglycerol diphosphate phosphatase/phosphatidate phosphatase | ZRG1 Diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) phosphatase; zinc-regulated vacuolar membrane-associated lipid phosphatase, dephosphorylates DGPP to phosphatidate (PA) and Pi, then PA to diacylglycerol; involved in lipid signaling and cell metabolism
YLL018C DPS1 aspartate--tRNA ligase DPS1 | AspRS Aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, primarily cytoplasmic; homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes the specific aspartylation of tRNA(Asp); class II aminoacyl tRNA synthetase; binding to its own mRNA may confer autoregulation; shares five highly conserved amino acids with human that when mutated cause leukoencephalopathy characterized by hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity (HBSL)
YKR071C DRE2 electron carrier DRE2 Component of the cytosolic Fe-S protein assembly (CIA) machinery; contains an Fe-S cluster that receives electrons from NADPH via the action of Tah18p in an early step in the CIA pathway; ortholog of human Ciapin1; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; inviability of the null mutant is functionally complemented by human CIAPIN1
YGR093W DRN1 Splicing factor that modulates turnover of branched RNAs by Dbr1p; interacts with spliceosomal components and branched RNA splicing products; enhances Dbr1p debranching in vitro; conserved protein with domain organization identical from yeast to human; N-terminal homology to Dbr1p N-terminus, but Dbr1p catalytic residues not conserved; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YLL008W DRS1 putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase Nucleolar DEAD-box protein required for ribosome assembly and function; including synthesis of 60S ribosomal subunits; constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles
YAL026C DRS2 aminophospholipid-translocating P4-type ATPase DRS2 | FUN38 | SWA3 Trans-golgi network aminophospholipid translocase (flippase); maintains membrane lipid asymmetry in post-Golgi secretory vesicles; contributes to clathrin-coated vesicle formation, endocytosis, protein trafficking between the Golgi and endosomal system and the cellular response to mating pheromone; autoinhibited by its C-terminal tail; localizes to the trans-Golgi network; mutations in human homolog ATP8B1 result in liver disease
YER124C DSE1 Daughter cell-specific protein; may regulate cross-talk between the mating and filamentation pathways; deletion affects cell separation after division and sensitivity to alpha-factor and drugs affecting the cell wall; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YOR264W DSE3 Daughter cell-specific protein, may help establish daughter fate; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YNR067C DSE4 endo-1,3(4)-beta-glucanase | ENG1 Daughter cell-specific secreted protein with similarity to glucanases; degrades cell wall from the daughter side causing daughter to separate from mother
YBR007C DSF2 Deletion suppressor of mpt5 mutation; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YMR276W DSK2 Nuclear-enriched ubiquitin-like polyubiquitin-binding protein; required for spindle pole body (SPB) duplication and for transit through the G2/M phase of the cell cycle; involved in proteolysis; interacts with the proteasome; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YNL258C DSL1 RNS1 Peripheral membrane protein needed for Golgi-to-ER retrograde traffic; mediates Sey1p-independent homotypic ER fusion; forms Dsl1 tethering complex with Sec39p and Tip20p that forms a stable complex with ER SNAREs Sec20p, Ufe1p and Use1p and is functionally conserved from yeast to mammalian cells; component of the ER target site that interacts with coatomer; interacts with different subunits of COPI vesicle coat; interacts with Cin5p; homolog of fly and human ZW10 gene
YIR010W DSN1 MIND complex subunit DSN1 Essential component of the outer kinetochore MIND complex; joins kinetochore subunits contacting DNA to those contacting microtubules; phosphorylation promotes interaction between outer and inner kinetochore proteins; kinetochore receptor for monopolin, via interaction with Csm1p; essential for both meiotic and mitotic chromosome segregation; MIND complex consists of Mtw1p, Nnf1p, Nsl1p and Dsn1p; phosphorylated by monopolin subunit, Hrr25p and Aurora kinase, Ipl1p; modified by sumoylation
YMR287C DSS1 MSU1 3'-5' exoribonuclease; component of the mitochondrial degradosome along with the ATP-dependent RNA helicase Suv3p; the degradosome associates with the ribosome and mediates turnover of aberrant or unprocessed RNAs
YPR017C DSS4 guanine nucleotide exchange factor DSS4 Guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator for Sec4p; functions in the post-Golgi secretory pathway; binds zinc, found both on membranes and in the cytosol
YGL043W DST1 P37 | PPR2 | SII | S-II | TFIIS General transcription elongation factor TFIIS; enables RNA polymerase II to read through blocks to elongation by stimulating cleavage of nascent transcripts stalled at transcription arrest sites; maintains RNAPII elongation activity on ribosomal protein genes during conditions of transcriptional stress
YDL219W DTD1 D-tyrosyl-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase D-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase; functions in protein translation, may affect nonsense suppression via alteration of the protein synthesis machinery; ubiquitous among eukaryotes
YOL087C DUF1 Ubiquitin-binding protein of unknown function; contains one WD40 repeat in a beta-propeller fold; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; homolog of human WDR48/UAF1, which is involved in regulating the Fanconi anemia pathway; deletion mutant is sensitive to various chemicals including phenanthroline, sanguinarine, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid
YFR044C DUG1 metallodipeptidase Cys-Gly metallo-di-peptidase; forms a complex with Dug2p and Dug3p to degrade glutathione (GSH) and other peptides containing a gamma-glu-X bond in an alternative pathway to GSH degradation by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (Ecm38p); human homolog CNDP2 can complement yeast dug1 mutant
YBR281C DUG2 glutamine amidotransferase subunit DUG2 Component of glutamine amidotransferase (GATase II); forms a complex with Dug3p to degrade glutathione (GSH) and other peptides containing a gamma-glu-X bond in an alternative pathway to GSH degradation by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (Ecm38p)
YNL191W DUG3 glutamine amidotransferase subunit DUG3 Component of glutamine amidotransferase (GATase II); forms a complex with Dug2p to degrade glutathione (GSH) and other peptides containing a gamma-glu-X bond in an alternative pathway to GSH degradation by gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (Ecm38p)
YDL101C DUN1 serine/threonine protein kinase DUN1 Cell-cycle checkpoint S/T protein kinase; required for transient G2/M arrest after DNA damage, damage-induced transcription, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic redistribution of Rnr2p-Rnr4p after genotoxic stress and iron deprivation; phosphorylates repair protein Rad55p, transcriptional repressor Sml1p, superoxide dismutase, and ribonucleotide reductase inhibitors Crt1p and Dif1p; functions in the Mec1p pathway to regulate dNTP pools and telomere length; postreplicative repair role
YGL061C DUO1 Essential subunit of the Dam1 complex (aka DASH complex); cooperates with Dam1p to connect the DASH complex with microtubules (MT); couples kinetochores to the force produced by MT depolymerization thereby aiding in chromosome segregation; is transferred to the kinetochore prior to mitosis
YBR208C DUR1,2 bifunctional urea carboxylase/allophanate hydrolase | DUR80 Urea amidolyase; contains both urea carboxylase and allophanate hydrolase activities, degrades urea to CO2 and NH3; expression sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression and induced by allophanate, an intermediate in allantoin degradation; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YML080W DUS1 tRNA dihydrouridine synthase Dihydrouridine synthase; member of a widespread family of conserved proteins including Smm1p, Dus3p, and Dus4p; modifies pre-tRNA(Phe) at U17
YLR401C DUS3 tRNA dihydrouridine synthase DUS3 Dihydrouridine synthase; member of a widespread family of conserved proteins including Smm1p, Dus1p, and Dus4p; contains a consensus oleate response element (ORE) in its promoter region; forms nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress
YLR405W DUS4 tRNA dihydrouridine synthase Dihydrouridine synthase; member of a widespread family of conserved proteins including Smm1p, Dus1p, and Dus3p
YBR252W DUT1 bifunctional dITP/dUTP diphosphatase Deoxyuridine triphosphate diphosphatase (dUTPase); catalyzes hydrolysis of dUTP to dUMP and PPi, thereby preventing incorporation of uracil into DNA during replication; critical for the maintenance of genetic stability; also has diphosphatase activity on deoxyinosine triphosphate; human homolog DUT allows growth of yeast haploid dut1 null mutant after sporulation of heterozygous diploid
YDR370C DXO1 mRNA 5'-end-capping quality-control protein; has distributive, 5'-3' exoRNase activity; similar to Rai1p;
YKR054C DYN1 DHC1 | dynein heavy chain | PAC6 Cytoplasmic heavy chain dynein; microtubule motor protein; member of the AAA+ protein family, required for anaphase spindle elongation; involved in spindle assembly, chromosome movement, and spindle orientation during cell division, targeted to microtubule tips by Pac1p; motility along microtubules inhibited by She1p
YDR424C DYN2 dynein light chain | SLC1 Cytoplasmic light chain dynein, microtubule motor protein; required for intracellular transport and cell division; involved in mitotic spindle positioning; forms complex with dynein intermediate chain Pac11p that promotes Dyn1p homodimerization, potentiates motor processivity; Dyn2p-Pac11p complex important for interaction of dynein motor complex with dynactin complex; acts as molecular glue to dimerize, stabilize Nup82-Nsp1-Nup159 complex module of cytoplasmic pore filaments
YMR299C DYN3 dynein light intermediate chain Dynein light intermediate chain (LIC); localizes with dynein, null mutant is defective in nuclear migration
YHR068W DYS1 deoxyhypusine synthase Deoxyhypusine synthase; catalyzes formation of deoxyhypusine, the first step in hypusine biosynthesis; triggers posttranslational hypusination of translation elongation factor eIF-5A and regulates its intracellular levels; tetrameric; human homolog DHPS allows growth of yeast haploid dys1 null mutant after sporulation of heterozygous diploid
YPR023C EAF3 Component of the Rpd3S histone deacetylase complex; Esa1p-associated factor, nonessential component of the NuA4 acetyltransferase complex, homologous to Drosophila dosage compensation protein MSL3; plays a role in regulating Ty1 transposition
YEL018W EAF5 Non-essential subunit of the NuA4 acetyltransferase complex; Esa1p-associated factor; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YJR082C EAF6 Subunit of the NuA4 acetyltransferase complex; this complex acetylates histone H4 and NuA3 acetyltransferase complex that acetylates histone H3
YNL136W EAF7 Subunit of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex; NuA4 acetylates the N-terminal tails of histones H4 and H2A
YKL204W EAP1 eIF4E-associated protein, competes with eIF4G for binding to eIF4E; accelerates mRNA degradation by promoting decapping, facilitated by interaction with eIF4E; essential for Puf5p mediated repression; associates with Puf5p and Dhh1p; inhibits cap-dependent translation; functions independently of eIF4E to maintain genetic stability; plays a role in cell growth, implicated in the TOR signaling cascade
YMR171C EAR1 Specificity factor required for Rsp5p-dependent ubiquitination; also required for sorting of specific cargo proteins at the multivesicular body; mRNA is targeted to the bud via the mRNA transport system involving She2p
YGR015C EAT1 putative hydrolase Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the mitochondrion
YAL059W ECM1 Pre-ribosomal factor involved in 60S ribosomal protein subunit export; associates with the pre-60S particle; shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm
YHR132C ECM14 putative metallocarboxypeptidase Putative metalloprotease with similarity to zinc carboxypeptidases; required for normal cell wall assembly
YBL001C ECM15 Non-essential protein of unknown function; likely exists as tetramer, may be regulated by the binding of small-molecule ligands (possibly sulfate ions), may have a role in yeast cell-wall biogenesis
YMR128W ECM16 ATP-dependent RNA helicase ECM16 | DHR1 Essential DEAH-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase specific to U3 snoRNP; predominantly nucleolar in distribution; required for 18S rRNA synthesis
YDR125C ECM18 alpha/beta hydrolase family protein Protein of unknown function; ECM18 has a paralog, ICT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR390W ECM19 Protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YBR065C ECM2 SLT11 Pre-mRNA splicing factor; facilitates the cooperative formation of U2/U6 helix II in association with stem II in the spliceosome, function may be regulated by Slu7p
YBL101C ECM21 ART2 Protein involved in regulating endocytosis of plasma membrane proteins; identified as a substrate for ubiquitination by Rsp5p and deubiquitination by Ubp2p; promoter contains several Gcn4p binding elements; ECM21 has a paralog, CSR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR228C ECM22 Sterol regulatory element binding protein; regulates transcription of sterol biosynthetic genes upon sterol depletion, after relocating from intracellular membranes to perinuclear foci; redundant activator of filamentation with UPC2, up-regulating the expression of genes involved in filamentous growth; contains Zn[2]-Cys[6] binuclear cluster; ECM22 has a paralog, UPC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YJL201W ECM25 Non-essential protein of unknown function; promoter contains a consensus binding sequence for factor Abf1p
YHL030W ECM29 Scaffold protein; assists in association of the proteasome core particle with the regulatory particle; inhibits proteasomal ATPase activity; degraded by the mature proteasome after assembly; contains HEAT-like repeats; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YOR092W ECM3 putative ATPase ECM3 | YOR3165W Non-essential protein of unknown function; involved in signal transduction and the genotoxic response; induced rapidly in response to treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA irradiation; relocalizes from ER to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; ECM3 has a paralog, YNL095C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR436C ECM30 Protein of unknown function; may play a role in cell wall biosynthesis, mutants have abormal relative levels of mannose and glucose and have Gap1p sorting and transport defects; (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YBR176W ECM31 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase Ketopantoate hydroxymethyltransferase; required for pantothenic acid biosynthesis, converts 2-oxoisovalerate into 2-dehydropantoate
YER176W ECM32 HEL1 | MTT1 DNA dependent ATPase/DNA helicase; helicase belonging to the Dna2p- and Nam7p-like family of helicases that is involved in modulating translation termination; interacts with the translation termination factors, localized to polysomes
YLR299W ECM38 CIS2 | gamma-glutamyltransferase Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase; major glutathione-degrading enzyme; involved in detoxification of electrophilic xenobiotics; expression induced mainly by nitrogen starvation
YKR076W ECM4 GTO2 | S-glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductase S-glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductase (GS-HQR); glutathione transferase involved in cell-surface biosynthesis and architecture; catalyzes glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of GS-trichloro-p-hydroquinone to trichloro-p-hydroquinone; expression upregulated upon exposure to genotoxic agents, such as methyl methanesulfonate, cisplatin and bleomycin; not an essential gene; similar to YGR154C; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to cytoplasm
YMR176W ECM5 Subunit of the Snt2C complex; physically associates with Snt2p and Rpd3p; along with Snt2p, recruits Rpd3p to a small number of promoters; also colocalizes with Snt2p, independently of Rpd3p, to promoters of stress response genes in response to oxidative stress; contains ATP/GTP-binding site motif A; null mutant exhibits increased cellular volume, large drooping buds with elongated necks; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YFR027W ECO1 CTF7 Acetyltransferase; required for establishment of sister chromatid cohesion; acetylates Mps3p to regulate nuclear organization; modifies Smc3p at replication forks and Mcd1p in response to dsDNA breaks; phosphorylated by three kinases (Cdc28p, Cdc7p, Mck1p) to generate pair of phosphates spaced precisely for recognition by ubiquitin ligase SCF-Cdc4; mutations in human homolog ESCO2 cause Roberts syndrome; relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YGR007W ECT1 ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase | MUQ1 Ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase; catalyzes the second step of phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis; involved in the maintenance of plasma membrane; similar to mammalian CTP: phosphocholine cytidylyl-transferases; inability of the null mutant to synthesize phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine from ethanolamine is functionally complemented by human PCYT2
YGL222C EDC1 RNA-binding protein that activates mRNA decapping directly; binds to mRNA substrate and enhances activity of decapping proteins Dcp1p and Dcp2p; has a role in translation during heat stress; protein becomes more abundant and forms cytoplasmic foci in response to DNA replication stress; EDC1 has a paralog, EDC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER035W EDC2 RNA-binding protein that directly activates mRNA decapping; binds mRNA substrate and enhances activity of decapping proteins Dcp1p and Dcp2p; has a role in translation during heat stress; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes to nucleolus and to nuclear foci upon DNA replication stress; EDC2 has a paralog, EDC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YEL015W EDC3 DCP3 | LSM16 Non-essential conserved protein with a role in mRNA decapping; specifically affects the function of the decapping enzyme Dcp1p; mediates decay of the RPS28B mRNA via binding to both Rps28Bp (or Rps28Ap) and the RPS28B mRNA; mediates decay of the YRA1 mRNA by a different, translation-independent mechanism; localizes to cytoplasmic mRNA processing bodies; forms cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress
YBL047C EDE1 BUD15 Scaffold protein involved in the formation of early endocytic sites; putative regulator of cytokinesis; homo-oligomerization is required for localization to and organization of endocytic sites; has a network of interactions with other endocytic proteins; binds membranes in a ubiquitin-dependent manner; may also bind ubiquitinated membrane-associated proteins; interacts with Cmk2 and functions upstream of CMK2 in regulating non-apoptotic cell death; homolog of mammalian Eps15
YGR271C-A EFG1 YGR272C Essential protein required for maturation of 18S rRNA; null mutant is sensitive to hydroxyurea and is delayed in recovering from alpha-factor arrest; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleolus
YHL039W EFM1 protein-lysine N-methyltransferase Lysine methyltransferase; involved in the monomethylation of eEF1A (Tef1p/Tef2p); SET-domain family member; predicted involvement in ribosome biogenesis; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YBR271W EFM2 S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase; seven-beta-strand lysine methyltransferase which dimethylates translation elongation factor EF2 (Eft1p and Eft2p) at lysine 613 and methylates EF3 (Yef3p) at lysine 187; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; involved in regulation of translational termination; predicted involvement in ribosome biogenesis
YJR129C EFM3 protein-lysine N-methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase; seven-beta-strand lysine methyltransferase which trimethylates translation elongation factor EF2 (Eft1p and Eft2p) at lysine 509; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; ortholog of human gene FAM86A
YIL064W EFM4 SEE1 Lysine methyltransferase; involved in the dimethylation of eEF1A (Tef1p/Tef2p) at lysine 316; sequence similarity to S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases of the seven beta-strand family; role in vesicular transport
YGR001C EFM5 AML1 | protein-lysine N-methyltransferase S-adenosylmethionine-dependent lysine methyltransferase; involved in the trimethylation of eEF1A (Tef1p/Tef2p) at lysine 79; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; required for replication of Brome mosaic virus in budding yeast; expresses a circular RNA; originally misclassified as a N-6-adenine specific DNA methyltransferase based on sequence similarity; both Efm5p and human ortholog N6AMT2 can methylate eEF1a from either species in vitro
YNL024C EFM6 putative protein-lysine N-methyltransferase Putative S-adenosylmethionine-dependent lysine methyltransferase; responsible for modifying Lys-390 in translational elongation factor EF-1 alpha (eEF1A); has seven beta-strand methyltransferase motif; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm
YMR212C EFR3 Protein required for Stt4-containing PI kinase complex localization; required for Stt4-containing phosphoinositide (PI) kinase patch assembly at the plasma membrane; recruited to the plasma membrane via a conserved basic patch near its N-terminus; exhibits synthetic lethal genetic interactions with PHO85; has sequence similarity to the Drosophila rolling blackout (RBO) gene
YOR133W EFT1 elongation factor 2 Elongation factor 2 (EF-2), also encoded by EFT2; catalyzes ribosomal translocation during protein synthesis; contains diphthamide, the unique posttranslationally modified histidine residue specifically ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin; EFT1 has a paralog, EFT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR385W EFT2 elongation factor 2 Elongation factor 2 (EF-2), also encoded by EFT1; catalyzes ribosomal translocation during protein synthesis; contains diphthamide, the unique posttranslationally modified histidine residue specifically ADP-ribosylated by diphtheria toxin; EFT2 has a paralog, EFT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL037C EGD1 Subunit beta1 of the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC); involved in protein targeting, associated with cytoplasmic ribosomes; enhances DNA binding of the Gal4p activator; homolog of human BTF3b; EGD1 has a paralog, BTT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR193C EGD2 Alpha subunit of the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC); involved in protein sorting and translocation; associated with cytoplasmic ribosomes
YIR007W EGH1 hydrolase Steryl-beta-glucosidase with broad specificity for aglycones; has a role in ergosteryl-beta-glucoside catabolism; required for normal vacuolar morphology; has similarity to the C. neoformans ergosteryl-beta-glucosidase EGCrP2; localizes to the cytosol
YNR034W-A EGO4 Protein of unknown function; expression is regulated by Msn2p/Msn4p; YNR034W-A has a paralog, YCR075W-A, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL327W EGT2 Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell wall endoglucanase; required for proper cell separation after cytokinesis; expression is activated by Swi5p and tightly regulated in a cell cycle-dependent manner
YDR036C EHD3 MRP5 | mS47 3-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase; member of a family of enoyl-CoA hydratase/isomerases; non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; phosphorylated; mutation affects fluid-phase endocytosis
YBR177C EHT1 medium-chain fatty acid ethyl ester synthase/esterase Acyl-coenzymeA:ethanol O-acyltransferase; plays a minor role in medium-chain fatty acid ethyl ester biosynthesis; possesses short-chain esterase activity; localizes to lipid particles and the mitochondrial outer membrane; EHT1 has a paralog, EEB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR031C EIS1 Component of the eisosome required for proper eisosome assembly; similar to Uso1p; authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in a phosphorylated state in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; protein increases in abundance and relocalizes from plasma membrane to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; EIS1 has a paralog, YKL050C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR147W EKI1 bifunctional choline kinase/ethanolamine kinase EKI1 Ethanolamine kinase; primarily responsible for phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway; exhibits some choline kinase activity, thus contributing to phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the CDP-choline pathway; EKI1 has a paralog, CKI1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL230C ELA1 elongin A Elongin A; F-box protein that forms a heterodimer with Elc1p and is required for ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the RNA Polymerase II subunit Rpo21p; subunit of the Elongin-Cullin-Socs (ECS) ligase complex
YPL046C ELC1 elongin C Elongin C, conserved among eukaryotes; forms a complex with Cul3p that polyubiquitylates monoubiquitylated RNA polymerase II to trigger its proteolysis; plays a role in global genomic repair
YKL160W ELF1 Transcription elongation factor with a conserved zinc finger domain; implicated in the maintenance of proper chromatin structure in actively transcribed regions; deletion inhibits Brome mosaic virus (BMV) gene expression
YOR144C ELG1 RTT110 Subunit of an alternative replication factor C complex; important for DNA replication and genome integrity; suppresses spontaneous DNA damage; involved in homologous recombination-mediated repair and telomere homeostasis; required for PCNA (Pol30p) unloading during DNA replication
YKL048C ELM1 LDB9 | serine/threonine protein kinase ELM1 Serine/threonine protein kinase; regulates the orientation checkpoint, the morphogenesis checkpoint and the metabolic switch from fermentative to oxidative metabolism by phosphorylating the activation loop of Kin4p, Hsl1p and Snf4p respectively; cooperates with Hsl7p in recruiting Hsl1p to the septin ring, a prerequisite for subsequent recruitment, phosphorylation, and degradation of Swe1p; forms part of the bud neck ring; regulates cytokinesis
YJL196C ELO1 fatty acid elongase ELO1 Elongase I, medium-chain acyl elongase; catalyzes carboxy-terminal elongation of unsaturated C12-C16 fatty acyl-CoAs to C16-C18 fatty acids; ELO1 has a paralog, ELO2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCR034W ELO2 fatty acid elongase ELO2 | FEN1 | GNS1 | VBM2 Fatty acid elongase, involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis; acts on fatty acids of up to 24 carbons in length; mutations have regulatory effects on 1,3-beta-glucan synthase, vacuolar ATPase, and the secretory pathway; ELO2 has a paralog, ELO1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; lethality of the elo2 elo3 double null mutation is functionally complemented by human ELOVL1 and weakly complemented by human ELOVL3 or ELOV7
YLR372W ELO3 APA1 | fatty acid elongase ELO3 | SRE1 | SUR4 | VBM1 Elongase; involved in fatty acid and sphingolipid biosynthesis; synthesizes very long chain 20-26-carbon fatty acids from C18-CoA primers; involved in regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis; lethality of the elo2 elo3 double null mutation is functionally complemented by human ELOVL1 and weakly complemented by human ELOVL3 or ELOV7
YGR200C ELP2 Elongator subunit ELP2 | KTI3 | TOT2 Subunit of Elongator complex; binds to microtubules via conserved alkaline residues; has two seven-bladed WD40 β propellers; Elongator complex is required for modification of wobble nucleosides in tRNA; target of Kluyveromyces lactis zymocin
YPL086C ELP3 Elongator subunit ELP3 | HPA1 | KAT9 | KTI8 | TOT3 Subunit of Elongator complex; Elongator is required for modification of wobble nucleosides in tRNA; exhibits histone acetyltransferase activity that is directed to histones H3 and H4; disruption confers resistance to K. lactis zymotoxin; human homolog ELP3 can partially complement yeast elp3 null mutant
YLR050C EMA19 Putative protein of unknown function; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum; YLR050C is not an essential gene
YCL045C EMC1 Member of conserved endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex; involved in efficient folding of proteins in the ER; null mutant displays induction of the unfolded protein response; interacts with Gal80p; homologous to worm H17B01.4/EMC-1, fly CG2943, and human KIAA0090
YDR056C EMC10 Putative protein of unknown function; subunit of evolutionarily conserved EMC (Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Complex) implicated in ERAD (ER-associated degradation) and proper assembly of multi-pass transmembrane (TM) proteins; EMC acts in yeast as an ER-mitochondria tether that interacts with outer membrane protein Tom5p of TOM (Translocase of the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane) complex; YDR056C is not an essential protein
YJR088C EMC2 Member of conserved ER transmembrane complex; required for efficient folding of proteins in the ER; null mutant displays induction of the unfolded protein response; homologous to worm Y57G7A.10/EMC-2, fly CG17556, human TTC35
YGL231C EMC4 chaperone EMC4 Member of conserved ER transmembrane complex; required for efficient folding of proteins in the ER; null mutant displays induction of the unfolded protein response; homologous to worm ZK616.6/EMC-4 and fly CG11137; mutation is functionally complemented by human EMC4
YIL027C EMC5 KRE27 Member of conserved ER transmembrane complex; required for efficient folding of proteins in the ER; null mutant displays induction of the unfolded protein response, and also shows K1 killer toxin resistance; homologous to worm B0334.15/EMC-5, fly CG15168, human MMGT
YLL014W EMC6 Member of conserved ER transmembrane complex; required for efficient folding of proteins in the ER; null mutant displays induction of the unfolded protein response; homologous to worm F33D4.7/EMC-6, fly CG11781, human TMEM93
YLR186W EMG1 18S rRNA pseudouridine methyltransferase | NEP1 Methyltransferase for rRNA; methylates pseudouridine 18S rRNA residue 1191; member of the SPOUT methyltransferase family; required for maturation of 18S rRNA and for 40S ribosomal subunit production independent of methyltransferase activity; forms homodimers; human ortholog is mutated in Bowen-Conradi syndrome, and equivalent yeast mutation affects Emg1p dimerization and localization but not methyltransferase activity; human EMG1 complements lethality of null and ts mutant
YDR516C EMI2 putative glucokinase Non-essential protein of unknown function; required for transcriptional induction of the early meiotic-specific transcription factor IME1; required for sporulation; expression regulated by glucose-repression transcription factors Mig1/2p; EMI2 has a paralog, GLK1, that arose from the whole genome duplication; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YGL200C EMP24 BST2 Component of the p24 complex; role in misfolded protein quality control; binds to GPI anchor proteins and mediates their efficient transport from the ER to the Golgi; integral membrane protein that associates with endoplasmic reticulum-derived COPII-coated vesicles
YLR080W EMP46 Integral membrane component of ER-derived COPII-coated vesicles; functions in ER to Golgi transport; EMP46 has a paralog, EMP47, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YFL048C EMP47 Integral membrane component of ER-derived COPII-coated vesicles; functionS in ER to Golgi transport; EMP47 has a paralog, EMP46, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER140W EMP65 Integral membrane protein of the ER; forms an ER-membrane associated protein complex with Slp1p; identified along with SLP1 in a screen for mutants defective in the unfolded protein response (UPR); proposed to function in the folding of integral membrane proteins; interacts genetically with MPS3; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YLR083C EMP70 p24a | TMN1 Protein with a role in cellular adhesion and filamentous growth; also endosome-to-vacuole sorting; similar to Tmn3p; member of Transmembrane Nine family of proteins with 9 transmembrane segments; EMP70 has a paralog, TMN2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNL313C EMW1 tetratricopeptide repeat-containing protein EMW1 Essential conserved protein with a role in cell wall integrity; contains six TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domains clustered in the C-terminal region; conditional mutant is suppressed by overexpression of GFA1; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YDR040C ENA1 HOR6 | Na(+)/Li(+)-exporting P-type ATPase ENA1 | PMR2 P-type ATPase sodium pump; involved in Na+ and Li+ efflux to allow salt tolerance
YDR039C ENA2 Na(+)-exporting P-type ATPase ENA2 P-type ATPase sodium pump; involved in Na+ efflux to allow salt tolerance; likely not involved in Li+ efflux
YDR038C ENA5 putative Na(+)-exporting P-type ATPase ENA5 Protein with similarity to P-type ATPase sodium pumps; member of the Na+ efflux ATPase family
YNL084C END3 EH domain-containing protein involved in endocytosis; actin cytoskeletal organization and cell wall morphogenesis; forms a complex with Sla1p and Pan1p
YGR254W ENO1 HSP48 | phosphopyruvate hydratase ENO1 Enolase I, a phosphopyruvate hydratase; catalyzes conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate during glycolysis and the reverse reaction during gluconeogenesis; expression repressed in response to glucose; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; N-terminally propionylated in vivo; ENO1 has a paralog, ENO2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR174W ENO2 phosphopyruvate hydratase ENO2 Enolase II, a phosphopyruvate hydratase; catalyzes conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate to phosphoenolpyruvate during glycolysis and the reverse reaction during gluconeogenesis; expression induced in response to glucose; ENO2 has a paralog, ENO1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR247C ENP1 MEG1 | snoRNA-binding rRNA-processing protein ENP1 Protein associated with U3 and U14 snoRNAs; required for pre-rRNA processing and 40S ribosomal subunit synthesis; localized in the nucleus and concentrated in the nucleolus; human BYSL functionally complements the heat sensitivity of an enp1 ts mutant
YDL161W ENT1 epsin Epsin-like protein involved in endocytosis and actin patch assembly; functionally redundant with Ent2p; binds clathrin via a clathrin-binding domain motif at C-terminus; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress; ENT1 has a paralog, ENT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR206W ENT2 epsin Epsin-like protein required for endocytosis and actin patch assembly; functionally redundant with Ent1p; contains clathrin-binding motif at C-terminus; ENT2 has a paralog, ENT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLL038C ENT4 Protein of unknown function; contains an N-terminal epsin-like domain; proposed to be involved in the trafficking of Arn1p in the absence of ferrichrome
YDR153C ENT5 Protein containing an N-terminal epsin-like domain; involved in clathrin recruitment and traffic between the Golgi and endosomes; associates with the clathrin adaptor Gga2p, clathrin adaptor complex AP-1, and clathrin
YGR071C ENV11 Protein proposed to be involved in vacuolar functions; mutant shows defect in CPY processing and fragmented vacuoles; deletion mutant has increased glycogen accumulation and displays elongated buds; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus; ENV11 has a paralog, VID22, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL236C ENV7 putative serine/threonine protein kinase ENV7 Vacuolar membrane protein kinase; negatively regulates membrane fusion; associates with vacuolar membrane through palmitoylation of one or more cysteines in consensus sequence; vacuolar membrane association is essential to its kinase activity; mutant shows defect in CPY processing; ortholog of human serine/threonine kinase 16 (STK16)
YOR246C ENV9 Protein proposed to be involved in vacuolar functions; mutant shows defect in CPY processing and defects in vacuolar morphology; has similarity to oxidoreductases, found in lipid particles; required for replication of Brome mosaic virus in S. cerevisiae, a model system for studying replication of positive-strand RNA viruses in their natural hosts
YFL024C EPL1 Subunit of NuA4, an essential histone H4/H2A acetyltransferase complex; conserved region at N-terminus is essential for interaction with the NPC (nucleosome core particle); required for autophagy; homologous to Drosophila Enhancer of Polycomb; coding sequence contains length polymorphisms in different strains
YMR124W EPO1 Protein involved in septin-ER tethering; interacts with ER membrane protein, Scs2p, and Shs1p, a septin ring component, at bud neck to create ER diffusion barrier; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery, cytoplasm, bud, and bud neck; interacts with Crm1p in two-hybrid assay; YMR124W has a paralog, YLR031W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YIL005W EPS1 protein disulfide isomerase EPS1 ER protein with chaperone and co-chaperone activity; involved in retention of resident ER proteins; has a role in recognizing proteins targeted for ER-associated degradation (ERAD), member of the protein disulfide isomerase family
YHR123W EPT1 bifunctional diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase/ethanolaminephosphotransferase sn-1,2-diacylglycerol ethanolamine- and cholinephosphotranferase; not essential for viability; EPT1 has a paralog, CPT1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YMR049C ERB1 Constituent of 66S pre-ribosomal particles; forms a complex with Nop7p and Ytm1p that is required for maturation of the large ribosomal subunit; required for maturation of the 25S and 5.8S ribosomal RNAs; homologous to mammalian Bop1
YDR414C ERD1 LDB2 Predicted membrane protein required for lumenal ER protein retention; mutants secrete the endogenous ER protein, BiP (Kar2p)
YBL040C ERD2 HDEL receptor; an integral membrane protein that binds to the HDEL motif in proteins destined for retention in the endoplasmic reticulum; has a role in maintenance of normal levels of ER-resident proteins
YGR175C ERG1 squalene monooxygenase Squalene epoxidase; catalyzes the epoxidation of squalene to 2,3-oxidosqualene; plays an essential role in the ergosterol-biosynthesis pathway and is the specific target of the antifungal drug terbinafine; human SQLE functionally complements the lethality of the erg1 null mutation
YPL028W ERG10 acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase | LPB3 | TSM0115 Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase); cytosolic enzyme that transfers an acetyl group from one acetyl-CoA molecule to another, forming acetoacetyl-CoA; involved in the first step in mevalonate biosynthesis; human ACAT1 functionally complements the growth defect caused by repression of ERG10 expression
YHR007C ERG11 CYP51 | sterol 14-demethylase Lanosterol 14-alpha-demethylase; catalyzes C-14 demethylation of lanosterol to form 4,4''-dimethyl cholesta-8,14,24-triene-3-beta-ol in ergosterol biosynthesis pathway; transcriptionally down-regulated when ergosterol is in excess; member of cytochrome P450 family; associated and coordinately regulated with the P450 reductase Ncp1p; human CYP51A1 functionally complements the lethality of the erg11 null mutation
YMR208W ERG12 mevalonate kinase | RAR1 Mevalonate kinase; acts in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and sterols, including ergosterol, from mevalonate; human MVK functionally complements the lethality of the erg12 null mutation
YML126C ERG13 HMGS | hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase; catalyzes the formation of HMG-CoA from acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA; involved in the second step in mevalonate biosynthesis
YMR202W ERG2 C-8 sterol isomerase ERG2 | END11 C-8 sterol isomerase; catalyzes isomerization of delta-8 double bond to delta-7 position at an intermediate step in ergosterol biosynthesis; transcriptionally down-regulated when ergosterol is in excess; mutation is functionally complemented by human EBP
YNL280C ERG24 delta(14)-sterol reductase C-14 sterol reductase; acts in ergosterol biosynthesis; mutants accumulate the abnormal sterol ignosterol (ergosta-8,14 dienol), and are viable under anaerobic growth conditions but inviable on rich medium under aerobic conditions
YGR060W ERG25 methylsterol monooxygenase C-4 methyl sterol oxidase; catalyzes the first of three steps required to remove two C-4 methyl groups from an intermediate in ergosterol biosynthesis; mutants accumulate the sterol intermediate 4,4-dimethylzymosterol; human MSMO1 functionally complements the growth defect caused by repression of ERG25 expression
YGL001C ERG26 sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate 3-dehydrogenase (decarboxylating) C-3 sterol dehydrogenase; catalyzes the second of three steps required to remove two C-4 methyl groups from an intermediate in ergosterol biosynthesis; human homolog NSDHL implicated in CK syndrome, and can complement yeast null mutant; molecular target of natural product and antifungal compound FR171456
YLR100W ERG27 3-keto-steroid reductase 3-keto sterol reductase; catalyzes the last of three steps required to remove two C-4 methyl groups from an intermediate in ergosterol biosynthesis; mutants are sterol auxotrophs; mutation is functionally complemented by human HSD17B7
YER044C ERG28 BUD18 Endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein; may facilitate protein-protein interactions between the Erg26p dehydrogenase and the Erg27p 3-ketoreductase and/or tether these enzymes to the ER, also interacts with Erg6p
YMR134W ERG29 Protein of unknown function involved in ergosterol biosynthesis; conditional mutants produce less ergosterol, display impaired oxygen consumption, respiratory growth, mitochondrial iron utilization, and are more sensitive to oxidative stress; mutant bm-8 has a growth defect on iron-limited medium that is complemented by overexpression of Yfh1p; protein localizes to the cytoplasm, ER and nuclear envelope; highly conserved in ascomycetes
YLR056W ERG3 C-5 sterol desaturase | PSO6 | SYR1 C-5 sterol desaturase; glycoprotein that catalyzes the introduction of a C-5(6) double bond into episterol, a precursor in ergosterol biosynthesis; transcriptionally down-regulated when ergosterol is in excess; mutants are viable, but cannot grow on non-fermentable carbon sources; substrate of HRD ubiquitin ligase; mutation is functionally complemented by human SC5D
YGL012W ERG4 delta(24(24(1)))-sterol reductase C-24(28) sterol reductase; catalyzes the final step in ergosterol biosynthesis; mutants are viable, but lack ergosterol
YMR015C ERG5 C-22 sterol desaturase | CYP61 C-22 sterol desaturase; a cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the C-22(23) double bond in the sterol side chain in ergosterol biosynthesis; may be a target of azole antifungal drugs
YML008C ERG6 ISE1 | LIS1 | SED6 | sterol 24-C-methyltransferase | VID1 Delta(24)-sterol C-methyltransferase; converts zymosterol to fecosterol in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway by methylating position C-24; localized to lipid particles, the plasma membrane-associated endoplasmic reticulum, and the mitochondrial outer membrane
YHR072W ERG7 lanosterol synthase ERG7 Lanosterol synthase; an essential enzyme that catalyzes the cyclization of squalene 2,3-epoxide, a step in ergosterol biosynthesis; human LSS functionally complements the lethality of the erg7 null mutation
YMR220W ERG8 phosphomevalonate kinase Phosphomevalonate kinase; an essential cytosolic enzyme that acts in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and sterols, including ergosterol, from mevalonate
YHR190W ERG9 bifunctional farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase/squalene synthase Farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyl transferase (squalene synthase); joins two farnesyl pyrophosphate moieties to form squalene in the sterol biosynthesis pathway
YFR041C ERJ5 Type I membrane protein with a J domain; required to preserve the folding capacity of the endoplasmic reticulum; loss of the non-essential ERJ5 gene leads to a constitutively induced unfolded protein response
YAR002C-A ERP1 Member of the p24 family involved in ER to Golgi transport; role in misfolded protein quality control; forms heterotrimeric complex with Erp2p, Emp24p, and Erv25p; localized to COPII-coated vesicles; ERP1 has a paralog, ERP6, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YAL007C ERP2 Member of the p24 family involved in ER to Golgi transport; similar to Emp24p and Erv25p; role in misfolded protein quality control; forms a heterotrimeric complex with Erp1p, Emp24p, and Erv25p; localized to COPII-coated vesicles; ERP2 has a paralog, ERP4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDL018C ERP3 Protein with similarity to Emp24p and Erv25p; member of the p24 family involved in ER to Golgi transport
YOR016C ERP4 Member of the p24 family involved in ER to Golgi transport; similar to Emp24p and Erv25p; ERP4 has a paralog, ERP2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YHR110W ERP5 Protein with similarity to Emp24p and Erv25p; member of the p24 family involved in ER to Golgi transport
YBR239C ERT1 Transcriptional regulator; involved in regulation of gluconeogenesis and fermentable carbon utilization; GFP-fusion protein localizes to cytoplasm, nucleus; null mutation affects periodicity of transcriptional and metabolic oscillation; plays role in restricting Ty1 transposition; member of the zinc cluster family of proteins, similar to Rds2p
YGL054C ERV14 cornichon family protein COPII-coated vesicle protein; involved in vesicle formation and incorporation of specific secretory cargo; required for the delivery of bud-site selection protein Axl2p and Nha1p antiporter to cell surface; related to Drosophila cornichon; ERV14 has a paralog, ERV15, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPR037C ERV2 flavin-linked sulfhydryl oxidase Flavin-linked sulfhydryl oxidase localized to the ER lumen; involved in disulfide bond formation within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
YML012W ERV25 Member of the p24 family involved in ER to Golgi transport; role in misfolded protein quality control; forms a heterotrimeric complex with Erp1, Erp2p, and Emp24,
YGR284C ERV29 Protein localized to COPII-coated vesicles; involved in vesicle formation and incorporation of specific secretory cargo; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YML067C ERV41 Protein localized to COPII-coated vesicles; forms a complex with Erv46p; involved in the membrane fusion stage of transport; has homology to human ERGIC2 (PTX1) protein
YOR244W ESA1 KAT5 | NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex catalytic subunit ESA1 | TAS1 Catalytic subunit of the histone acetyltransferase complex (NuA4); acetylates four conserved internal lysines of histone H4 N-terminal tail and can acetylate histone H2A; master regulator of cellular acetylation balance; required for cell cycle progression and transcriptional silencing at the rDNA locus and regulation of autophagy; human ortholog TIP60/KAT5 is implicated in cancer and other diseases, functionally complements lethality of the esa1 null mutation
YNL125C ESBP6 MCH3 Protein with similarity to monocarboxylate permeases; appears not to be involved in transport of monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate or acetate across the plasma membrane
YMR219W ESC1 Protein involved in telomeric silencing; required for quiescent cell telomere hypercluster localization at nuclear membrane vicinity; interacts with PAD4-domain of Sir4p
YDR363W ESC2 Sumo-like domain protein; prevents accumulation of toxic intermediates during replication-associated recombinational repair; roles in silencing, lifespan, chromatid cohesion and the intra-S-phase DNA damage checkpoint; RENi family member
YOL017W ESC8 Protein involved in telomeric and mating-type locus silencing; interacts with Sir2p and also interacts with Gal11p, which is a component of the RNA pol II mediator complex; ESC8 has a paralog, IOC3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR365C ESF1 Nucleolar protein involved in pre-rRNA processing; depletion causes severely decreased 18S rRNA levels
YNR054C ESF2 ABT1 | RNA-binding ATPase activator ESF2 Essential nucleolar protein involved in pre-18S rRNA processing; binds to RNA and stimulates ATPase activity of Dbp8; involved in assembly of the small subunit (SSU) processome
YIL151C ESL1 hEST1A/B (SMG5/6)-like protein; contributes to environment-sensing adaptive gene expression responses; Esl1p and Esl2p contain a 14-3-3-like domain and a putative PilT N-terminus ribonuclease domain; ESL1 has a paralog, ESL2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR096W ESL2 hEST1A/B (SMG5/6)-like protein; contributes to environment-sensing adaptive gene expression responses; Esl2p and Esl1p contain a 14-3-3-like domain and a putative PilT N-terminus ribonuclease domain; interacts with Pex14p; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the nucleus and cytoplasm; ESL2 has a paralog, ESL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGR098C ESP1 separase Separase/separin, a caspase-like cysteine protease; cleaves Mcd1p/Scc1p, a mitotic cohesin complex subunit, resulting in the dissociation of cohesin from chromatin and sister chromatid separation; cleaves meiotic-cohesin subunit Rec8p along chromosome arms in meiosis I and at centromeric sites during meiosis II; inhibits PP2A-Cdc55p to promote mitotic exit; inhibited by Pds1p (securin); relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YJR017C ESS1 peptidylprolyl isomerase ESS1 | PIN1 | PTF1 Peptidylprolyl-cis/trans-isomerase (PPIase); specific for phosphorylated S/T residues N-terminal to proline; regulates phosphorylation of RNAPII large subunit (Rpo21p) C-terminal domain (CTD) at Ser7; associates with phospho-Ser5 form of RNAPII in vivo; present along entire coding length of genes; represses initiation of CUTs; required for efficient termination of mRNA transcription, trimethylation of histone H3; human ortholog PIN1 can complement yeast null and ts mutants
YBR026C ETR1 MRF1 | MRF1' 2-enoyl thioester reductase; member of the medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase family; localized to mitochondria, where it has a probable role in fatty acid synthesis; human MECR functionally complements the respiratory growth defect of the null mutant
YOR051C ETT1 NRO1 | YOR29-02 Nuclear protein that inhibits replication of Brome mosaic virus; S. cerevisiae is a model system for studying replication of positive-strand RNA viruses in their natural hosts; deletion increases stop codon readthrough
YLR300W EXG1 BGL1 | glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase | SCW6 Major exo-1,3-beta-glucanase of the cell wall; involved in cell wall beta-glucan assembly; exists as three differentially glycosylated isoenzymes; EXG1 has a paralog, SPR1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YDR261C EXG2 glucan exo-1,3-beta-glucosidase Exo-1,3-beta-glucanase; involved in cell wall beta-glucan assembly; may be anchored to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor
YOR033C EXO1 DHS1 | Rad2 family nuclease EXO1 5'-3' exonuclease and flap-endonuclease; involved in recombination, double-strand break repair, MMS2 error-free branch of the post replication (PRR) pathway and DNA mismatch repair; role in telomere maintenance; member of the Rad2p nuclease family, with conserved N and I nuclease domains; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress; EXO1 has a paralog, DIN7, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR163W EXO5 DEM1 Mitochondrial 5'-3' exonuclease and sliding exonuclease; required for mitochondrial genome maintenance; distantly related to the RecB nuclease domain of bacterial RecBCD recombinases; may be regulated by the transcription factor Ace2
YJL085W EXO70 GTP-Rho binding exocyst subunit EXO70 Subunit of the exocyst complex; the exocyst mediates polarized targeting and tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to active sites of exocytosis prior to SNARE-mediated fusion; PtdIns[4,5]P2-binding protein that localizes to exocytic sites in an actin-independent manner, targeting and anchoring the exocyst with Sec3p; involved in exocyst assembly; direct downstream effector of Rho3p and Cdc42p; relocalizes from bud neck to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YBR102C EXO84 exocyst subunit EXO84 | USA3 Exocyst subunit with dual roles in exocytosis and spliceosome assembly; subunit of the the exocyst complex which mediates polarized targeting and tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to active sites of exocytosis at the plasma membrane (PM) prior to SNARE-mediated fusion; required for exocyst assembly and targeting the complex to specific sites on the bud tip PM; associates the U1 snRNP; role in pre-mRNA splicing and prespliceosome formation; possible Cdc28 substrate
YDL121C EXP1 A cargo receptor protein for Pma1p; works with Psg1p to promote the transport and maturation of Pma1p; localizes to the ER and COPII vesicles; a non-essential protein
YOR317W FAA1 long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase FAA1 Long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase; activates fatty acids with a preference for C12:0-C16:0 chain lengths; role in the competitive import of long-chain fatty acids and sphingoid long-chain bases; accounts for most acyl-CoA synthetase activity; localizes to lipid particles and the plasma membrane; role in sphingolipid-to-glycerolipid metabolism; forms ER foci upon replication stress; faa1 faa4 double null complemented by any of human ACSBG1, ACSL1, 3, 4, 5, 6, SLC27A2, or 4
YIL009W FAA3 long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase FAA3 Long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase; activates imported fatty acids with a preference for C16:0-C18:0 chain lengths; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cell periphery
YMR246W FAA4 long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase FAA4 Long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase; activates fatty acids with a preference for C12:0-C16:0 chain lengths; role in the competitive import of long-chain fatty acids and sphingoid long-chain bases; role in stationary phase survival; localizes to lipid particles and the plasma membrane; role in sphingolipid-to-glycerolipid metabolism; forms cytoplasmic foci upon replication stress; faa1 faa4 double null complemented by any of human ACSBG1, ACSL1, 3, 4, 5, 6, SLC27A2, or 4
YFR019W FAB1 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase | SVL7 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase; vacuolar membrane kinase that generates phosphatidylinositol (3,5)P2, which is involved in vacuolar sorting and homeostasis
YDL045C FAD1 FMN adenylyltransferase Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) synthetase; performs the second step in synthesis of FAD from riboflavin; mutation is functionally complemented by human FLAD1
YIL019W FAF1 Protein required for pre-rRNA processing; also required for 40S ribosomal subunit assembly
YDR021W FAL1 ATP-dependent RNA helicase FAL1 Nucleolar protein required for maturation of 18S rRNA; member of the eIF4A subfamily of DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicases; 18S rRNA biogenesis defect of the null mutant is functionally complemented by human EIF4A3
YDL166C FAP7 nucleoside-triphosphatase Essential NTPase required for small ribosome subunit synthesis; mediates processing of the 20S pre-rRNA at site D in the cytoplasm but associates only transiently with 43S preribosomes via Rps14p; complex with Rps14 is conserved between humans, yeast, and arches; may be the endonuclease for site D; depletion leads to accumulation of pre-40S ribosomes in 80S-like ribosomes; human TAF9 functionally complements the lethality of the null mutation
YJL157C FAR1 cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase inhibiting protein FAR1 CDK inhibitor and nuclear anchor; during the cell cycle Far1p sequesters the GEF Cdc24p in the nucleus; phosphorylation by Cdc28p-Cln results in SCFCdc4 complex-mediated ubiquitin-dependent degradation, releasing Cdc24p for export and activation of GTPase Cdc42p; in response to pheromone, phosphorylation of Far1p by MAPK Fus3p results in association with, and inhibition of Cdc28p-Cln, as well as Msn5p mediated nuclear export of Far1p-Cdc24p, targeting Cdc24p to polarity sites
YNL127W FAR11 Protein involved in recovery from cell cycle arrest; acts in response to pheromone; also involved in regulation of intra-S DNA damage checkpoint and autophagy; is essential for dephosphorylation of Atg13p; interacts with Far3p, Far7p, Far8p, Far9p, Far10p and with the phosphatases Pph21p, Pph22p and Pph3p; has similarity to the N- and C-termini of N. crassa HAM-2; similar to human Fam40A and Fam40B
YMR052W FAR3 Protein of unknown function; involved in recovery from cell cycle arrest in response to pheromone, in a Far1p-independent pathway; interacts with Far7p, Far8p, Far9p, Far10p, and Far11p; localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YFR008W FAR7 Protein involved in recovery from pheromone-induced cell cycle arrest; acts in a Far1p-independent pathway; interacts with Far3p, Far8p, Far9p, Far10p, and Far11p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR029C FAR8 Protein involved in recovery from arrest in response to pheromone; acts in a cell cycle arrest recovery pathway independent from Far1p; interacts with Far3p, Far7p, Far9p, Far10p, and Far11p
YKL182W FAS1 tetrafunctional fatty acid synthase subunit FAS1 Beta subunit of fatty acid synthetase; complex catalyzes the synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids; contains acetyltransacylase, dehydratase, enoyl reductase, malonyl transacylase, and palmitoyl transacylase activities
YPL231W FAS2 trifunctional fatty acid synthase subunit FAS2 Alpha subunit of fatty acid synthetase; complex catalyzes the synthesis of long-chain saturated fatty acids; contains the acyl-carrier protein domain and beta-ketoacyl reductase, beta-ketoacyl synthase and self-pantetheinylation activities
YBR041W FAT1 long-chain fatty acid transporter FAT1 Very long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase and fatty acid transporter; activates imported fatty acids with a preference for very long lengths (C20-C26); has a separate function in the transport of long chain fatty acids
YKL187C FAT3 Protein required for fatty acid uptake; protein abundance increases in cortical patches in response to oleate exposure; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in a phosphorylated state in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; FAT3 has a paralog, YLR413W, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YER183C FAU1 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate synthetase; involved in folic acid biosynthesis
YKL060C FBA1 fructose-bisphosphate aldolase FBA1 | LOT1 Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase; required for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; catalyzes conversion of fructose 1,6 bisphosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-P and dihydroxyacetone-P; locates to mitochondrial outer surface upon oxidative stress; N-terminally propionylated in vivo
YJL155C FBP26 fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase Fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase, required for glucose metabolism; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLR051C FCF2 Nucleolar protein involved in the early steps of 35S rRNA processing; interacts with Faf1p; member of a transcriptionally co-regulated set of genes called the RRB regulon; essential gene
YMR277W FCP1 protein serine/threonine phosphatase Carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase; essential for dephosphorylation of the repeated C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II large subunit (Rpo21p); relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia
YPR062W FCY1 cytosine deaminase | yCD Cytosine deaminase; zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of cytosine to uracil; of biomedical interest because it also catalyzes the deamination of 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) to form anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU)
YER056C FCY2 BRA7 | purine-cytosine permease Purine-cytosine permease; mediates purine (adenine, guanine, and hypoxanthine) and cytosine accumulation; relative distribution to the vacuole increases upon DNA replication stress
YDR539W FDC1 putative phenylacrylic acid decarboxylase FDC1 Ferulic acid decarboxylase; involved in the decarboxylation of aromatic carboxylic acids such as phenylacrylic (cinnamic) acid, ferulic acid and coumaric acid and formation of the corresponding vinyl derivatives; overexpression of both Pad1p and Fdc1p increases decarboxylase activity due to the Pad1p-catalyzed formation of a diffusible cofactor required for Fdc1p activity; homolog of E. coli UbiD; GFP-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in an HTP study
YMR144W FDO1 Protein involved in directionality of mating type switching; acts with Fkh1p to control which donor mating-type locus is inserted into MAT locus during mating type switching; localized to the nucleus; not an essential gene
YCR028C FEN2 Plasma membrane H+-pantothenate symporter; confers sensitivity to the antifungal agent fenpropimorph; relocalizes from vacuole to cytoplasm upon DNA replication stress
YBR101C FES1 Hsp70 (Ssa1p) nucleotide exchange factor; required for the release of misfolded proteins from the Hsp70 system to the Ub-proteasome machinery for destruction; cytosolic homolog of Sil1p, which is the nucleotide exchange factor for BiP (Kar2p) in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR058W FET3 ferroxidase FET3 Ferro-O2-oxidoreductase; multicopper oxidase that oxidizes ferrous (Fe2+) to ferric iron (Fe3+) for subsequent cellular uptake by transmembrane permease Ftr1p; required for high-affinity iron uptake and involved in mediating resistance to copper ion toxicity, belongs to class of integral membrane multicopper oxidases; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YMR319C FET4 Low-affinity Fe(II) transporter of the plasma membrane
YFL041W FET5 ferroxidase FET5 Multicopper oxidase; integral membrane protein with similarity to Fet3p; may have a role in iron transport
YPR104C FHL1 SPP42 Regulator of ribosomal protein (RP) transcription; has forkhead associated domain that binds phosphorylated proteins; recruits coactivator Ifh1p or corepressor Crf1p to RP gene promoters; also has forkhead DNA-binding domain though in vitro DNA binding assays give inconsistent results; computational analyses suggest it binds DNA directly at highly active RP genes and indirectly through Rap1p motifs at others; suppresses RNA pol III and splicing factor prp4 mutants
YNL325C FIG4 phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate 5-phosphatase Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns[3,5]P) phosphatase; required for efficient mating and response to osmotic shock; physically associates with and regulated by Vac14p; contains a SAC1-like domain; homologous to human FIG4, which is associated with CMT4J, a form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder
YDR130C FIN1 Spindle pole body-related intermediate filament protein; forms cell cycle-specific filaments between spindle pole bodies in dividing cells; localizes to poles and microtubules of spindle during anaphase and contributes to spindle stability; involved in Glc7p localization and regulation; relative distribution to the nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
YER032W FIR1 PIP1 Protein involved in 3' mRNA processing; interacts with Ref2p; APCC(Cdh1) substrate; potential Cdc28p substrate
YIL065C FIS1 MDV2 Protein involved in mitochondrial fission and peroxisome abundance; may have a distinct role in tethering protein aggregates to mitochondria in order to retain them in the mother cell; required for localization of Dnm1p and Mdv1p during mitochondrial division; mediates ethanol-induced apoptosis and ethanol-induced mitochondrial fragmentation
YIL131C FKH1 forkhead family transcription factor FKH1 Forkhead family transcription factor; rate-limiting replication origin activator; evolutionarily conserved lifespan regulator; binds multiple chromosomal elements with distinct specificities, cell cycle dynamics; regulates transcription elongation, chromatin silencing at mating loci, expression of G2/M phase genes; facilitates clustering, activation of early-firing replication origins; binds HML recombination enhancer, regulates donor preference during mating-type switching
YNL068C FKH2 forkhead family transcription factor FKH2 Forkhead family transcription factor; rate-limiting activator of replication origins; evolutionarily conserved regulator of lifespan; binds multiple chromosomal elements with distinct specificities, cell cycle dynamics; positively regulates transcriptional elongation; facilitates clustering, activation of early-firing replication origins; negative role in chromatin silencing at HML and HMR; major role in expression of G2/M phase genes; relocalizes to cytosol under hypoxia
YLR342W FKS1 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase | CND1 | CWH53 | ETG1 | GSC1 | PBR1 Catalytic subunit of 1,3-beta-D-glucan synthase; functionally redundant with alternate catalytic subunit Gsc2p; binds to regulatory subunit Rho1p; involved in cell wall synthesis and maintenance; localizes to sites of cell wall remodeling; FKS1 has a paralog, GSC2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YPL221W FLC1 BOP1 | flavin adenine dinucleotide transporter | HUF1 Flavin adenine dinucleotide transporter; required for uptake of FAD into endoplasmic reticulum; involved in cell wall maintenance; FLC1 has a paralog, FLC3, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YAL053W FLC2 flavin adenine dinucleotide transporter FLC2 | HUF2 Putative calcium channel involved in calcium release under hypotonic stress; required for uptake of FAD into endoplasmic reticulum; involved in cell wall maintenance; FLC2 has a paralog, YOR365C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YGL139W FLC3 HUF3 | putative flavin adenine dinucleotide transporter Putative FAD transporter, similar to Flc1p and Flc2p; localized to the ER; FLC3 has a paralog, FLC1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YBR008C FLR1 Plasma membrane transporter of the major facilitator superfamily; member of the 12-spanner drug:H(+) antiporter DHA1 family; involved in efflux of fluconazole, diazaborine, benomyl, methotrexate, and other drugs; expression induced in cells treated with the mycotoxin patulin; relocalizes from nucleus to plasma membrane upon DNA replication stress
YIL098C FMC1 Mitochondrial matrix protein; required for assembly or stability at high temperature of the F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; null mutant temperature sensitive growth on glycerol is suppressed by multicopy expression of Odc1p
YDR236C FMN1 riboflavin kinase Riboflavin kinase, produces riboflavin monophosphate (FMN); FMN is a necessary cofactor for many enzymes; predominantly localizes to the microsomal fraction and also found in the mitochondrial inner membrane; human RFK functionally complements the lethality of the null mutation
YER182W FMP10 Putative protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YDR070C FMP16 Protein of unknown function; may be involved in responding to conditions of stress; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR047W FMP23 Putative protein of unknown function; proposed to be involved in iron or copper homeostasis; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YLR454W FMP27 Putative protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YFL046W FMP32 Putative assembly factor for cytochrome c oxidase; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; has similarity to human MCUR1/CCDC90A
YJL161W FMP33 Putative protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YPL222W FMP40 Putative protein of unknown function; proposed to be involved in responding to environmental stresses; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YNL168C FMP41 Putative protein of unknown function; GFP-fusion protein is induced in response to the DNA-damaging agent MMS; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YMR221C FMP42 Putative protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; physical interaction with Atg27p suggests a possible role in autophagy
YDL222C FMP45 Integral membrane protein localized to mitochondria; required for sporulation and maintaining sphingolipid content; similar to SUR7; FMP45 has a paralog, YNL194C, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YKR049C FMP46 putative redox protein Putative redox protein containing a thioredoxin fold; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies
YGR052W FMP48 protein kinase FMP48 Putative protein of unknown function; the authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in highly purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; induced by treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA irradiation
YER004W FMP52 Protein of unknown function; localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane; induced by treatment with 8-methoxypsoralen and UVA irradiation
YBL013W FMT1 methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase Methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase; catalyzes the formylation of initiator Met-tRNA in mitochondria; potential Cdc28p substrate
YDR110W FOB1 HRM1 | replication fork barrier binding protein FOB1 Nucleolar protein that binds the rDNA replication fork barrier site; required for replication fork blocking, recombinational hotspot activity, condensin recruitment to replication fork barrier (RFB), and rDNA repeat segregation; related to retroviral integrases
YNL256W FOL1 trifunctional dihydropteroate synthetase/dihydrohydroxymethylpterin pyrophosphokinase/dihydroneopterin aldolase FOL1 Multifunctional enzyme of the folic acid biosynthesis pathway; has dihydropteroate synthetase, dihydro-6-hydroxymethylpterin pyrophosphokinase, and dihydroneopterin aldolase activities
YGR267C FOL2 GTP cyclohydrolase I GTP-cyclohydrolase I, catalyzes first step in folic acid biosynthesis; human homolog GCH1 is implicated in dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD), and can complement yeast null mutant
YMR113W FOL3 dihydrofolate synthase Dihydrofolate synthetase, involved in folic acid biosynthesis; catalyzes conversion of dihydropteroate to dihydrofolate in folate coenzyme biosynthesis; FOL3 has a paralog, RMA1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YNR047W FPK1 serine/threonine protein kinase FPK1 Ser/Thr protein kinase; phosphorylates several aminophospholipid translocase family members, regulating phospholipid translocation and membrane asymmetry; phosphorylates and inhibits the protein kinase Akl1p, stimulating endocytosis; phosphorylates and inhibits upstream inhibitory kinase, Ypk1p; localizes to the cytoplasm, early endosome/TGN, the plasma membrane and the shmoo tip; redundant role with KIN82 in the mating pheromone response; activity stimulated by MIPC, a complex sphingolipid
YNL135C FPR1 FKB1 | peptidylprolyl isomerase FPR1 | RBP1 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase); binds to the drugs FK506 and rapamycin; also binds to the nonhistone chromatin binding protein Hmo1p and may regulate its assembly or function; N-terminally propionylated in vivo; mutation is functionally complemented by human FKBP1A
YDR519W FPR2 FKB2 | peptidylprolyl isomerase family protein FPR2 Membrane-bound peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase); binds to the drugs FK506 and rapamycin; expression pattern suggests possible involvement in ER protein trafficking; relocalizes from nucleus to vacuole upon DNA replication stress; mutation is functionally complemented by human FKBP2
YML074C FPR3 NPI46 | peptidylprolyl isomerase FPR3 Nucleolar peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase); FK506 binding protein; affects expression of multiple genes via its role in nucleosome assembly; phosphorylated by casein kinase II (Cka1p-Cka2p-Ckb1p-Ckb2p) and dephosphorylated by Ptp1p; PPIase domain acts as a transcriptional repressor when tethered to DNA by lexA, and repressor activity is dependent on PPIase activity; FPR3 has a paralog, FPR4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLR449W FPR4 peptidylprolyl isomerase FPR4 Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase); nuclear proline isomerase; affects expression of multiple genes via its role in nucleosome assembly; catalyzes isomerization of proline residues in histones H3 and H4, which affects lysine methylation of those histones; PPIase domain acts as a transcriptional repressor when tethered to DNA by lexA, and repressor activity is dependent on PPIase activity; contains a nucleoplasmin-like fold and can form pentamers
YLL043W FPS1 Aquaglyceroporin, plasma membrane channel; involved in efflux of glycerol and xylitol, and in uptake of acetic acid, arsenite, and antimonite; key factor in maintaining redox balance by mediating passive diffusion of glycerol; phosphorylated by Hog1p MAPK under acetate stress; deletion improves xylose fermentation; regulated by Rgc1p and Ask10p, which are regulated by Hog1p phosphorylation under osmotic stress; phosphorylation by Ypk1p required to maintain an open state
YMR178W FPY1 FAD pyrophosphatase; hydrolyzes FAD as the preferred substrate but also acts on NADH and ADP-ribose at lower rates; activity is dependent upon K+ and divalent metal cations; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus; FPY1 is not an essential gene; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YLL029W FRA1 RUP2 Protein involved in negative regulation of iron regulon transcription; forms an iron independent complex with Fra2p, Grx3p, and Grx4p; cytosolic; mutant fails to repress transcription of iron regulon and is defective in spore formation
YEL047C FRD1 FRDS1 | fumarate reductase Soluble fumarate reductase; required with isoenzyme Osm1p for anaerobic growth; may interact with ribosomes, based on co-purification experiments; authentic, non-tagged protein is detected in purified mitochondria in high-throughput studies; similar to Arxula adeninovorans fumarate reductase; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; FRD1 has a paralog, OSM1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YLL051C FRE6 putative ferric-chelate reductase Putative ferric reductase with similarity to Fre2p; expression induced by low iron levels
YPL141C FRK1 protein kinase FRK1 Protein kinase of unknown cellular role; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm; interacts with rRNA transcription and ribosome biogenesis factors and the long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase Faa3p; FRK1 has a paralog, KIN4, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YCL026C-A FRM2 type II nitroreductase | YCLX08C Type II nitroreductase, using NADH as reductant; mutants are defective in fatty acid mediated repression of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis indicative of a role in lipid signaling; involved in the oxidative stress response; transcription induction by cadmium and selenite indicates a possible role in the metal stress response; expression induced in cells treated with the mycotoxin patulin
YDR373W FRQ1 frequenin N-myristoylated calcium-binding protein; may have a role in intracellular signaling through its regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase Pik1p; member of the recoverin/frequenin branch of the EF-hand superfamily; human NCS1 functionally complements the heat sensitivity of a frq1 ts mutant
YLR060W FRS1 phenylalanine--tRNA ligase subunit beta Beta subunit of cytoplasmic phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase; forms a tetramer with Frs2p to generate active enzyme; able to hydrolyze mis-aminoacylated tRNA-Phe, which could contribute to translational quality control
YOR324C FRT1 HPH1 Tail-anchored ER membrane protein of unknown function; substrate of the phosphatase calcineurin; interacts with homolog Frt2p; promotes cell growth in stress conditions, possibly via a role in posttranslational translocation; FRT1 has a paralog, FRT2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR271C FSF1 Putative protein; predicted to be an alpha-isopropylmalate carrier; belongs to the sideroblastic-associated protein family; non-tagged protein is detected in purified mitochondria; likely to play a role in iron homeostasis
YHR049W FSH1 putative serine hydrolase Putative serine hydrolase; localizes to both the nucleus and cytoplasm; sequence is similar to S. cerevisiae Fsh2p and Fsh3p and the human candidate tumor suppressor OVCA2
YMR222C FSH2 putative serine hydrolase Putative serine hydrolase that localizes to the cytoplasm; sequence is similar to S. cerevisiae Fsh1p and Fsh3p and the human candidate tumor suppressor OVCA2
YBR207W FTH1 Putative high affinity iron transporter; involved in transport of intravacuolar stores of iron; forms complex with Fet5p; expression is regulated by iron; proposed to play indirect role in endocytosis; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YER145C FTR1 high-affinity iron permease FTR1 High affinity iron permease; involved in the transport of iron across the plasma membrane; forms complex with Fet3p; expression is regulated by iron; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBL042C FUI1 uridine permease High affinity uridine permease, localizes to the plasma membrane; also mediates low but significant transport of the cytotoxic nucleoside analog 5-fluorouridine; not involved in uracil transport; relative distribution to the vacuole increases upon DNA replication stress
YPL262W FUM1 fumarase FUM1 Fumarase; converts fumaric acid to L-malic acid in the TCA cycle; cytosolic and mitochondrial distribution determined by the N-terminal targeting sequence, protein conformation, and status of glyoxylate shunt; phosphorylated in mitochondria
YAL035W FUN12 eIF5B | translation initiation factor eIF5B | yIF2 Translation initiation factor eIF5B; GTPase that promotes Met-tRNAiMet binding to ribosomes and ribosomal subunit joining; promotes GTP-dependent maturation of 18S rRNA by Nob1p; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; homolog of bacterial IF2
YAL008W FUN14 MCP3 Integral mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) protein; dosage suppressor of an MDM10 null that reduces ERMES-related phenotypes, such as alterations in mitochondrial morphology, protein complex assembly, and lipid profile; dosage suppressor of MDM12, MDM34, and MMM1 null mutant growth defects; novel mechanism of MOM import involving Tom70p, the TOM complex, and the TIM23 complex, requiring mitochondrial membrane potential and processing by the IMP complex for correct biogenesis
YAL019W FUN30 DNA-dependent ATPase FUN30 Snf2p family member with ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity; has a role in silencing at the mating type locus, telomeres and centromeres; enriched at centromeres and is required for correct chromatin structure around centromeres, as well as at the boundary element of the silent HMR; recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) where it promotes 5' strand resection of DSBs; potential Cdc28p substrate
YCL027W FUS1 Membrane protein localized to the shmoo tip; required for cell fusion; expression regulated by mating pheromone; proposed to coordinate signaling, fusion, and polarization events required for fusion; potential Cdc28p substrate
YMR232W FUS2 Cell fusion regulator; cytoplasmic protein localized to shmoo tip; required for alignment of parental nuclei before nuclear fusion during mating; contains a Dbl-homology domain; binds specifically with activated Cdc42p
YBL016W FUS3 DAC2 | mitogen-activated serine/threonine-protein kinase FUS3 Mitogen-activated serine/threonine protein kinase involved in mating; phosphoactivated by Ste7p; substrates include Ste12p, Far1p, Bni1p, Sst2p; inhibits invasive growth during mating by phosphorylating Tec1p, promoting its; inhibits recruitment of Ste5p, Cdc42p-mediated asymmetry and mating morphogenesis
YDR024W FYV1 Dubious open reading frame; unlikely to encode a functional protein, based on available experimental and comparative sequence data; not conserved in closely related Saccharomyces species; mutation decreases survival upon exposure to K1 killer toxin
YIL097W FYV10 GID9 | glucose-induced degradation complex subunit FYV10 Subunit of GID complex; involved in proteasome-dependent catabolite inactivation of gluconeogenic enzymes FBPase, PEPCK, and c-MDH; forms dimer with Rmd5p that is then recruited to GID Complex by Gid8p; contains a degenerate RING finger motif needed for GID complex ubiquitin ligase activity in vivo, as well as CTLH and CRA domains; plays role in anti-apoptosis; required for survival upon exposure to K1 killer toxin
YHR059W FYV4 mS41 Protein of unknown function; required for survival upon exposure to K1 killer toxin
YNL133C FYV6 Protein of unknown function; required for survival upon exposure to K1 killer toxin; proposed to regulate double-strand break repair via non-homologous end-joining
YLR068W FYV7 Essential protein required for maturation of 18S rRNA; required for survival upon exposure to K1 killer toxin
YGL254W FZF1 NRC299 | RSU1 | SUL1 Transcription factor involved in sulfite metabolism; sole identified regulatory target is SSU1; overexpression suppresses sulfite-sensitivity of many unrelated mutants due to hyperactivation of SSU1, contains five zinc fingers; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
YBR179C FZO1 mitofusin Mitofusin; integral membrane protein involved in mitochondrial outer membrane tethering and fusion; role in mitochondrial genome maintenance; efficient tethering and degradation of Fzo1p requires an intact N-terminal GTPase domain; targeted for destruction by the ubiquitin ligase SCF-Mdm30p and the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system
YLR088W GAA1 END2 | GPI-anchor transamidase subunit GAA1 Subunit of the GPI:protein transamidase complex; removes the GPI-anchoring signal and attaches GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) to proteins in the ER; human homolog GPAA1 can complement growth defects of yeast thermosensitive mutant at restrictive temperature
YMR250W GAD1 glutamate decarboxylase GAD1 Glutamate decarboxylase; converts glutamate into gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during glutamate catabolism; involved in response to oxidative stress
YOL051W GAL11 ABE1 | MED15 | RAR3 | SDS4 | SPT13 Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme; affects transcription by acting as target of activators and repressors; forms part of the tail domain of mediator
YDR009W GAL3 transcriptional regulator GAL3 Transcriptional regulator; involved in activation of the GAL genes in response to galactose; forms a complex with Gal80p to relieve Gal80p inhibition of Gal4p; binds galactose and ATP but does not have galactokinase activity; GAL3 has a paralog, GAL1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YML051W GAL80 transcription regulator GAL80 Transcriptional regulator involved in the repression of GAL genes; involved in the repression of GAL genes in the absence of galactose; inhibits transcriptional activation by Gal4p; inhibition relieved by Gal3p or Gal1p binding
YER027C GAL83 SPM1 One of three possible beta-subunits of the Snf1 kinase complex; allows nuclear localization of the Snf1 kinase complex in the presence of a nonfermentable carbon source; necessary and sufficient for phosphorylation of the Mig2p transcription factor in response to alkaline stress; functionally redundant with SIP1 and SIP2 for the phosphorylation of Mig1p in response to glucose deprivation; contains a glycogen-binding domain
YKR039W GAP1 amino acid permease GAP1 General amino acid permease; Gap1p senses the presence of amino acid substrates to regulate localization to the plasma membrane when needed; essential for invasive growth
YHR089C GAR1 H/ACA snoRNP pseudouridylase subunit GAR1 Protein component of the H/ACA snoRNP pseudouridylase complex; involved in the modification and cleavage of the 18S pre-rRNA
YMR307W GAS1 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase GAS1 | CWH52 | GGP1 Beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase; required for cell wall assembly and also has a role in transcriptional silencing; localizes to cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor; also found at nuclear periphery; genetic interactions with histone H3 lysine acetyltransferases GCN5 and SAS3 indicate previously unsuspected functions for Gas1 in DNA damage response and cell cycle regulation
YLR343W GAS2 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase; involved with Gas4p in spore wall assembly; has similarity to Gas1p
YMR215W GAS3 putative 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase Putative 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase; has similarity go other GAS family members; low abundance, possibly inactive member of the GAS family of GPI-containing proteins; localizes to the cell wall; mRNA induced during sporulation
YOL030W GAS5 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase; has similarity to Gas1p; localizes to the cell wall
YFL021W GAT1 MEP80 | NIL1 Transcriptional activator of nitrogen catabolite repression genes; contains a GATA-1-type zinc finger DNA-binding motif; activity and localization regulated by nitrogen limitation and Ure2p; different translational starts produce two major and two minor isoforms that are differentially regulated and localized
YCL011C GBP2 RLF6 | single-stranded telomeric DNA-binding/mRNA-binding protein Poly(A+) RNA-binding protein; key surveillance factor for the selective export of spliced mRNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; preference for intron-containing genes; similar to Npl3p; also binds single-stranded telomeric repeat sequence in vitro; relocalizes to the cytosol in response to hypoxia; GBP2 has a paralog, HRB1, that arose from the whole genome duplication
YOR260W GCD1 TRA3 | translation initiation factor eIF2B subunit gamma Gamma subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2B; the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2; activity subsequently regulated by phosphorylated eIF2; first identified as a negative regulator of GCN4 expression
YNL062C GCD10